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Annual Performance Plan 508

Annual Performance Plan 508

enters in 2011, an

enters in 2011, an increase of 43.5 percent from 2007 levels. A dramatic shift toward renting and growing numbers of very low-income households during the recession drove the increase. As a result, only 65 affordable rental units were available in 2011 for every 100 very low-income renters, and 36 affordable units were available per 100 extremely low-income renters. This report will be released in 2015. Research and Evaluations Informing Goal 3: Utilize Housing as a Platform for Improving Quality of Life RECENTLY COMPLETED RESEARCH AND EVALUATIONS Study of Public Housing Agencies’ Engagement with Homeless Households. In support of Opening Doors, the Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness, this research effort assessed how Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) currently serve and interact with homeless households. Researchers found that PHAs believe the primary issue with serving homeless families is actually finding such families when the PHA is ready to help. PHAs that administer HUD programs aimed at homeless households are more likely to attempt to serve them through mainstream programs. The report recommends strategies by which HUD could encourage PHAs to expand their services for homeless households, such as encouraging partnerships between PHAs and local service organizations and local Continuums of Care. Opportunity Neighborhoods for Latino and African-American Children. Using a natural experiment involving the Denver Housing Authority, this study quantified how neighborhood conditions affect outcomes for lowincome Latino and African-American children who have resided in public housing for a substantial period during childhood. For example, the study found that neighborhoods with higher occupational prestige, a higher proportion of foreign-born populations, lower property crime rates, and lower scores on a social problems index fostered better outcomes for children across the board. In general, the magnitude of neighborhood influences appeared to depend on the gender and ethnicity of the child or youth, and in different ways for different outcomes. Housing for Youth Aging out of Foster Care. As directed by the Senate report accompanying HUD’s FY 2009 Appropriation, this report evaluated the housing models that are most effective in preventing and ending homelessness for youth aged 16 to 24, with a focus on housing settings and assistance available for youth aging out of foster care. About 30,000 youth age out of foster care annually, and previous researchers estimate 11 to 37 percent of such youth have experienced homelessness. The researchers found that the Family Unification Program, which provides housing vouchers to families involved in the welfare system, could provide a solution for many youth aging out of foster care, but the Program is underused. The report recommended that HUD consider changes to the Family Unification Program to better serve youth, such as extending the time limit for youth from 18 months to 24 months. Family Unification Program: A Housing Resource for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. This report described the extent to which, and how, communities use the Family Unification Program (FUP) to support youth. Primarily, the Family Unification Program provides housing vouchers to families involved in the welfare system. FUP also provides time-limited housing vouchers to youth ages 18 to 21 who leave foster care and who do not have adequate housing. This report indicated that while FUP can be a useful resource, for various reasons FUP is not widely used for youth. The researchers found that only 47 percent of housing authorities operating FUP 144 Section Three: Additional Information

awarded vouchers to former foster youth in the prior 18 months, and youth represented only about 14 percent of total FUP participants. The report recommended that communities must increase awareness of the risk of homelessness for former foster youth, better understand FUP as a resource for this population, and strengthen cross-agency collaboration. However, because FUP is a small, resource-constrained program, additional policy innovations to serve the housing needs of former foster youth should be explored. Impact of Housing and Services Interventions on Homeless Families (Family Options Study). This randomassignment trial was initiated at the request of Congress to assess the effectiveness of four interventions for helping homeless families with children: 1) project-based transitional housing; 2) community-based rapid rehousing; 3) permanent housing subsidies; or 4) usual care. An interim report provides insights into how homeless assistance is currently delivered. The interim report found, for example, that homeless system resources are highly constrained, and that project-based models presently in communities do not have the flexibility to shift resources to respond to surges or declines in demand. A report on the interventions at 18 months will be available in spring 2015, and a final report in late 2016 will document the impacts of the four interventions at 36 months. Picture of Housing and Health: Medicare and Medicaid Use among Older Adults in HUD-Assisted Housing. Through an interagency agreement with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), HUD arranged for this assessment of the feasibility of matching HUD administrative data to the HHS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administrative data. The successful linkage of data at the level of individuals for 12 geographic areas showed that administrative data matching is both possible and useful for tracking health and housing outcomes, research, and policy analysis. The results show that health insurance assistance programs for Medicare beneficiaries reduce out-of-pocket health care expenses and result in savings for HUD. Among HUD-assisted Medicare beneficiaries age 65 years or older, approximately 68 percent of HUD-assisted Medicare beneficiaries were dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid. Dual enrollees who are HUD-assisted had more chronic health problems—55 percent of HUD-assisted dual enrollees had 5 or more chronic conditions, compared with 43 percent of unassisted dual enrollees—translating into higher health care utilization and costs. The report is available from ASPE at http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/2014/HUDpic.shtml. UPCOMING RESEARCH AND EVALUATIONS Evaluation of the Rapid Rehousing for Homeless Families Demonstration Program. The demonstration funded 23 grants for rapid rehousing programs. This research evaluates both the process of the programs and the outcomes of the families served. The evaluation is expected to be published in winter 2015. Veterans Homelessness Prevention Demonstration. In partnership with the VA and the U.S. Department of Labor, this evaluation tests the effectiveness of veterans homelessness prevention strategies at five sites. The evaluation is scheduled to be completed in March 2015. Homelessness Prevention Study. This process study documented the first two years of experiences with the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Rehousing Program (HRPP). The study provides both a national review of HRPP programs and detailed insight into community-level implementation of homelessness prevention programs. The study is expected to be released in the first quarter of 2015. Section Three: Additional Information 145

ANNUAL