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Judo In Montenegro

Judo In Montenegro/Božidar Markuš

manual for physical

manual for physical education in elementary, secondary and vocational schools, published as early as 1911, which outlined the basic instructions for practicing jiu jitsu (M. Arsović: Martial Arts and Sports, Belgrade, 1911, pp. 25-30). Page 25 of the said manual features a photo of two fighters wearing judo clothes and doing the throw Hiza Guruma. In 1914, Stevan Milićević published the translation of the Russian “Jiu Jitsu”, a book of 150 pages giving detailed instructions on how to practice some of the jiu jitsu holds and featuring 19 pictures to illustrate some of the joint locks and throws. Between the two world wars, in Yugoslavia, some elements of judo were practiced for self-defence, especially in the army and the police, which resulted in the publication of the first manual for jiu jitsu and judo in 1922. The author of this manual was the captain of the Police Station in Zagreb, Ralf Hoke. The officers who were educated in France at that time brought with them some of the judo mastery which they had acquired there, but the arts were practiced in military only. The beginning of organised jiu jitsu and judo practice can be traced to Otto Baumgarten, a jiu jitsu assistant at the Academy of Physical Education in Vienna. Seeking to escape the Nazis, Baumgarten came to Ljubljana. There he organised a training course in jiu jitsu for a group of youngsters in the Regional Centre, the practice which he later resumed in his apartment in Gradišče, three times a week. Such organised activity lasted until summer 1944, when Baumgarten was taken to a Nazi camp, never to return. After the liberation in 1948, Baumgarten’s students, Tone Žledner and prof. Požar organised the first jiu jitsu courses in the Association for Physical Education “Partizan Tabor” in Ljubljana. The courses were attended by later pioneers of Slovenian judo, among whom was the first Yugoslav judo master, Ivo Reja. In 1951, the first judo club was established in Slovenia. It was called The Association for Physical Education “Ljubljana” and its coach was Ante Prančić. The first judo club in our country (author’s note: the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) was founded on February 7, 1951 in Zagreb (Encyclopedia of Physical Culture: Judo, p. 22), as a jiu jitsu and 16

judo division of the student boxing club. The first coach was an ex war prisoner, German Hugo Roschanz (M. Gržeta: Stories), who at the time worked as a draftsman with the company “Rade Končar” and who used to be on the national team of Germany as the first Dan master. This division later grew into the Academic Judo Club “Mladost”. The Championship of Zagreb that was held on December 4, 1952 in the gym of the Sport Club “Jedinstvo” was the first official judo competition in Yugoslavia. The first judo club in Belgrade was set up in 1953, after a course that had been taught by the Japanese master, engineer Bamba. The brothers Ljubomir and Svetislav Ivanović, who did jiu jitsu, organised the first competitions and, together with Radoš Jovanović, contributed greatly to the development of judo sport in Belgrade and Serbia. Having established first contacts with the world’s Judo-do Union (judo-do was a mixture of jiu jitsu and judo) in Obertraunen (Austria), first seminars were organied in Celje in August 1953. This seminar was taught by Austrian masters Fleck and Joseph Ebertschuber and was attended by all Yugoslav coaches who did judo at the time. The seminar proved to be of great importance for the later development of judo sport in Yugoslavia, having in mind the fact that it was the first time the coaches were presented with the working methods of this sport, which was very similar to judo. At the meeting of The Heavy Athletics Union of Yugoslavia in Pula in 1955, a judo committee was founded as part of the Union, and that same year the first official Yugoslav judo competition was held in Zagreb. The second state competition was staged in Belgrade the following year and as of then, senior state competitions were held every four years. The foundation of the Judo Committee as part of the Heavy Athletics Union resulted in judo catching on and a series of clubs and republican unions were established nationwide. The first judo club in Bosnia and Herzegovina was “Željezničar”, founded in Sarajevo in 1956, in the wake of which “Partizan” in Lukovica and “Sarajevo” and “Geodet” in Sarajevo followed. 17

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