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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

95 Choose learning

95 Choose learning metrics based on what the country needs 95 Will learning metrics narrow the vision for education? 96 Six tips for effective learning measurement 102 Spotlight 3: The multidimensionality of skills 107 Part III: Innovations and evidence for learning 108 Spotlight 4: Learning about learning 112 Chapter 5: There is no learning without prepared, motivated learners 112 Investing in their early years prepares children for school 116 Providing demand-side support can get kids to school, but not necessarily to learn 119 Remedial education can prepare learners for further education and training 131 Chapter 6: Teacher skills and motivation both matter (though many education systems act like they don’t) 131 Most teacher training is ineffective, but some approaches work 133 Helping teachers teach to the level of the student has proven effective 136 Teacher motivation and incentives make a difference, even with few inputs 145 Chapter 7: Everything else should strengthen the teacher-learner interaction 145 Technological interventions increase learning—but only if they enhance the teacher-learner relationship 147 Other inputs bring learners to school—but promote learning only if they target teaching and learning 148 School management and governance are crucial, and involving communities can help overcome incentive problems and information failures—but only if communities have capacity 154 Chapter 8: Build on foundations by linking skills training to jobs 154 Workplace training can help young people develop skills, yet few benefit from it 156 Short-term job training offers opportunities, but most programs fail to deliver 156 TVET can prepare young people for work, but early sorting into TVET can limit career growth 157 Successful job training programs share several features 164 Spotlight 5: Technology is changing the world of work: What does that mean for learning? 169 Part IV: Making the system work for learning at scale 170 Chapter 9: Education systems are misaligned with learning 171 Misalignments and incoherence impede learning 175 Technical complexities make it hard to align education systems with learning 183 Spotlight 6: Spending more or spending better—or both? 189 Chapter 10: Unhealthy politics drives misalignments 189 Unhealthy politics can intensify misalignments in education systems 190 Multiple actors and interests: Pulling the system out of alignment at each step of the policy cycle 195 Trapped in low-accountability, low-learning equilibriums vi | CONTENTS

199 Chapter 11: How to escape low-learning traps 199 Improving information 203 Building coalitions and strengthening incentives 207 Encouraging innovation and agility 211 How can external actors support initiatives to improve learning? Boxes 1.1 40 Schooling as human capital formation or as a signaling device? 1.2 44 Education can’t do it alone 1.3 48 Comparing attainment across countries and economies—learningadjusted years of schooling 2.1 61 Access denied: The effects of fragility, conflict, and violence 3.1 74 Those who can’t read by the end of grade 2 struggle to catch up 3.2 75 Gender-based differences in learning depend on the subject 3.3 82 Teachers may perceive low effort as being justified 4.1 92 Good measures of learning illuminate all parts of the education system 4.2 97 A global learning metric? 5.1 116 Early childhood education prepares young children for school 5.2 118 Communities can leverage the many hours spent outside the classroom to boost learning 5.3 120 Providing information on children’s school performance can help parents to motivate their children 6.1 133 The landscape of in-service teacher training 6.2 133 What works in preservice teacher training? 6.3 135 Reaching learners in their own language 6.4 136 Using diagnostic data to deliver better learning in Latin America 6.5 137 Would raising teachers’ salaries increase their motivation? 6.6 138 One factor undermining teaching: Poor working conditions 7.1 149 Training better school principals in Jamaica 9.1 172 It’s all about (education) systems 9.2 174 Aligning all the ingredients for effective teaching in Shanghai 9.3 176 Can private schooling be aligned to learning for all? 10.1 191 How do teachers’ unions affect learning? 10.2 193 How politics can derail learning in conflict-affected states 11.1 201 Using information to align incentives with learning in Brazil 11.2 202 Citizen-led assessments have raised awareness of the learning crisis in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa 11.3 204 Using the legal system to press for change 11.4 205 Using “labs” to build coalitions for learning 11.5 205 Reformers in Chile negotiated changes gradually 11.6 208 High-performing schools in the West Bank and Gaza offer some learning lessons 11.7 209 Burundi improved education services by iterating and adapting Figures O.1 5 Shortfalls in learning start early O.2 6 In several countries, the 75th percentile of PISA test takers performs below the 25th percentile of the OECD average O.3 7 Children from poor households in Africa typically learn much less O.4 7 Students often learn little from year to year, and early learning deficits are magnified over time O.5 8 The percentage of primary school students who pass a minimum proficiency threshold is often low CONTENTS | vii

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  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St