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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

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© 2018 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000; Internet: www.worldbank.org Some rights reserved 1 2 3 4 20 19 18 17 This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO license (CC BY 3.0 IGO) http://creativecommons.org /licenses/by/3.0/igo. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions: Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: World Bank. 2018. World Development Report 2018: Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-1096-1. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO Translations—If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. Adaptations—If you create an adaptation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This is an adaptation of an original work by The World Bank. Views and opinions expressed in the adaptation are the sole responsibility of the author or authors of the adaptation and are not endorsed by The World Bank. Third-party content—The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content contained within the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of any third-party-owned individual component or part contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of those third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. If you wish to re-use a component of the work, it is your responsibility to determine whether permission is needed for that re-use and to obtain permission from the copyright owner. Examples of components can include, but are not limited to, tables, figures, or images. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to World Bank Publications, The World Bank Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org. ISSN, ISBN, e-ISBN, and DOI: Softcover ISSN: 0163-5085 ISBN: 978-1-4648-1096-1 e-ISBN: 978-1-4648-1098-5 DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1096-1 Hardcover ISSN: 0163-5085 ISBN: 978-1-4648-1097-8 DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1097-8 Cover design: Kurt Niedermeier, Niedermeier Design, Seattle, Washington. Interior design: George Kokkinidis, Design Language, Brooklyn, New York, and Kurt Niedermeier, Niedermeier Design, Seattle, Washington.

Contents xi xiii xvii Foreword Acknowledgments Abbreviations 1 Overview: Learning to realize education’s promise 4 The three dimensions of the learning crisis 16 How to realize education’s promise: Three policy responses 27 Learning to realize education’s promise 37 Part I: Education’s promise 38 Chapter 1: Schooling, learning, and the promise of education 38 Education as freedom 38 Education improves individual freedoms 41 Education benefits all of society 44 Learning and the promise of education 57 Part II: The learning crisis 58 Chapter 2: The great schooling expansion—and those it has left behind 58 Most children have access to basic education 60 Poverty, gender, ethnicity, disability, and location explain most remaining schooling disparities 63 For poor parents, schooling requires trade-offs 68 Spotlight 1: The biology of learning 71 Chapter 3: The many faces of the learning crisis 71 For too many, learning isn’t happening 78 Poor children learn the least, which hurts them the most 78 What is causing the learning crisis? 88 Spotlight 2: Poverty hinders biological development and undermines learning 91 Chapter 4: To take learning seriously, start by measuring it 91 The learning crisis is often hidden—but measurement makes it visible 92 Measures for learning guide action 93 Measures of learning spur action v

  • Page 8 and 9: 95 Choose learning metrics based on
  • Page 10 and 11: O.6 9 School completion is higher f
  • Page 12 and 13: Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity
  • Page 14 and 15: ecause of these shortcomings threat
  • Page 16 and 17: xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g
  • Page 18 and 19: xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione
  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 23 and 24: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 25 and 26: Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s
  • Page 27 and 28: Figure O.3 Children from poor house
  • Page 29 and 30: Figure O.6 School completion is hig
  • Page 31 and 32: Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co
  • Page 33 and 34: methods, and they need to care enou
  • Page 35 and 36: often lack the organization, inform
  • Page 37 and 38: Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf
  • Page 39 and 40: FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie
  • Page 41 and 42: Figure O.14 It’s more complicated
  • Page 43 and 44: overlooked. The evidence on success
  • Page 45 and 46: consultations that have tried to br
  • Page 47 and 48: in regional learning assessments (s
  • Page 49 and 50: 75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);
  • Page 51 and 52: Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro
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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St

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