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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Box 11.3 Using the legal

Box 11.3 Using the legal system to press for change With more than 80 percent of national constitutions recognizing the right to education, courts have become an increasingly important arena for holding governments accountable for education policies and practices. In recent years, India and Indonesia have seen a significant increase in education rights litigation. In India, this trend has been driven by the adoption in 2009 of the landmark Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act. Cases have included demands to ensure equal access to education, the fulfillment of minimum service standards, and assurance that governments will fulfill their spending obligations. Many of these cases have been successful. The Indian Supreme Court has consistently ruled in favor of upholding quotas for poor children in private schools. The High Court in Uttarakhand required the state government to adopt minimum qualification standards for teachers. And in Indonesia, parents succeeded in enforcing constitutional provisions that obligated the government to spend 20 percent of its budget on education. These cases have often been brought by individuals or small groups, with nongovernmental organization (NGO) activists and teachers’ unions providing technical and financial support. An assessment of the impact of litigation of this kind in India and Indonesia found the following: • The extent to which the legal system has been used to press for policy changes depends significantly on the nature of the court system, the presence of support structures for legal mobilization, and the ideology of the courts. • Using education rights litigation effectively is conditional on judges who are open to such cases; civil society groups that can help citizens press their claims; and broader political mobilization. • Policy-oriented litigation has mainly served the interests of poor or marginalized groups, even though sections of the middle class have been centrally involved in much of the litigation. Gains have largely come through better access to education, although successes have often been at the expense of quality education for the middle class. • Litigation as a strategy for improving learning outcomes has its limitations. Often, judgments need to be enforced by the same public officials who were the target of the initial lawsuit. Even when judgments are implemented, they are more often about ensuring access than improving learning. Courts typically lack the necessary expertise on learning, especially where information on learning outcomes is scarce. Source: WDR 2018 team, based on Rosser and Joshi (2017). from design to implementation. 25 Stakeholders typically come together in the labs for six to nine weeks at the start of reforms to discuss priorities, agree on performance indicators, and produce implementation plans. During implementation, minilabs bring stakeholders together to adjust plans. Programs introduced under the process are credited with increasing grade 3 literacy rates in Malaysia from 89 percent in 2009 to close to 100 percent in 2012. The approach has been exported to other countries, including India, South Africa, and Tanzania (box 11.4). Without efforts to build coalitions for learning, reforms are less likely to endure. Even if evidence shows that the reforms improve learning, their sustainability is at risk when they are misunderstood or unpopular among system actors. In Poland, large-scale changes in the structure of the education system were introduced in 1999 as part of broader decentralization reforms. These reforms have been credited with improving student learning outcomes significantly. 26 At the outset, efforts to build a supporting coalition were only half-hearted, and despite the learning gains, the reforms have remained unpopular. The election of a new government in 2015 led to heated debate on whether to scrap key elements of the original reforms. 27 Building a coalition may require better communication strategies—or it may require changing the reform design, to one that is second-best technically but easier to implement and sell to stakeholders. A gradual, negotiated approach to reform may work better than confrontation. Where coalitions of system actors foster collaboration around shared goals, reforms are more likely to succeed. The history of reforms to improve teaching in Chile demonstrates how gradual, negotiated reforms can build strong coalitions for change (box 11.5). Since Chile’s return to democracy, successive governments have adjusted the working conditions of teachers to improve their welfare, while also linking pay and career development more closely to performance. These changes 204 | World Development Report 2018

Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build coalitions for learning Rapidly deteriorating results on school-leaving examinations, together with other newly available information on poor system performance, motivated policy makers in Tanzania to launch the ambitious Big Results Now in Education (BRN) program in 2013. The BRN adopted a “service delivery” approach that was first introduced in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s and then adapted successfully in Malaysia in 2009. At the heart of the approach was a six-week-long “lab” to identify priority reform areas and develop mutually agreed-on delivery plans. The lab brought together all the key system actors—government officials, academics, teachers’ unions, development partners, civil society organizations—at a level senior enough to ensure followthrough. Together, the lab participants drafted nine key initiatives, developed step-by-step implementation plans, and assigned responsibilities for those steps. The lab process made it possible to introduce a complex package of politically sensitive reforms. For example, the government introduced monetary and nonmonetary incentives to reward the most improved schools, along with accountability measures that used public examination results to rank schools. The BRN also introduced, for the first time, a national sample-based assessment to measure early grade literacy and numeracy. Communication campaigns succeeded in generating very high levels of public awareness of the BRN’s objectives nationwide. Although the program has been running for only four years, there are signs that it has begun to improve learning outcomes. However, the program has not been without its difficulties; for example, a recent review highlighted the difficulties in coordination between the government agencies responsible for education. But over the past few years, examination results have slowly improved, and primary school students have made gains in early grade reading. Sources: WDR 2018 team, based on Sabarwal, Joshi, and Blackmon (2017); Todd and Attfield (2017); World Bank (2017b). Box 11.5 Reformers in Chile negotiated changes gradually In the early 2000s Chile’s education system registered significant, sustained improvements in learning levels. The proportion of 15-year-olds who achieved reading scores at or above a Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) level of proficiency increased from 52 percent to 69 percent between 2000 and 2015 (figure B11.5.1). Much of the improvement was attributable to the Sistema Nacional de Evaluación de Desempeño (National Performance Evaluation System; SNED) program implemented in 1996. This program began by awarding teacher bonuses based on school-level indicators of performance. In 2004 individual teacher incentives were introduced, based on mandatory performance evaluations of public school teachers. By the end of the 2000s, these incentives accounted for 15–25 percent of the average teacher salary. Rigorous evaluations of the group-based program revealed that the incentives significantly improved student learning. The gradual shift from school to individual incentive payments was a pragmatic attempt to address the potential Figure B11.5.1 Reading scores have improved in Chile PISA reading scores Score 500 480 460 440 420 400 2000 2005 2010 2015 OECD average Chile Source: WDR 2018 team, using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) ( Data at /WDR2018-Fig_B11-5-1. (Box continues next page) How to escape low-learning traps | 205

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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