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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Figure 11.4 Most funding

Figure 11.4 Most funding for education comes from domestic sources, but international finance is important for low-income countries Estimated sources of education spending, by income group (2015) Percent 100 80 60 40 20 0 Low-income International finance Households Domestic public Lower-middleincome Upper-middleincome Source: Education Commission (2016). Data at http://bit.do/WDR2018 -Fig_11-4. low-income countries. But support is much higher in some countries. In Mali, development assistance accounted for approximately 25 percent of public education spending between 2004 and 2010. Moreover, global estimates of the investments required to raise learning as part of the SDGs imply a need to increase development assistance, particularly to low-income countries. 56 But external actors must provide financing in a way that aligns systems with learning. Projects aimed at narrow aspects of reform or on specific interventions, run the risk of exacerbating existing misalignments, if weaknesses in other parts of the system are not tackled at the same time. For example, projects that support professional development activities but are not aligned with career development incentives are likely to be less sustainable. External actors can support alignment by shifting the focus of systems toward learning, linking their financing to results rather than the provision of specific inputs or activities. More development partners are using resultsbased financing in education. These approaches seek to align system components by linking financing to results. They shift the emphasis from inputs toward performance. Some financing is linked directly to student achievement. For example, a U.K. program that supports the education system in Ethiopia provides an agreed-on amount for net increases in the number of students who pass the examination at the end of lower secondary education. The multidonorfinanced Big Results Now in Education program in Tanzania links financing to student learning and to intermediate outputs that support improvements in education quality. The ultimate impact of these approaches on system performance is still being evaluated, since they are new. But initial findings suggest they have the potential to tackle system-level constraints and improve system performance. 57 * * * There is nothing inevitable about poor learning outcomes, whatever a country’s level of development. Some countries have used well-documented reforms to escape low-learning traps, successfully reorient ing their systems toward learning. Others have achieved learning outcomes that far exceed what their development level would predict, indicating that they escaped the trap in the past. Though there is no single recipe for achieving broad-based learning, these cases identify three entry points for getting under way. First, deploy information and metrics to shine a light on the hidden exclusion of low learning. Second, build coalitions that can better align incentives toward learning, especially the learning of the most disadvantaged. Third, commit to innovation and agility, using feedback loops for continuous improvement. None of this is easy, but history shows that achieving education’s promise will depend on taking up the challenge. 212 | World Development Report 2018

Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vignoles (2015); Stannard and Huxford (2007); Tanner and others (2010). 2. Mullis and others (2016). 3. The numeracy strategy was introduced in 1999. 4. Evaluations of different aspects of the literacy and numeracy program are summarized in, for example, Machin and McNally (2008); McNally (2015); and Stannard and Huxford (2007). 5. Khemani (2015). 6. Banerjee and others (2011); Brender (2003). 7. Dias and Ferraz (2017); Toral (2016). 8. Andrabi, Das, and Khwaja (2015). 9. Barr, Packard, and Serra (2014). 10. Snilstveit and others (2015). 11. Carr-Hill and others (2015); Grandvoinnet, Aslam, and Raha (2015). 12. Banerjee and others (2010); World Bank (2017c). 13. Reinikka and Svensson (2011). 14. Filmer and Schady (2009). 15. Barrera-Osorio and Filmer (2016). 16. UNDP (2011). 17. UIS (2016). 18. Rath and others (2015). 19. Sutcliffe and Court (2005). 20. Di Tella and Franceschelli (2011). 21. Corrales (1999). 22. Bruns and Schneider (2016); Corrales (1999). 23. Bruns and Luque (2015). 24. Bruns and Luque (2015); World Bank (2017c). 25. Sabel and Jordan (2015); World Bank (2017b). 26. Jakubowski (2015); Jakubowski and others (2010). 27. Wojciuk (2017). 28. Beuchert and others (2016). 29. Chang and others (2013). 30. de Ree and others (2015). 31. Chang and others (2013). 32. Levy and others (2016). 33. Mansuri and Rao (2013). 34. Burde and Linden (2012). 35. Besley and Ghatak (2005); Finan, Olken, and Pande (2015). 36. Estrada (2015). 37. World Bank (2017c). 38. Andrews, Pritchett, and Woolcock (2017). 39. Besley and Persson (2009). 40. Andrews, Pritchett, and Woolcock (2017). 41. Andrews (2015). 42. Green (2016); Pascale, Sternin, and Sternin (2010). 43. Banerjee and others (2016). 44. Heilmann (2008). 45. Blanchenay (2016). 46. Andrews, Pritchett, and Woolcock (2013). 47. J-PAL and IPA Perú (2013). 48. Grindle (2004). 49. Alonso and Sánchez (2011). 50. Leftwich (2009). 51. Devarajan and Khemani (2016). 52. World Bank (2015). 53. OECD and UNDP (2016). 54. UNESCO (2015). 55. CSEF (2014). The CSEF is coordinated by the Global Campaign for Education (GCE), with funding from the Global Partnership for Education. 56. Education Commission (2016). 57. Sabarwal, Joshi, and Blackmon (2017). References Abdul-Hamid, Husein, Harry Anthony Patrinos, Joel Reyes, Jo Kelcey, and Andrea Diaz Varela. 2016. “Learning in the Face of Adversity: The UNRWA Education Program for Palestine Refugees.” World Bank Study Series, World Bank, Washington, DC. Alonso, Juan Diego, and Alonso Sánchez, eds. 2011. Reforming Education Finance in Transition Countries: Six Case Studies in Per Capita Financing Systems. World Bank Study Series, World Bank, Washington, DC. Andrabi, Tahir, Jishnu Das, and Asim Ijaz Khwaja. 2015. “Report Cards: The Impact of Providing School and Child Test Scores on Educational Markets.” Policy Research Working Paper 7226, World Bank, Washington, DC. Andrews, Matt J. 2015. “Explaining Positive Deviance in Public Sector Reforms in Development.” World Development 74: 197–208. Andrews, Matt J., Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2013. “Escaping Capability Traps through Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA).” World Development 51: 234–44. ————. 2017. Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action. New York: Oxford University Press. Ansell, Ben W. 2006. “From the Ballot to the Blackboard: The Redistributive Political Economy of Education.” PhD dissertation, Harvard University. http://users.polisci.umn .edu/~ansell/papers/Ben%20Ansell%20Dissertation.pdf. Avalos, Beatrice, and Jenny Assael. 2006. “Moving from Resistance to Agreement: The Case of the Chilean Teacher Performance Evaluation.” International Journal of Educational Research 45 (4): 254–66. Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak, Rukmini Banerji, James Berry, Esther Duflo, Harini Kannan, Shobhini Mukerji, Marc Shotland, and Michael Walton. 2016. “Mainstreaming an Effective Intervention: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations of ‘Teaching at the Right Level’ in India.” CEPR Discussion Paper 11530, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London. Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak, Rukmini Banerji, Esther Duflo, Rachel Glennerster, and Stuti Khemani. 2010. “Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education in India.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2 (1): 1–30. Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak, Selvan Kumar, Rohini Pande, and Felix Su. 2011. “Do Informed Voters Make Better Choices? Experimental Evidence from Urban India.” Working paper, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Barr, Abigail, Truman Packard, and Danila Serra. 2014. “Participatory Accountability and Collective Action: How to escape low-learning traps | 213

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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  • Page 184 and 185: SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing
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  • Page 219 and 220: 11 How to escape low-learning traps
  • Page 221 and 222: Box 11.1 Using information to align
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  • Page 229 and 230: Box 11.7 Burundi improved education
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