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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

into government schools,

into government schools, and information from ministry systems (rather than individual data collection exercises) must be used by researchers to evaluate the new programs. Results must also be available within the same academic year. In MineduLAB’s first year, innovations included providing more comparative information on school performance and introducing modules to encourage primary school students to adopt a growth mindset. The program is still new, but its approach is promising. To be sustainable, these approaches need broad support. Though this iterative approach can help in developing more effective strategies, it comes with risks for actors in education systems. Politicians can incur significant costs if experiments fail or divert resources away from more traditional activities. Students can also suffer if new approaches disrupt their schooling without improving it. Yet some risk-taking is vital if education systems are to improve learning. Mobilizing stakeholder support and providing space for consultations from the outset can reduce the risks. Education systems need to be agile to exploit critical moments Politicians and education system managers also need to respond quickly when changes create opportunities to improve broad-based learning. This context changes infrequently, but when it does change it provides opportunities for significant changes in education policy. During the martial law period of the 1970s in the Philippines, government spending on education fell below 2 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). In the 1980s, the People’s Power Revolution restored democratic rule, ushering in a new government that was more responsive to demands for broader access to education. Trade liberalization increased the demand for skilled workers, further raising the incentives for better education. With these societal shifts, public investment in education increased by 2 percentage points of GDP between 1980 and 2000 (figure 11.3). Critical junctures often arise from broader decentralization and reform efforts, as in the education reforms in Latin America during the 1990s. 48 Beyond shifting responsibility for education services to local governments and schools, decentralization can provide opportunities to better align important elements of education systems. After early decentralization reforms in Poland, the government introduced formula-based funding mechanisms to link school funding levels more closely to school needs. This Figure 11.3 Trends in public education spending in the Philippines track changes in the broader political and economic context Public education spending as percentage of GDP, and measures of democracy and trade openness, the Philippines (1960–2000) Public education spending (% of GDP) 4 3 2 a. Spending and governance 10 5 0 −5 1 −10 Level of democracy b. Spending and trade openness 4 70 3 60 2 50 1 40 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Public education spending (% of GDP) Trade openness Public education spending (% of GDP) Level of democracy Public education spending (% of GDP) Trade openness Source: Ansell (2006). Adapted with permission from Ben W. Ansell; further permission required for reuse. Data at http://bit.do/WDR2018-Fig_11-3. Note: Level of democracy is measured by the polity score, which consists of an evaluation of the competitiveness and openness of elections, the nature of political participation in general, and the extent of checks on executive authority. A high positive score corresponds to strong democratic institutions; negative scores indicate more autocratic systems. Trade openness is measured by the inverted Hiscox Kastner score, which gauges the degree to which a country deviates from an optimal level of imports from a hypothetical protection-free environment. Higher scores indicate greater openness. 210 | World Development Report 2018

shift aligned funding with new realities, helping the system reduce inefficiencies. 49 To innovate effectively—as indeed to build coalitions and use information for reform—education systems need strong, competent leadership. Research highlights three key attributes of effective leaders. First, they can clearly articulate problems and present clear visions for how to tackle them. Second, they mobilize human and financial resources around agreed-on goals and build coalitions to advocate for change and support implementation. Finally, effective leaders focus on identifying solutions that fit the institutional context. 50 How can external actors support initiatives to improve learning? Support the creation of objective, politically salient information Global education initiatives can improve political incentives for action. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were ssuccessful at mobilizing international and domestic actors on development challenges. Though the global impact of the MDGs— including the education goal—is still being debated, the legitimacy that progress could confer on weak or unstable governments was often a powerful incentive for change. Many countries introduced reforms to expand access to schooling in successful efforts to meet the MDGs. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators, which will include a set of comparable learning measures, could play a similar role by motivating countries to shift their focus from schooling to learning. By supporting improvements in learning assessment, external actors can help shine a light on low learning levels and their causes. For one thing, they can help developing countries participate in regional and global assessments, which are an important tool for opening up spaces for change and influencing policy debates. 51 They could also help ensure that test items are linked across countries and across time, which would allow results of different assessments to be more comparable. External actors can also help by supporting national assessment efforts, so that they can provide more politically salient information on learning. The READ program, a partnership among development partners, education practitioners, and low-income country governments, has helped countries strengthen their national assessments, while also supporting their participation in international assessments. 52 Beyond support to measure learning, external actors can also help build global knowledge on ways to diagnose system weaknesses and improve learning. This knowledge base has expanded rapidly, but more research is needed on how to adapt promising interventions to specific contexts. External actors can fund research and encourage collaboration among practitioners, researchers, and government institutions to build capacity and locally relevant knowledge on effective ways to improve learning. Encourage flexibility and support reform coalitions External actors can also encourage inclusive reforms through project development activities, policy discussions, and support to other system actors. Though there has been much progress on the aid effectiveness agenda first agreed on in the Paris Declaration in 2005, there is still room for improvement. A key aspect of this agenda is building inclusive reforms. But progress in this area has been slow. Across all sectors, only about half of countries were judged to have systems for meaningful dialogue with civil society organizations. Moreover, dialogue between the public and private sectors was judged to be difficult and rarely led to action. 53 Tackling these issues is vital for the emergence of the coalitions needed to design and implement effective policies. In education, consultative groups and civil society organizations could promote more inclusive reforms. The Civil Society Education Fund (CSEF), launched in 2009, has supported national education coalitions in more than 40 developing countries, and the number of civil society organizations involved in education planning and policy has expanded rapidly. 54 For example, the fund has supported the Ghana National Education Campaign Coalition (GNECC) in lobbying for more participatory education planning, policy formulation, and monitoring. GNECC members have worked together to present new findings on education issues during annual education review meetings and to advocate for change. 55 Link financing more closely to results that lead to learning While the overall contribution of development assistance to country investments in education is relatively small, it is important in some low-income countries (figure 11.4). In 2015 international finance accounted for 14 percent of education spending in How to escape low-learning traps | 211

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

  • Page 180 and 181: 16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).
  • Page 182 and 183: Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto
  • Page 184 and 185: SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing
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  • Page 189 and 190: PART IV Making the system work for
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  • Page 203 and 204: SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi
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  • Page 211 and 212: Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests
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  • Page 217 and 218: Educational Research and Innovation
  • Page 219 and 220: 11 How to escape low-learning traps
  • Page 221 and 222: Box 11.1 Using information to align
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  • Page 225 and 226: Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build
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  • Page 229: Box 11.7 Burundi improved education
  • Page 233 and 234: Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno
  • Page 235 and 236: Working Paper 21825, National Burea
  • Page 238: ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St