2 weeks ago

Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Box 11.5 Reformers in

Box 11.5 Reformers in Chile negotiated changes gradually (continued) opposition of teachers’ unions to performance-related pay. Before implementing a mandatory program for all teachers, the administration introduced a voluntary individual assessment and incentive system that set a precedent for teacher evaluation. Because these steps allowed time to adjust and gain support for the new system, they were key to its success. Establishing credibility with the teachers’ union early on was another key strategy. The Teacher Statute passed in 1991 conferred civil service status on teachers, guaranteeing associated job benefits, protection, and an opportunity for centralized wage negotiations. This move sent a positive signal to teachers. Trust between the union and the government increased further through regular discussions on the implementation of reforms. As part of these efforts, union members codesigned the performance evaluations used for the incentive program. A final factor in the successful adoption of these reforms was their inclusion in a broader set of reforms that increased resources for education and raised teachers’ salaries. SNED became part of the teacher professionalism pillar of the Full School Day reform package. More teachers were covered by the reforms, and the incentive amount was increased. Salary increases before the start of the program may have helped to lessen opposition to the mandatory individual pay incentive. As a consequence, the Chilean programs remain one of the few long-running “pay for performance”–type reforms that have been successfully scaled to the national level. In other contexts, such reforms have often been unpopular, but in Chile the reforms continue: in 2016 new legislation passed to widen the coverage of the incentive program, while strengthening teacher professional development. Sources: WDR 2018 team, based on Avalos and Assael (2006); Contreras and Rau (2012); Delannoy (2000); Mizala and Schneider (2014); OECD (2016); World Bank (2017a). have contributed to Chile’s steady improvement in international learning assessments. Negotiations can also include strategies to compensate actors disadvantaged by reform. One such strategy is to provide targeted assistance to students harmed by reforms to improve system efficiency. Additional services for children affected by school closures, for example, can ease school consolidations. 28 Another strategy is to use “dual-track” reforms to protect some incumbents from the negative impacts of reforms. For example, pay-for-performance programs in Peru and in the District of Columbia in the United States were initially introduced voluntarily. Compensating perceived losers can help get reforms approved, but that approach comes with risks. In 2005 the Indonesian government introduced a comprehensive reform program aimed at raising the competencies of teachers. Teacher certification was the centerpiece of the reforms, with teachers required to pass a competency test to continue teaching. 29 In exchange for these new obligations, the negotiated agreement provided certified teachers with an additional monthly allowance as large as their base salary. But early in implementation, the requirements for certification were diluted because of political pressures, so that teachers were no longer required to pass a competency test. In the end, the reforms had little impact on teacher competencies or student learning, but they had a major impact on public spending. 30 By 2011, with less than a third of teachers certified, 9 percent of the education budget already went to certification allowances. 31 Building partnerships between schools and communities Sustained reform requires strong partnerships between schools and communities. Where incentives for systemwide reform are weak, local action can substitute. In South Africa, the political and economic context has constrained efforts to improve education performance in some provinces, but local progress has been made possible in some schools through strong partnerships between parents and schools. 32 Local partnerships are particularly important in fragile and conflict-affected areas. 33 For example, a program that built community-based schools in Afghanistan reduced the distance to school, increased enrollment, and improved learning outcomes, particularly for girls. 34 Yet these local partnerships tend to work best when supported by responsive higher-level institutions, which are sorely lacking in fragile environments. Aligning the incentives and capacity of system actors with learning The success of reforms depends on the ability, incentives, and motivations of public officials. Managing 206 | World Development Report 2018

education systems effectively requires competent public service–oriented personnel, which in turn means commensurate pay and working conditions. 35 But if the political economy of education is misaligned with public goals, candidates with less desirable attributes may be attracted to public service. In Mexico, teachers were often hired based on political patronage rather than merit, which resulted in lower-quality hires compared with those in test-based systems. 36 Efforts to build the capacity of bureaucracies have been disappointing. 37 Even where individual capacity is built successfully, the incentives to use this capacity to develop and implement effective policies are often absent. 38 Put another way, building organizational capability to improve education outcomes tends to work best when incentives in education systems are aligned with the same goals. For example, where politicians face stronger incentives to provide public goods, this has inspired efforts to build professional bureaucracies that can deliver better public services. 39 Encouraging innovation and agility FIGURE 11.2 Political and technical complexities make it challenging to design and implement policies to improve learning. Some parts of the solution to low learning are relatively straightforward. Inadequate infrastructure and learning materials, while logistically challenging, can be addressed directly: the technologies needed are well known, and most education systems have enough experience solving these issues. But improving what happens in the classroom is much harder. It involves changing student and teacher behavior, as well as supporting teachers in efforts to tailor their teaching to the needs of their students. The traditional approaches to reform—in which predefined interventions are introduced with little room to adapt during implementation—are rarely effective. Learning reforms need a more agile approach, with room for adaptation. 40 This is not the same as experimenting with different interventions in pilot projects. Rather, it means testing approaches at scale in their political and economic contexts and using the existing capabilities of implementing agencies. A recent review of complex public management reforms, including in education, highlighted the key elements of successful reforms. 41 Those reforms started out with a clear articulation of the problem, together with an initial set of potential solutions, and then adopted solutions that emerged from experimentation during implementation (figure 11.2). Final interventions tended to be hybrids, drawing on local and global evidence. Figure 11.2 Problem-driven iterative adaptation drives successful reforms 1 Define and diagnose problems 1 Redefine and rediagnose problems 1 Redefine and rediagnose problems Repeat 2 Design options 2 Redesign options 2 Redesign options IMPROVED LEARNING 5 Adapt 3 Implement 4 Evaluate 3 Implement 4 Evaluate 3 Implement 4 Evaluate Source: Adapted from Andrews, Pritchett, and Woolcock (2017). How to escape low-learning traps | 207

  • Page 6 and 7:

    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

  • Page 8 and 9:

    95 Choose learning metrics based on

  • Page 10 and 11:

    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

  • Page 12 and 13:

    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

  • Page 14 and 15:

    ecause of these shortcomings threat

  • Page 16 and 17:

    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

  • Page 18 and 19:

    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

  • Page 21 and 22:

    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

  • Page 23 and 24:

    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

  • Page 25 and 26:

    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

  • Page 27 and 28:

    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

  • Page 29 and 30:

    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

  • Page 31 and 32:

    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

  • Page 33 and 34:

    methods, and they need to care enou

  • Page 35 and 36:

    often lack the organization, inform

  • Page 37 and 38:

    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

  • Page 39 and 40:

    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

  • Page 41 and 42:

    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

  • Page 43 and 44:

    overlooked. The evidence on success

  • Page 45 and 46:

    consultations that have tried to br

  • Page 47 and 48:

    in regional learning assessments (s

  • Page 49 and 50:

    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

  • Page 51 and 52:

    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

  • Page 53 and 54:

    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

  • Page 55:

    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

  • Page 58 and 59:

    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Education promotes economic growth

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Learning and the promise of educati

  • Page 66 and 67:

    people need a range of skills—cog

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

  • Page 70 and 71:

    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

  • Page 72 and 73:

    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

  • Page 74:

    12757, National Bureau of Economic

  • Page 78 and 79:

    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

  • Page 80 and 81:

    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

  • Page 84 and 85:

    their brightest child to secondary

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

  • Page 88 and 89:

    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

  • Page 90 and 91:

    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

  • Page 98 and 99:

    meeting global development goals wi

  • Page 100 and 101:

    language and cognitive abilities ar

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

  • Page 104 and 105:

    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Learning Community of Practice.”

  • Page 108 and 109:

    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

  • Page 110 and 111:

    early childhood interventions that

  • Page 112 and 113:

    particularly true in low-income cou

  • Page 114 and 115:

    In such contexts, learning metrics

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Learning assessments of key foundat

  • Page 118 and 119:

    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

  • Page 122 and 123:

    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

  • Page 124:

    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

  • Page 128 and 129:

    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

  • Page 130 and 131:

    changes in school leadership, schoo

  • Page 132 and 133:

    5 There is no learning without prep

  • Page 134 and 135:

    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

  • Page 136 and 137:

    etter cognitive development, more p

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

  • Page 142 and 143:

    sometimes mattering more than the e

  • Page 144 and 145:

    and above and indicates the ability

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

  • Page 148 and 149:

    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

  • Page 150 and 151:

    ————. 2017. World Developme

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

  • Page 158 and 159:

    comparable, suggesting similarly la

  • Page 160 and 161:

    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 168 and 169:

    girls. Even beyond building entire

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Pradesh, India, providing community

  • Page 172 and 173:

    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

  • Page 174 and 175:

    8 Build on foundations by linking s

  • Page 176 and 177: on their effectiveness is scant. Ev
  • Page 178 and 179: or nonprofits with industry-specifi
  • Page 180 and 181: 16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).
  • Page 182 and 183: Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto
  • Page 184 and 185: SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing
  • Page 186 and 187: All of those skills that help indiv
  • Page 189 and 190: PART IV Making the system work for
  • Page 191 and 192: aligned with the overall goal of le
  • Page 193 and 194: many countries they do not routinel
  • Page 195 and 196: thinking, the curriculum alone will
  • Page 197 and 198: Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al
  • Page 199 and 200: financial support in anticipation o
  • Page 201 and 202: Institute for Educational Planning,
  • Page 203 and 204: SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi
  • Page 205 and 206: Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee
  • Page 207 and 208: public investment. A central elemen
  • Page 209 and 210: 10 Unhealthy politics drives misali
  • Page 211 and 212: Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests
  • Page 213 and 214: Box 10.2 How politics can derail le
  • Page 215 and 216: Trapped in low-accountability, low-
  • Page 217 and 218: Educational Research and Innovation
  • Page 219 and 220: 11 How to escape low-learning traps
  • Page 221 and 222: Box 11.1 Using information to align
  • Page 223 and 224: on learning can strengthen incentiv
  • Page 225: Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build
  • Page 229 and 230: Box 11.7 Burundi improved education
  • Page 231 and 232: shift aligned funding with new real
  • Page 233 and 234: Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno
  • Page 235 and 236: Working Paper 21825, National Burea
  • Page 238: ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St