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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Figure 11.1 Primary

Figure 11.1 Primary school numeracy has increased dramatically in England TIMSS mathematics scores for grade 4 students, and share of students reaching the intermediate benchmark in TIMSS mathematics assessment a. Average scores for grade 4 students b. Students above and below the intermediate benchmark, England 540 50 520 40 Score 500 Percent 30 20 480 10 460 0 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 England Participating OECD countries All participating countries Above intermediate benchmark Below intermediate benchmark Source: WDR 2018 team, using data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1995–2015 (https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/). Data at http://bit.do/WDR2018-Fig_11-1. Note: Students at the intermediate level are able to apply basic mathematical knowledge in straightforward situations; demonstrate an understanding of whole numbers and some understanding of fractions; visualize three-dimensional shapes from two-dimensional representations; and interpret bar graphs, pictographs, and tables to solve simple problems. resulting in poor service delivery. 5 Better information can encourage voters to elect politicians who deliver results. 6 For example, using a metric that combines student passing rates with test scores, the federal government in Brazil sets credible education targets that are widely scrutinized (box 11.1). Meeting these targets increases the chances of an incumbent politician being reelected and of bureaucrats keeping their jobs. 7 This example also highlights the value of providing information on learning for areas that correspond with political jurisdictions; because of the overlap, citizens can hold politicians accountable for progress on education targets. But whether information can shift incentives toward a greater focus on learning depends on the broader context. For example, better information in just one sector is unlikely to disrupt patronage networks in countries where clientelism is entrenched across the political system. Information can also improve incentives in schools Information on school performance can make local education systems work better. In many developing countries, parents have limited information on the quality of their local schools. In Pakistan, providing parents with information on learning outcomes increased competition between schools. As a result, learning outcomes improved in both public and private schools, and private school fees were cut. 8 Parents can also use information to pressure schools to raise standards. 9 For example, the provision of report cards has strengthened accountability in some countries. 10 Interventions of this kind work best where power relations between actors in an education system are not highly unequal or organized to support patronage networks, and where frontline service providers have autonomy to respond to community demands. 11 When these factors prevent parents’ voices from being heard, it can encourage some, especially middle-class parents, to opt out of the public education system, weakening pressure on governments to improve learning across the system. 12 Information can also help ensure that resources go where they are intended. In the mid-1990s, schools in Uganda received only around a quarter of their intended per student grant allocations. The government began to publish information on the timing and amount of transfers made to districts for school capitation grants so that schools could monitor local administrators. This move increased the share of grant funding reaching schools by reducing capture of funding by district offices. Consistent with the feedback 200 | World Development Report 2018

Box 11.1 Using information to align incentives with learning in Brazil From 2000 to 2012, Brazil’s learning outcomes on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) showed steady improvement, with gains in some subjects concentrated among poorer-performing students. Underlying this progress were reforms that strengthened accountability for system performance, reduced funding inequalities across Brazil’s diverse regions, and provided cash transfers to the neediest families. Improvements in information underpinned these reforms. Better information made it much easier to hold education agencies accountable for learning. A state-level learning assessment introduced in 1995 was extended 10 years later to cover all fourth- and eighth-grade students. The central government combined assessment results with student promotion rates to create an index of basic education quality (Índice de Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica, IDEB) for every school, municipality, state, and region in Brazil. Targets based on this index are used by system administrators at every level, as well as by parents, to hold schools and local administrations accountable for learning. Better information also raised the incentives for politicians to improve performance. Public awareness of the index is high, with the biannual release of IDEB scores generating extensive media coverage and debate. This not only places education quality high on the political agenda, but also makes it an important factor when citizens choose their local representatives. Crucially, the government also uses the index to target low-performing schools for additional support and introduce programs to motivate system actors. For example, schools receive bonuses based on annual improvements in IDEB scores, and evidence suggests this move has contributed to better learning. Sources: WDR 2018 team, based on Bruns, Evans, and Luque (2011); Ferraz and Bruns (2012); OECD (2016); Toral (2016). loop described in the next section, schools in areas with better access to newspapers benefited the most. 13 Good information is also vital for monitoring, evaluating, and guiding systems System managers need information to monitor and analyze system performance. School supervisors need information on student learning outcomes to identify and address poorly performing schools. Good research and evaluation on programs and policies aimed at improving learning can support better implementation by enabling feedback loops. In the early 2000s, Cambodia’s scholarship program sought to improve learning outcomes for disadvantaged students. An early evaluation of the program found that it improved attainment and narrowed gender gaps in enrollment, but it failed to reach the poorest children or improve learning. 14 In 2006, as a result of these findings, the government improved the targeting of poorer children. It then experimented with using the scholarships to encourage learning. Introducing merit-based criteria into student selection increased enrollment and improved learning, raising mathematics test scores by about 0.17 standard deviations. 15 Research and evaluation can also build support for effective programs across political cycles. Oportunidades, Mexico’s conditional cash transfer program, has endured since 1997 despite political and economic changes. Because they provided solid evidence of how the program improved the lives of children, impact evaluations were key to the decision to continue the program after a new government was elected in 2000. 16 But many information and knowledge systems are not serving these purposes Information needed to improve learning is lacking in many countries. An assessment of capacity to monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals found that, of 121 countries, a third lacked data on learning outcomes at the end of primary school, and half had insufficient information on learning at the end of lower secondary school. 17 Even fewer have the data to track these learning outcomes over time. Information systems in the education sector, which are often weak, are rarely used for decision making, planning, or implementation. There are many barriers to using information to improve learning outcomes. In Tanzania, widely publicized results from citizen-led learning assessments influenced public perceptions of education and shifted the government’s focus toward learning (box 11.2). Yet such direct links between evidence and How to escape low-learning traps | 201

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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