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Urban Asias – Essays on Futurity Past and Present

110 III. Infrastructures

110 III. Infrastructures of Future-making Chronology of Jakarta Sewerage and Sanitation Project (Figure 10.1) 1972ong>–ong> 1977 Funding by the United Nation Development Programme. The World Health Organization as executing agency. Nihon Suido of Japan appointed as consultant to produce a master plan of sewerage system that discharges untreated sewage into Jakarta Bay. Estimated total cost of USD 500 million (in 1976 prices). The proposed first phase is to cover Gambir and Setiabudi areas at a cost of approximately USD 100 million. 1979 After considerable debate, Nihon Suido’s master plan is shelved. The World Bank (WB) and the Government of Indonesia (GOI) suggest a different approach, which combines piped sewerage with low cost measures such as septic tanks and pit privies. Setiabudi area is selected for the pilot project. 1981ong>–ong> 1982 Feasibility and engineering studies by Alpinconsult of Switzerland. 1983 The Jakarta Sewerage and Sanitation (JSS) project is launched. A loan deal of USD 22.4 million (out of the estimated total project cost at USD 37.1 million) is signed between the Ministry of Finance (MoF) and the International Bank for Recovery and Development (IBRD). It is expected to be completed in 4 years by 1987. The loan payment is to be completed by 2002. 1985 The original mid-point of project timetable. Completion rate: 7 percent. 1987 Wastewater Management Body (BPAL) is instituted through a decree from the Ministry of Public Works. 1990 Extension of the project via the Second Jakarta ong>Urbanong> Development Project (JUDP). 1991 A master plan of drainage, sewerage, and sanitation for 2010 is published by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and GOI. The projected total cost up to 2010 is around USD 1 billion. Great Jakarta Wastewater Regional Company (PAL Jaya) is instituted through a Regional Regulation. 1993 The completion report of the JSS project is published by WB, rated “unsatisfactory”.

111 PLANNING, DESIGN, AND MAINTENANCE OF JAKARTA’S FUTURE SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURES 1997 The closing of the Second JUDP. 2012 Attempts to construct a city-wide sanitation infrastructure are restarted. Financed by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the “Reassessment of 1991 Master Plan and New Sewerage Master Plan” are published. 2014 Loan agreement between Indonesia and Japan is signed, which includes city-wide sewerage system development. 2016 The state’s master plan of infrastructural development for domestic wastewater management is published. What are the futures of Jakarta’s sanitation infrastructure? That is a question I regularly ask during conversations with people in and from Jakarta. None of them ever envisages a centralized wastewater treatment plan and city-wide sewerage network being completed anytime soon. Sanitation is going to continue to be on-site and different forms of devices below houses and roads are likely to be there to stay for the near future. The most viable option perhaps is to live together with those tanks while infrastructural development is expanding throughout and beyond the city. This commitment entails forms of care: maintenance and repair. To that end, in what follows, I examine three practices—planning, design, and maintenance—that shape urban infrastructures, modulate different streams and forms of future making, and enact the city in multiple versions. Researching at the intersection between science and technology studies (STS) and anthropology, I work through three propositions: planning as situated activity, design as translation, and maintenance as art of caring. The final section of my essay adds some concluding cautions for further reflection, to invite readers to rethink and re-enact sanitation infrastructures, and thus participate in future-making by other means. Planning as Situated Activity Planning the sanitation infrastructure of Jakarta is a delicate, if not frustrating task. It is a mega-scale undertaking that will rip apart the whole existing underground infrastructure, disrupt above ground infrastructure, and intersect with other megaprojects, particularly the city’s sea wall and the construction of new islands through reclamation.3 Similarly the history