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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

ecause of these

ecause of these shortcomings threatens development and jeopardizes the future of people and their societies. At the same time, rapid technological change raises the stakes: to compete in the economy of the future, workers need strong basic skills and foundations for adaptability, creativity, and lifelong learning. To realize education’s promise, we need to prioritize learning, not just schooling. This Report argues that achieving learning for all will require three complementary strategies: • First, assess learning to make it a serious goal. Information itself creates incentives for reform, but many countries lack the right metrics to measure learning. • Second, act on evidence to make schools work for learning. Great schools build strong teacher-learner relationships in classrooms. As brain science has advanced and educators have innovated, the knowledge of how students learn most effectively has greatly expanded. But the way many countries, communities, and schools approach education often differs greatly from the most promising, evidence-based approaches. • Third, align actors to make the entire system work for learning. Innovation in classrooms won’t have much impact if technical and political barriers at the system level prevent a focus on learning at the school level. This is the case in many countries stuck in low-learning traps; extricating them requires focused attention on the deeper causes. The World Bank Group is already incorporating the key findings of this Report into our operations. We will continue to seek new ways to scale up our commitment to education and apply our knowledge to serve those children whose untapped potential is wasted. For example, we are developing more useful measures of learning and its determinants. We are ensuring that evidence guides operational practice to improve learning in areas such as early-years interventions, teacher training, and educational technology. We are making sure that our project analysis and strategic country diagnoses take into account the full range of system-level opportunities and limitations—including political constraints. And we will continue to emphasize operational approaches that allow greater innovation and agility. Underlying these efforts is the World Bank Group’s commitment to ensuring that all of the world’s students have the opportunity to learn. Realizing education’s promise means giving them the chance not only to compete in tomorrow’s economy, but also to improve their communities, build stronger countries, and move closer to a world that is finally free of poverty. Jim Yong Kim President The World Bank Group xii | FOREWORD

Acknowledgments This year’s World Development Report (WDR) was prepared by a team led by Deon Filmer and Halsey Rogers. The core team was composed of Samer Al-Samarrai, Magdalena Bendini, Tara Béteille, David Evans, Märt Kivine, Shwetlena Sabarwal, and Alexandria Valerio, together with research analysts Malek Abu-Jawdeh, Bradley Larson, Unika Shrestha, and Fei Yuan. Rafael de Hoyos and Sophie Naudeau were members of the extended team. Stephen Commins provided consultations support. Mary Breeding, Ji Liu, Christian Ponce de León, Carla Cristina Solis Uehara, Alies Van Geldermalsen, and Paula Villaseñor served as consultants. The production and logistics team for the Report consisted of Brónagh Murphy and Jason Victor. The Report is sponsored by the Development Economics Vice Presidency. Overall guidance for preparation of the Report was provided by Paul Romer, Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, and Ana Revenga, Deputy Chief Economist. In the early months of the Report’s preparation, guidance was provided by Kaushik Basu, former Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, and Indermit Gill, former Director for Development Policy. The team is also grateful for comments and guidance from Shantayanan Devarajan, Senior Director for Development Economics. The Education Global Practice and the Human Development Global Practice Group provided consistent support to the Report team. The team is especially grateful for support and guidance provided by Jaime Saavedra, Senior Director, and Luis Benveniste, Director, of the Education Global Practice. The team received guidance from an advisory panel composed of Gordon Brown (who, together with the Chief Economist, cochaired the panel), Michelle Bachelet, Rukmini Banerji, Julia Gillard, Eric Hanushek, Olli-Pekka Heinonen, Ju-Ho Lee, and Serigne Mbaye Thiam. Although the team valued their advice and found it very useful, the views expressed in the Report do not necessarily reflect those of the panel members. The team also benefited at an early stage from consultations on emerging themes with the Chief Economist’s Council of Eminent Persons. Council members providing comments were Montek Singh Ahluwalia, François Bourguignon, Heba Handoussa, Justin Yifu Lin, Ory Okolloh, Pepi Patrón, Amartya Sen, Joseph Stiglitz, Finn Tarp, and Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida. Paul Holtz was the principal editor of the Report. Bruce Ross-Larson provided editorial guidance, and Sabra Ledent and Gwenda Larsen copyedited and proofread the Report. Kurt Niedermeier was the principal graphic designer. Alejandra Bustamante and Surekha Mohan provided resource management support for the team. Phillip Hay, Mikael Reventar, Anushka Thewarapperuma, and Roula Yazigi, together with Patricia da Camara and Kavita Watsa, provided guidance and support on communication and dissemination. Special thanks are extended to Mary Fisk, Patricia Katayama, Stephen Pazdan, and the World Bank’s Formal Publishing Program. The team would also like to thank Maria Alyanak, Laverne Cook, Maria del Camino Hurtado, Chorching Goh, Vivian Hon, Elena Chi-Lin Lee, Nancy Tee Lim, David Rosenblatt, and Bintao Wang for their coordinating roles. xiii

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
  • Page 8 and 9: 95 Choose learning metrics based on
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  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 23 and 24: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St