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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Box 11.2 Citizen-led

Box 11.2 Citizen-led assessments have raised awareness of the learning crisis in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Citizen-led learning assessments are locally designed measurements of basic reading and mathematics competencies. Typically conducted by networks of civil society organizations, these assessments test children whether they are in or out of school—something that conventional testing cannot do. Their goal is to increase awareness of learning outcomes and to encourage stakeholders to take action to improve learning. Citizen-led assessments have been conducted mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. For example, the Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE)— a network of over 1,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), researchers, and educators in Bangladesh—began carrying out assessments of this kind in 1999. Evaluations of these initiatives concluded that: • The public finds these assessments more salient than larger-scale, more complex national assessments, because the citizen-led assessments focus on a narrower set of basic competencies, starting with recognizing letters and numbers. • The initiatives successfully disseminated their results and raised awareness about the learning crisis. They also increased the focus on learning in government planning documents. • In India, partnerships between some state governments and Pratham, an NGO that seeks to improve education quality, have designed interventions to address the problems identified by the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) assessment. Moreover, the government of India now holds its National Achievement Survey annually (rather than once every three years) to track learning more frequently. While the assessment results have led to action in some cases, the link to improved learning is not automatic. Over the short period that the ASER in India and Uwezo a in Tanzania have been operating, their assessment results do not show any clear overall pattern of increases in learning—although some Indian states showed significant improvements between 2010 and 2016. Sources: WDR 2018 team, based on Chowdhury, Choudhury, and Nath (1999); Rath and others (2015); R4D (2015). a. Uwezo means “capability” in Kiswahili. policy making are often missing. 18 Some evaluations take too long to inform decision making; others fail to track key drivers of low system performance. Even where usable information exists, government agencies may lack the incentives or capacity to use it well. 19 Independence also matters: reliable, salient information can provide incentives for better performance, but biased media may protect the interests of particular groups at the expense of better public services. In Argentina between 1998 and 2007, newspapers that received government funding published fewer reports on corruption than did others. 20 What are the characteristics of an information system that promotes learning (table 11.1)? First, information needs to be credible, politically salient, and publicly available. Second, clear targets for progress Table 11.1 Principles for making the most of information and the roles that actors can play Principles for making the best use of information • Provide regular, credible, politically salient, and publicly available information on learning. • Set clear targets or expectations for learning, so there is a benchmark for judging performance. • Align information with the political and administrative jurisdictions that have authority to act. • Build information systems that are responsive to the policy cycle and facilitate decision making. Source: WDR 2018 team. Roles that different actors can play • Government institutions: Produce and disseminate national assessment results; conduct in-house evaluations; support education research and evaluation in external research institutes. • Civil society and private sector: Produce and disseminate citizen-led learning assessments; use assessments and research to support interventions that improve learning. 202 | World Development Report 2018

on learning can strengthen incentives by providing measures of system performance. Third, meaningful information on learning needs to be aligned with political or decision-making power, so that the public can hold education decision makers more accountable. Finally, information needs to be usable by policy makers, administrators, and other system actors— that is, it must be timely, accurate, policy relevant, and sensitive to the policy cycle. Building coalitions and strengthening incentives Education systems are made up of many actors who pursue interests that do not always align with learning. Addressing this requires action on two fronts. First, coalitions of interest groups are needed to build a consensus around the actions that will strengthen accountability for better learning. This often requires mobilizing support from groups that are not actively involved in agenda-setting or that do not engage with others. Second, the incentives of bureaucrats and other system actors need to align more closely with learning (table 11.2). Mobilizing support and building coalitions to improve learning System actors have a better chance of enacting reforms when they act collectively. Some actors have more power to shift policy toward learning, in part because they are better organized. 21 For example, in many countries teachers’ unions have a powerful voice in debates on reform, whereas the collective voice of parents and students is often muted. Mobilizing support and building coalitions of a range of system actors have helped to improve learning. Many countries have built support for proposed policy changes through wide-ranging consultations that try to bring together key interest groups. 22 Peru’s Business Association for Education organized an information campaign that helped shift public opinion to support reforms that began in 2006. Government reformers used information on the poor learning outcomes of the education system to mobilize public support for efforts to strengthen teacher accountability, which led to sustained improvements in learning. 23 Alliances between education stakeholders have also formed in some countries to realize the right to education through the legal system (box 11.3). Though mobilization efforts can be successful at rebalancing interests, they may be less successful at shifting the interests of those opposed to reforms. Education reform is a long process, and well-organized opposition can derail it, particularly during implementation. In Peru, the government successfully mobilized public support to get reforms approved, but it was less successful at getting buy-in from teachers, which led to continued resistance from teachers’ unions during implementation. While the broad reform direction remained intact and learning improved, this experience highlights a potential trade-off between managing the politics of reform and getting implementation right. When reformers have to devote effort to managing opposition, that effort can divert attention from implementing reforms well. Lack of buy-in from important groups deters them from contributing to policy design or implementation, thereby undermining the sustainability of the reform. 24 Building broad-based coalitions of stakeholders is important at all stages of the policy cycle. Malaysia created a performance delivery unit to spearhead comprehensive reforms in many sectors, including education. The unit uses “labs” that build coalitions of stakeholders and involve them in all stages of reform, Table 11.2 Principles for building effective coalitions and the roles that actors can play Principles for building effective coalitions • Mobilize support for reforms through clear articulation of the problems of low learning. • Develop a political strategy to mobilize support and build long-term coalitions for learning. • Avoid direct confrontation in favor of negotiation and compensation where possible. • Encourage strong partnerships between schools and communities. • Strengthen the capabilities of organizations responsible for education services. Source: WDR 2018 team. Roles that different actors can play • Government institutions: Develop open, inclusive spaces to discuss reform and identify technically and politically feasible solutions; build the appropriate institutional capacity. • Civil society and business organizations: Advocate for better education systems; support community and parent action at all levels to improve outcomes. • Teachers and unions: Advocate for system improvements; use system knowledge to engage in debates on reform. How to escape low-learning traps | 203

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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  • Page 219 and 220: 11 How to escape low-learning traps
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