Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan of Tirana-Durres Area

akptsharedocs

The Albanian Government and the National Spatial Plan have identified the Tiranë-Durrës area, as one of the most important economic areas of the country, and of the Balkan region. To ensure a sustainable territorial and urban development of this area, the Ministry of Urban Development in cooperation with the National Territorial Planning Agency has taken the initiative to draft a Cross-sectoral Integrated Plan for the economic area Tiranë – Durrës. The metropolitan region under study includes territories administered by 5 municipalities: Tiranë, Durrës, Vorë, Shijak, Kamëz.

INTEGRATED, COMPETITIVE, DESTINATION

INTEGRATED CROSS-SECTORIAL PLAN

OF TIRANA-DURRES AREA


INTEGRATED, COMPETITIVE, DESTINATION

INTEGRATED CROSS-SECTORIAL PLAN

OF TIRANA-DURRES AREA


This plan was drafted with the invaluable contribution of a large number of

experts from various fields of economic and social development, as well as

experts of territorial planning, specialists, technicians, employees of state

administration, professors and representatives of various fields of academia,

members of non-profit organizations, business representatives, local

government representatives, and various citizens who contributed, through their

active participation in a number of consultative meetings, to the preparation of

the vision for the development of the metropolitan region Tirana-Durres in the

next 15 years. The plan is the result of the joint contribution and unremitting

efforts of the specialists of the National Territorial Planning Agency (NTPA) and

the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), who worked for almost two years

to finalize this document, which brings forward an integrated framework of the

territorial developments conducted up to date and sets out a long-term quality

development model for the Tirana-Durres region.


Head of Process

Eglantina Gjermeni

Minister of Urban Development

Coordinators

Adelina Greca

Director General

National Territorial Planning Agency

Nertil Jole

Director of Territorial Development Policies

Ministry of Urban Development

Special recognition for his contribution in the drafting of ICSP Tirana-Durres

Hans-Juergen Cassens, GIZ Albania

Team Leader

Deni Klosi

Head of Directorate at the AKPT

Team

Ledio Allkja, Doris Alimerko

Anisa Qorri, Shpendi Balilaj, Bledi Dimo, Eleana Beruka, Ismail Broli, Mikel Tanini

Technical planning consultants

Angelo D'Urso, international technical consultant on urban planning

Wilhelm Schulte, planning expert, former General Director of Urban and Landscape Planning at

the Ministry of Urban Development and Environment, Hamburg, GIZ

Jan Drews, planning expert, Director of Berlin-Brandenburg Planning Department

Printed: Printing house PEGI

ISBN 978-9928-248-35-0


TABLE OF CONTENTS

10 Acronyms

11 Glossary

13 List of tables, figures, maps

16 Legal background

17 Structure of the document

1 2

20 Introduction 42 SWOT analysis,

territorial systems

21 1.1 Economic profile of the

and development

region

scenarios

36

1.2 Combination of the

national plans

42

2.1 SWOT analysis

38

1.3 Coordination of the plan

44

2.2 Conclusions

44

2.3 Goals and principles

45

2.4 Territorial systems

45

2.5 Territorial sevelopment

scenarios


3 4

52 Vision and strategic

objectives

68 Regional development

policies

52

55

59

59

Vision

3.1 Regional competitiveness

development strategy

3.2 Strategic objectives

SO1. Sustainable economic

development

69

70

71

71

4.1 Economic development

policies

EP1- Develop service

economy

EP1.1- Territorial component

EP1.2- Human component

59

SO2. Improve the quality of

life in urban and rural centers

71

EP2- Regional knowledge and

innovation network

60

60

SO3. Improve infrastructure,

transport and mobility in the

region

SO4. Protect and improve

the quality of the natural

environment

74

74

74

EP3- Develop SMEs and

entrepreneurship

EP3.1- Develop human

capacities

EP3.2- Enterprise interaction

networks for innovation

76

EP3.3- Territorial

development of SMEs

78

EP4- Regional incubators

and clusters

78

EP4.1- Regional incubators


TABLE OF CONTENTS

81

EP4.2- Develop

economic clusters

122

UP5- Comprehensive regional

community spaces

90

EP5- Territorial economic

development

122

UP6- Energy efficiency in

buildings

94

94

EP6- Regional branding and

tourism

EP6.1- Tourism as added value

124

124

UP7- Urban mobility network

UP7.1- Biking and walking

94

EP6.2- Service tourism

127

4.3 Rural development policies

98

EP6.3- City and weekend

tourism

128

RP1- Territorial zoning and

consolidation of agricultural

land

108

4.2 Urban development

policies

131

RP1.1- Consolidation and use of

agricultural land

108

113

UP1- Policentism and

hierarchization of urban

centres

UP1.1- Public services

132

132

RP2- Consolidation of rural

centres

RP2.1- Rural services and

community development

113

114

116

119

120

120

121

UP2- Consolidation of urban

centres

UP2.1- Densification of urban

centres

UP2.2- Regeneration of urban

poles

UP3- Integration of informal

areas

UP4- Accommodation and

social housing

UP4.1- Accomodation

UP4.2- Social housing

133

135

136

137

138

138

RP3- Rural economic

development and regional

agricultural poles

RP3.1- Support activities

for agricultural economic

development

RP3.2- Product regionalization

RP3.3- Innovation in agroindustry

and agro-environment

RP4- Economic development of

private farms and cooperatives

RP4.1- Restructuring of

agricultural farms


138

139

RP4.2- Opportunities

for cooperation – the

establishment of private

cooperatives

RP5- Development of the food

chain

151

151

153

TP7- Infrastructure, energy

and telecommunication

TP7.1- Underground

infrastructure

TP7.2- Energy infrastructure

141

142

RP6- Rural regional tourism

RP7- Branding and marketing

of rural areas

153

TP7.3- Electronic

communication infrastructure

/ ICT

143

143

143

RP8- Transport in rural areas

RP9- Environment and

renewable energy

RP9.1- The environment

155

156

4.5 Environmental

development policies

EP1- Conservation of natural

landscape (natural and

environmental heritage)

143

145

145

146

147

148

RP9.2- Renewable energy

4.4 Transport and

infrastructure development

policies

TP1- Strategic regional road

networks

TP2- Multimodal system and

interurban public transport

TP2.1- Regional multimodal

mobility

TP3- Railway mobility

158

159

161

162

164

166

EP2- Protection and

management of surface and

ground water resources

EP3- Green infrastructure

EP4- Risk management from

natural disasters

EP5- Regional waste

management

EnP6- Climate change

EP7- Monitoring environmental

quality

149

TP4- Traffic management

150

TP5- Freight mobility

150

TP6- Bicycle mobility regional

itineraries


TABLE OF CONTENTS

5

170 Strategic projects

regulations

170

182

188

SP1. Economic development

SP2. Urban development

SP3. Rural development

6

214 Territorial land use

regulations

214

217

TR1- Urban centres

consolidation

TR2- Sustainable urban

neighbourhoods and blocks

198

SP4. Transport and

infrastructure development

219

TR3- Development of energy

efficiency in buildings

208

SP5. Environmental

development

219

221

TR4- Mobility in urban

centres

TR5- Consolidation and

regeneration of urban centres

223

224

226

229

TR6- Development of the

regional agricultural poles

TR7- Corridors and areas of

economic development

TR8- Development of poles

with a touristic and relaxing

character

TR9- Regional strategic road

networks

231

TR10- Infrastructure, energy

and telecommunication

232

TR11- Protection and

development of the spaces

and environmental ecosystem


7

236 Monitoring

implementation,

evaluation and

indicators

236

7.1 The legal context of plan

monitoring

244 Bibliography

254 Appendix

259 Additional Maps

237

7.2 Monitoring indicators


Acronyms

B2B Business to Business

BID Business Improvement District

CBD Central Business District

CMD Council of Ministers Decision

COP Conference of Parties

DLP Detailed Local Plan

DPANI Detailed Plan for Areas of National

Importance

EcP Economic Policies

EnP Environmental Policies

FDI Foreign Direct Investment

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GHG Greenhouse Gas

GIS Geographic Information System

GLP General Local Plan

GNP General National Plan

GPS Global Positioning System

GVA Gross Value Added

GVC Global Value Chains

IBI Innovation Based Incubators

ICSP Integrated Cross-Sectoral Plan

ICT Information and Communion

Technology

INSTAT Institute of Statistics of the Republic

of Albania

IPA Instrument for Pre-accession

Assistance

ITS Intelligent Transport Systems

LCAC Local Civic Advisory Commission

LGU Local Government Unit

MARDWA Ministry of Agriculture, Rural

Development and Water Administration

MEDTTE Ministry of Economic Development,

Tourism, Trade and Entrepreneurship

MEI Ministry of Energy and Industry

MEI Ministry of European Integration

MoES Ministry of Education and Sports

MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs

MIA Ministry of Internal Affairs

MoIPA Minister of State for Innovation and

Public Administration

MoC Ministry of Culture

MoF Ministry of Finance

MoH Ministry of Health

MoJ Ministry of Justice

MoSLI Minister of State for Local Issues

MoSWY Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth

MoTI Ministry of Transport and

Infrastructure

MoUD Ministry of Urban Development

NAP National Adaptation Plan

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NPO Non-Profit Organization

NSDI National Strategy for Development

and Integration

NTPA National Territorial Planning Agency

OECD Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and Development

PPP Public-Private Partnership

SME Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

SO Strategic Objectives

SOA Service Oriented Architecture

SWOT Strength, Weakness, Opportunities,

Threats

R&D Research and Development

RDF Regional Development Fund

RIS3 Research and Innovation Strategies

for Smart Specialisation

RP Rural Policies

RRR Reduction, Reuse, Recycling

TOD Transit Oriented Development

TP Transport (and infrastructure) Policies

UP Urban Policies

10


Glossary

“Buffer zone” – is an intermediate territory

that extends between two or more areas, in

order to divide and / or protect one or more

of them, as appropriate. The buffer zones are

designed to reinforce the protection of a given

territory.

“Branding” – is the process through which a

unique communication and image is created

for a particular product or place, highlighting

their core values and distinctive features.

“Benchmark” – is a term used in many fields

to mark the highest standard that can be

achieved, or to set a comparative standard.

“Landmark” – is a reference point in the

territory.

“Global value chains” – includes the full range

of activities required to deliver a product from

the concept, design, raw material, marketing,

distribution to the customer assistance

stages. The term is widely used when activities

require cross-border coordination in the era of

globalization.

“Development pole” – is the territorial space

that includes one or more territorial structural

units identified by the ICSPs, as polycentric

development centres of the region, with a

focus on one or several sectors.

“Hub” – is considered to be a centre or nod

that is active regarding economic exchanges,

which serves to a region or primary centre

(under the new hierarchical system).

“Polycentric development” – refers to the

process that promotes the cooperation of

cities and regions with each other and the

surrounding territories in order to identify

strong connection points and complementary

potentials that bring an added value to

the economic development that cannot be

achieved by isolated cities or regions

(ESPON 2016).

“Urban Cluster” – is the continuous built

surface of an area, mainly central, of a city or

village or even urbanized suburbs. In the same

sense, terms such as urban agglomeration

or urbanized units are used, depending on

the statistical parameters or geographical

methodology used to classify them.

“Triple helix concept” – shows the shift

from the industry-government binomial,

where the economy was based upon in

the industrialization era, to the universityindustry

/ business-sector trinomial era of the

knowledge-based society

“Quad helix concept” – is the most advanced

stage of the ‘triple helix’ concept where it is

assumed that interaction can be more efficient

if four actors are involved in the innovation

process: the public-industry sector / businessuniversity-

civil society.

“Knowledge based economy” – an economy

based on the development of human

capacities, technology and innovation.

“Green economy” – an economy based

on activities that do not prejudice the

environment.

“Economic corridor” – continuous linear area

with concentration of economic activities.

“Cluster” – are presented as a geographical

concentration of firms and related

institutions in sectors and sub-branches

of complementary industries, promoting

exchanges and activities to create added value

in products, services or platforms; in trade and

economy. Clusters develop co-operation and

competitiveness of firms, and accelerate the

spread of regional innovation

Geographic concentration or grouping of

economies and institutions, interconnected

in a particular field, with common elements

and externalities. (Based on the definition

of Michael E. Porter, On competitiveness.)

Or otherwise, regional agglomeration of

industries and services located in territorial

proximity. (EC Communication, Towards

world-class clusters in the European Union:

Implementing the broad-based innovation

strategy - {SEC (2008) 2637}, 17.10.2008, p.3).

11


“Incubation” – is an instrument to support

economic development and entrepreneurs in

shaping new businesses, ensuring a profitable

and sustainable activity.

“Incubator” – is a space where business ideas

and projects are incubated and marketed. In

this space are developed new entrepreneurs,

by creating appropriate conditions, facilities

and expertise to address the needs of

developing their ideas.

“Urban consolidation” – is the process of

urban growth and development in compact

areas that promote smart concentration and

densification, supported by quick access and

public services for all social groups.

The purpose of consolidation is to conserve

peripheral (peri-urban) areas from the

development of uncontrolled housing, as well

to reduce the ecological footprint of urban

centres.

“Consolidation of agricultural land” –

is a planned rearrangement of plots of

agricultural land and their ownership. This

instrument is usually applied to form larger

agricultural parcels and is more efficient

in use. Land consolidation can be used to

improve rural infrastructure and promote the

implementation of rural and environmental

development policies.

“Food Chain” – is a series of activities

starting from production up to the sale of

food products. The food chain includes all

stakeholders from whom it develops, farmers

and companies from production to sale.

“From farm to table” – is the network link

of actors that promote and encourage the

efficiency of local food chain service.

is the promotion of small local businesses and

the bio food system.

“Peri-urban areas” – means urban peripheral

areas under high urbanisation pressure

(including formal or informal urbanisation

development) and where such pressure from

development and urban activities has a strong

impact on land use.

“Agriculture areas” – means areas under

strong rural impact, focused on the

development of agriculture and where main

income is generated from agriculture.

“Natural-agricultural, marginal areas” – have

a poor agricultural development structure or

a dispersed urbanisation development (formal

or informal) with a focus on the opportunities

to support agriculture as back up areas of

agriculture and nature.

“Free natural areas and environmental

protected areas” – comprise the peripheral

part of the rural and urban pressure impact,

which should be protected and preserved from

urban and rural developments.

Tirana-Durres metropolitan region” –

refers to the area under study that this plan

is being drafted for. This territory appears

as a rural and urban functional area that

exceeds the administrative borders of several

municipalities. Hereinafter, it is referred as

Tirana-Durres region throughout the text.

“Fast food chain” – is the regional food chain

focussed on mass production of agricultural

products that are prepared and served for

mass domestic or global markets.

“Slow food chain” – is the regional food chain

focused on local production, which seeks to

preserve and promote the development of

traditional and regional cuisine. The main goal

12


Tables, Figures, Maps

Tables

Table 1.1 Comparison of Western Balkan Economies - Key Indices

Table 1.2 Economic indicators of Albania compared to Balkan countries and the European Union

Table 1.3 Data on the surface area, population (2014) and projection for 2031

Table 1.4 Projection of the population by 2031

Table 1.5 The structure of GVA of the region by economic sectors, 2012 (in Million ALL)

Table 1.6 The structure of the region GVA by economic sectors, 2012 (in %)

Table 1.7 Employment by sector in the region, 2014

Table 1.8 Registered unemployed jobseekers and relevant education, 2014

Table 1.9 Poverty indicators in the region, 2012 (%)

Table 1.10 Population in poverty according to the number of dependent children, 2012 (%)

Table 4.1 Primary development factors for innovation

Table 4.2 Regional incubators

Table 4.3 Economic poles in the region

Table 4.4 Areas of action in business tourism

Table 4.5 Potentials of the region for weekend tourism

Table 4.6 Natural corridors in tourism development

Table 4.7 Role of urban centres based on the hierarchy

Table 4.8 Urban centres hierarchy division

Table 4.9 Public-private partnership

Table 4.10 Urban regeneration poles

Table 4.11 Informal areas for development and integration

Table 4.12 Poles and areas with development potential for housing

Table 4.13 Peri-urban areas

Table 4.14 Agricultural areas

Table 4.15 Marginal rural areas

Table 4.16 Free natural areas and protected natural areas

Table 4.17 Agriculture functions in rural areas

Table 4.18 Axes of rural-urban regional development

Table 4.19 Cooperation benefits

Table 4.20 Poles of regional market centres to be covered by transport services

Table 4.21 Potentials of the region in tourism

Table 4.22 The poles of rural centres in the tourist axes to be covered by transport services

Table 4.23 Main road axis in the region

Table 4.24 Strategic corridors and multimodal stations

Table 4.25 Railway stations

Tabela 4.26 Logistic poles

Table 4.27 Bicycle axes

Table 4.29 Regional natural reserves

Table 4.28 Natural protected areas and regional and urban parks

13


Table 4.30 Areas at risk

Table 5.1 Strategic projects: Economic development

Table 5.2 Strategic projects: Urban development

Table 5.3 Strategic projects: Rural development

Table 5.4 Strategic projects: Development of transport and infrastructure

Table 5.5 Strategic projects: Environmental protection and development

Table 7.1 Strategic themes

Table 7.2 Economic welfare

Table 7.3 People, urbanization and housing

Table 7.4 Infrastructure and environment

Figures

Figure 1.1 Global Competitiveness Index

Figure 1.2 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Belgrade

Figure 1.3 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Pristina and Skopje

Figure 1.4 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Sarajevo and Zagreb

Figure1.5 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Ljubljana

Figure 1.6 Hierarchy of the territorial plans

Figure 1.7 Coordination of the plan

Figure 2.1 Scenario 1

Figure 2.2 Scenario 2

Figure 2.3 Scenario 3

Figure 3.1 Vision statement

Figure 3.2 Structure of the plan

Figure 4.1 Economic development policies

Figure 4.2 Innovation and competition in the economy

Figure 4.3 Public support components

Figure 4.4 What is a development incubator

Figure 4.5 Innovation-based incubators

Figure 4.6 What is an economic cluster

Figure 4.7 Cluster development stages

Figure 4.8 “Triple helix” concept

Figure 4.9 Different dimensions of a cluster and respective policies and / or programs

Figure 4.10 Regional framework of the touristic destination sustainable management

Figure 4.11 Organization and cooperation structure of tourism stakeholders

Figure 4.12 Conceptual model for public-private partnership for the development of regional tourism

Figure 4.13 Urban development policies

Figure 4.14 Sustainable communities

Figure 4.15 Rural development policies

Figure 4.16 Transport and infrastructure development policies

Figure 4.17 Environmental development policies

Figure 4.18 Green and grey infrastructure

14


Maps

Map 1.1 Areas affected by ICSP Tirana-Durres

Map 3.1 Vision as per the Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan Tirana-Durres

Map 4.1 Economy

Map 4.2 Tourism

Map 4.3 Densification of urban centres

Map 4.4 Urban centres and the territory comprising ICSP Tirana-Durres

Map 4.5 Territorial use in rural areas

Map 4.6 Road infrastructure

Map 4.7 Energy and industry

Map 4.8 Use of natural territories

Map 4.9 Urbanization restriction areas

Map 4.10 Combining infrastructure, urban centres and natural territories

15


Legal Context

The Integrated Cross-sectorial Plan of the

economic area Tirana-Durres is compiled

according to the Law no.107/2014, dated

31/07/2014, “On planning and development

of the territory”, as amended. Article 17,

paragraph 1, stipulates that National Sectorial

Plans are drafted by the ministries, aiming at

the strategic development of one or more of

the various sectors, according to the fields of

competence such as national security, energy,

industry, transport, infrastructure, tourism,

economic zones, education, sports, cultural

and natural heritage, healthcare, agriculture

and water.

Under this context, the General National Plan

has identified Tirana-Durres area as one of

the most important economic areas in the

country and in the Balkan region. To ensure a

sustainable territorial and urban development

of the area, the Ministry of Urban Development

in cooperation with the National Territorial

Planning Agency undertook the initiative to

draft the Integrated Cross-sectorial Plan of the

economic area Tirana-Durres. Based on the

complex features shown by the urban economy

and the territorial morphology, and taking into

account the numerous issues and actions to be

harmonized within it, the plan has been defined

as a cross-sectorial and integrated one.

The authority responsible for drafting the

planning document should ensure a process

of dialogue, cooperation and horizontal

and vertical coordination with all planning

authorities, as well as with stakeholders.

The responsible authority should organize

one or more public meeting sessions and

consultations before any decision-making

related to planning; and may repeat them,

as necessary, with a view to providing full

information to interested parties and resolving

conflicts.

MUD in association with the NTPA have

held a series of meetings and consultations

initially with various state institutions such

as line ministries and agencies and then

with institutions of higher education, where

consultations with universities/faculties

specialized in such fields as economics,

history, geography, geology etc., have been

conducted in order to further strengthen

the cross-sectorial character of the plan for

the metropolitan area of Tirana-Durres. The

general public together with stakeholders,

with whom there have been several thematic

meetings held, have been an integral part of

the consultation process.

Appendix 1 and this publication reflect some

of the consultative meetings of the process of

drafting the Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan of

the economic area Tirana-Durres.

Pursuant to the legislation in force, the

planning document consists of three key parts:

the Territorial Development Strategy, the Policy

and the Regulation. ICSP of the economic

area Tirana-Durres is associated with a

Strategic Environmental Assessment study,

which will ensure to avoid and minimize the

negative impacts on the territory. The process

of drafting the Strategic Environmental

Assessment is based on a thorough analysis of

territorial, economic, social and environmental

developments of the area Tirana-Durres, which

is presented in a separate document that

preceded the plan.

The legislation in force imposes the obligation

for consultation and coordination during the

process of drafting the planning document.

16


Structure of the document

The document of the Integrated Cross-sectorial Plan of the economic area Tirana-

Durres is structured into seven main chapters.

Chapter I

Presents the introduction of the document, demonstrating the interconnection

and relationship of the ICSP Tirana-Durres with the other two plans of national

importance, namely the National General Plan and Coastal ICSP. Concurrently, this

section outlines the legal requirements for the drafting of the plan and the way it is

governed.

Chapter II

Contains the SWOT analysis and definitions for the five basic territorial systems, such

as Urban, Agricultural, Natural, Water and Infrastructural Systems. This chapter sets

out the main conclusions drawn from the in-depth analysis, which then serve as a

basis for developing development and vision scenarios.

Chapter III

Introduces the vision, strategy and objectives for the development of the metropolitan

region Tirana-Durres.

Chapter IV

Elaborates sectorial policies, tackled, interrelated and complementary to each

other, which serve to break down the four strategic objectives into concrete sectorial

projects. They are divided into policies of economic, urban, rural, transport and

environmental infrastructure development.

Chapter V

Lists the strategic projects to implement the sectorial policies of the plan, organized

under the same structure, and details the action plan for the project implementation

in a time series.

Chapter VI

Contains a summary of the territorial use regulation, which provides guidelines for

the local and central level institutions on the ways how to protect and develop the

territory.

Chapter VII

Outlines how the implementation of the plan and strategic projects will be monitored

through specific indicators, according to each field.

17


1Introduction


Contents

21

1.1 Economic profile of the region

36

1.2 Combination of the national plans

38

1.3 Coordination of the plan


Introduction

Albania is an integral part of the economy of

the Balkans and the Mediterranean, a key

country to the development of the Adriatic-

Ionian macro-region and a gateway between

east and west. Tirana-Durres region is one of

the strategic gates for regional development.

The strategic position of this region, with

extensive exit to the Adriatic Sea and the best

international links due to the location of the

main airport of the country, have provided great

opportunities for rapid economic development

of the area.

Concurrently, achieving the historical

aspiration of European integration means

that Tirana-Durres region should be able to

compete as equal with other regions in Europe.

Thus, on one hand the opportunities for

economic development will increase, but

in turn competition with other regions will

intensify, requiring an improvement in the

economic growth of Tirana-Durres area,

posing its next challenge. This is considered

a challenge because Tirana, as the capital

of Albania and as the location of key

administrative, financial and educational

institutions, of the population and businesses,

has been since the beginning the focus of

development of the economy of this region

and an attractive factor for its private

activities. While, Durres with its port services

and proximity to Tirana, has also become

an important location for business and the

population. The road corridor connecting these

two urban centres, has become the economic

centre of the country, evidenced by the high

influx of mobility and presence of various

businesses and services. However, if the

competitive advantage at a national scale has

been very large compared to other regions, at

European level this advantage turns out to be

lesser, and therefore it is necessary to create

a territorial platform on which to base the

development and competition growth with the

surrounding regions.

When Albania began the transition to a free

market economy, it had the lowest level of

income and economic development in Europe.

The development of the country during the 25

years after the fall of communism, based on

the reports of the European Community, shows

20


to the success of economic development,

which ranks only behind Poland and Slovenia

among countries with economies in transition.

Since 1990 Albania has reduced the difference

in GDP with other countries in the region. Also,

during the past two decades the country has

undergone significant structural changes,

which shows the transition from an economy

based on raw materials and agriculture and

industry, into a more diverse economy, where

the service sector plays a leading role.

During the last three decades, Albania has

seen a significant and very fast shift from an

isolated and centralized economy to a global

interconnected system. One of the regions

with the largest increase in the country has

precisely been Tirana-Durres region. Favoured

by the geographical position, the presence of

the port of Durres, which is the largest port in

Albania for passengers and freight transport,

and the Mother Theresa Airport, which is only

20 km away from the two main cities, as well

as the central administration in Tirana, this

region has been a magnet for the movement of

the population and businesses.

The key events during the past 25 years of

the development of the region, are briefly

presented as follows:

• the collapse of the centralized economy;

• the rapid growth of the region’s population,

which nearly tripled as a result of migrations

from the north and south towards the Tirana-

Durres region;

• the rapid development of the construction

and services industry as a result of the

increased demand;

• the emergence of local private firms in trade,

agriculture and other products such as bread,

milk, processing of meat products and services

such as bars, restaurants, transport;

• the establishment of foreign small and

medium enterprises in this region;

• the investments in infrastructure, such as

the improvement of Tirana-Durres highway,

urban quality in major cities, water and

electricity service;

• the emergence of the private education

sector;

• the emergence of the private health sector.

ICSP Tirana-Durres comes as a response to

the territorial socio-economic development

in the last 25 years and serves as a guideline

for the economic, social and environmental

development of the region, by boosting the

economy and improving the environment.

The ICSP Tirana-Durres aims to guide the

development of the territory through a vision

that will function as a common denominator

for the local government units (LGUs). The plan

will also serve as a guide for LGUs for their

coordination of local policies, projects and

plans, as well as for vertical coordination and

cooperation. This plan will be their reference

framework during the process of drafting the

general local plans, but also strategic projects.

The plan is also a guarantee for foreign

investors and businesses who have an interest

in engaging in the further development of the

Tirana-Durres metropolitan area.

1.1 Economic profile of

the region

A summary of the economic profile at

national level

With an area of 28,748 km 2 and population of

2.9 million, Albania has an average density

of 100 inhabitants/km 2 , compared to 116.7

inhabitants/km 2 which is the average of the 28

EU Member States.

The gross domestic product in 2015 is

estimated at ALL 1,310 billion, while in

foreign currency about $11.4 billion, or

about 9.5 billion euro. The nominal income

per capita is ALL 454 thousand, 3,945

dollars, 3,287 euro, or about 12% of the

average nominal income of the EU. The

income per capita, estimated in terms of

purchasing power are 11,249 dollars, or

about 30% of the average income per capita

of the EU. A specific feature of the Albanian

economy is the relatively high share of

agriculture, with about 22.6% of the GDP,

compared with the 1.6% of GDP in the EU.

The rural population in our country is about

46% and employees in our agricultural

sector constitute 41.7% of the total.

21


During 1992-2009 period, Albania has had a

relatively high economic growth, 6-8%, and a

controlled inflation rate, 2-4%.

In 2014 the average unemployment rate is

estimated at 16.1% and at 29.2% among the

youth. The value of the Gini index in Albania

is 29, while in the EU it is 31. Migration

has been high and remittances have been

an important source of investment and

private consumption ranging from 22% of

GDP in 1992 to about 8.4% of GDP in 2014.

Currently, the government has drafted a

strategy for a new development model,

which aims to move from reliance on

consumption to supporting export growth

and competitiveness.

The analysis of the economic and social

development of Albania argues the need

for deep structural reforms, where the

planning, management and development of

NO

Indicators

Highest and

lowest value

Total no.

of countries

Year

Albania

Croatia

INTERNATIONAL INDEX

Ranking

Value

Ranking Va

I

Human Development Index (HDI) 1

0 -1 188

2014 85 0.733

47 0.8

II

Global Competition Index (GCI) 2

1 - 7

140

2015

93 3.9

77 4.

III

Index of Economic Freedom 3

1-100

178

2016

59 65.9

103 59

IV

Ease of Doing Business 4

1-100

189

2016

97 60.5

40 72

V

Attracting Foreign

Investment Index 5

0-10

136

2015

71 5.31

-

VI

Knowledge Economy Index 6

0 - 10

145

2012

82 4.53

39 7.

VII

Trade Openness Index

Trade -% of GDP 7

2015

72.1

9

Table 1.1 Comparison of Western Balkan Economies - Key Indices

1

hdr.undp.org

2

www.weforum.org

3

www.heritage.org

4

www.doingbusiness.org

5

www.globalopportunityindex.org

6

data.worldbank.org /Data Catalog

7

data.worldbank.org /Indicators

22


the territory is considered vital in fulfilling

the vision and objectives for a sustainable

development by 2030. The challenges of

structural reforms in Albania are clearly

illustrated in the comparative table of the

main international indices, where Albania

is placed in the same context as the other

Balkan countries (Table 1.1).

lbania

Croatia

Serbia

Macedonia

Kosovo

Montenegro

Bosnia

Herzegovina

king Value

Ranking Value

Ranking Value Ranking Value Ranking Value Ranking Value Ranking Value

5 0.733

47 0.818

66 0.771

81 0.747

- -

49 0.802

85 0.733

3 3.9

77 4.1

94 3.9

60 4.3

- -

70 4.2

111 3.7

9 65.9

103 59.1

77 62.1

47 67.5

84 61.4

65 64.9

108 58.6

7 60.5

40 72.71

59 68.41

12 80.18

66 66.22

46

71.85

79

63.71

1 5.31

- -

92 4.57

56 5.58

- -

45 6

89 4.64

2 4.53

39 7.29

49 6.02 58 5.65

- -

70 5.12

72.1

96

103.1

113.3 104.3

-

23


NO

Indicators

Unit

Year

Albania Croatia Serbia M

I

GDP

GDP growth

%

2015 2.8 1.6 0.8

Dollars

$ billion

2015 11,398 48,732 37,160

GDP, purchasing power

$ billion

2015 32,500 92,432 97,394

II

GDP per capita

Dollars

$

2015

3,945 11,536 5,235

GDP per capita, purchasing power

$

2015

11,249 21,881 13,721

% to the EU-28 nominal

%

12 36 16

% to the EU-28 purchasing power

%

30 58 36

III

GDP structure %

Agriculture

% of GDP

2014

23 4 9

Tourism

% of GDP

2014

Services

% of GDP

2014

52 69 61

Manufacturing industry

% of GDP

2014

5 15 -

VI

Unemployment rate

Total

Youth

% of the total

workforce

% of the total workforce

15-24 years old

2014

2014

16.1 16.7 22.2

29.2 45.9 49.5

Table 1.2 Economic indicators of Albania compared to Balkan countries and the European Union 8

8

Source: World Development Indicators, data.worldbank.org/indicator

24


Croatia Serbia Macedonia Kosovo Montenegro European Union

1.6 0.8 3.7 3.9 3.2 2.2

48,732 37,160 10,086 6,400 3,987

16,311.897

92,432 97,394 28,907 17,538 9,624 19,298.494

11,536 5,235 4,853 3,562 6,406 32,005

21,881 13,721 13,908 9,759 15,464 37,865

36 16 15 11 20 100

58 36 37 26 41 100

4 9 12 14 10 1.7

69 61 63 66 72 74

15 - 12 13 5 16

16.7 22.2 27.9 - 19.1 10.2

45.9 49.5 50.8 - 39.5 25.1

25


Rank Score

Global Competitiveness Index

(out of 140) (1-7)

GCI 2015-2016

93 3.9

GCI 2014-2015 (out of 144)

97 3.8

GCI 2013-2014 (out of 148)

95 3.8

GCI 2012-2013 (out of 144)

89 3.9

Basic requirements (40%) 87 4.3

First pillar: Institutions

84 3.7

Second pillar: Infrastructure

88 3.6

Third pillar: Macroeconomic environment

118 4.0

Fourth pillar: Health and primary education 52 6.0

Efficiency enhancers (50%) 89 3.8

Fifth pillar: Higher education and training

47 4.7

Sixth pillar: Goods market efficiency

63 4.3

Seventh pillar: Labour market efficiency

97 4.0

Eighth pillar: Financial market development 118 3.2

Ninth pillar: Technological readiness 89 3.4

Tenth pillar: Market Size 104 3.0

Innovation and sophistication factors (10%) 115 3.2

Eleventh pillar: Business sophistication

95 3.7

Twelfth pillar: Innovation

118 2.8

Innovation

Business

sophistication

Market Size

Technological

readiness

Albania

Financial market

development

European

developing countries

Figure 1.1 Global Competitiveness Index 9

Institutions

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Labour market

efficiency

Development stages

1 Transition

1-2

2 Transition

2-3

3

Economies

driven by

core factors

Economies

driven by

efficiency

Infrastructure

Goods market

efficiency

Economies

driven by

innovation

Macroeconomic

environment

Health and

primary education

Higher education

and training

9

Source: The global competitiveness report 2015-2016, World Economic Forum

26


Economic profile of the Tirana-Durres

metropolitan region

The region comprises 8.4% of the territory

and accommodates 37% of the country’s

population. It is the region with the highest

density in the country, 443 inhabitants/

km 2 compared to 101 inhabitants/ km 2

which is the national average. According

to the demographic projections in 2031 the

population density in the region will be 532%

of the national average, or 515 inhabitants/

km 2 compared to 97 inhabitants/km 2 which

is estimated to be the average density of the

national population. The figures presented

are based on population density according

to INSTAT and according to the ICSP Tirana-

Durres analysis.

The population of the Tirana-Durres region

is estimated to grow by 211,560 inhabitants

by 2031. This growth will be mainly in Tirana

with about 201 thousand inhabitants or 26.4%

more than the population measured in 2011.

While in Durres the growth will be 3.7% or

approximately 10 thousand more inhabitants.

This trend imposes in-depth studies related to

the planning and development of the territory

to the benefit of facilitating and promoting

economic activity in line with the principles and

objectives of sustainable development 2030.

Tirana-Durres region generates 48% of the

GDP and represents the region with the

highest income per capita, which is 1.32

times more than the national average. While

in Tirana the income per capita is 1.41 times

higher than the national average.

The structure of the gross value added (GVA)

shows that this region provides 71.8% of the

GVA of transport, 66% of tourism, 64.9% of

the post and telecommunications and 62.5%

of construction. This economic structure

identifies current priorities and potentials for

the future, especially in the sectors of ICT,

which will support economic restructuring of

the region towards innovative businesses.

The social capital in the economic area Tirana-

Durres represents favourable potentials to

support the productive restructuring of the

region’s economy and can transform into the

main driver to increase the productivity of

the national economy. Over 75% of the higher

education institutions, research centres and

non-profit organizations are concentrated in

this region.

The structure of jobseekers in the Tirana-

Durres region indicates a high degree of

individuals with higher education, which means

that a better alignment between the supply

and demand of the labour market is required.

The ambition to make this region a hub of

new technologies and the increasing rate

of application of new technologies by public

institutions and private companies impose

structural reforms on the supply side. This

region has the best social capital to support

this structural change, without which the

national economy cannot become competitive.

Despite being one of the most developed

economic areas of the country, the area of

Tirana-Durres deals with social challenges

of poverty. More specifically, the poverty of

young families and those with many children

is higher than the national average. Indicators

get worse in Durres. Local development plans

of the territory and the socio-economic plans

should aim at reducing poverty and mitigating

disparities within their territories.

The potentials of the economic development

of the Tirana-Durres area are great, both

because of the importance as the capital of

public institutions and private businesses,

as well as due to the access to economic

development corridors and integration

within the pan-European corridors. Over

80% of foreign-investment enterprises are

concentrated in this region, which can serve

to attract more foreign investments in the

most productive sectors of the economy.

Approximately 65% of the companies which

have more than 50 employees operate in such

region. Territorial planning and development,

sectorial and local plans for sustainable

development and particularly projects

aiming at integrating with the international

development corridors, are essential

instruments to convert Tirana-Durres into a

main economic centre, but not only.

27


County

Surface area (km 2 )

Population

(inhabitants)

Density (inh

Absolute

Percentage

to the total

Absolute

Percentage

to the total

Absolute

Tirana-Durres

2,418

8.4%

1,070,356

37.0%

442.7

Durres

766

2.7%

275,698

9.5%

359.9

Tirana

1,652

5.7%

794,658

27.5%

481.0

Albania

28,748

100.0%

2,894,476

100.0%

100.7

Table 1.3 Data on the surface area, population (2014) and projection for 2031 10

County

Total

2011

2016

2021

2026

2031

2011

Tirana-Durres

1,033,344

1,108,105

1,167,091

1,212,303

1,244,904

520,291

Durres

269,784

275,017

278,305

279,954

279,796

134,370

Tirana

763,560

833,088

888,786

932,349

965,108

385,921

Albania

2,907,362

2,888,996

2,863,311

2,827,569

2,782,309

1,451,690

Table 1.4 Projection of the population by 2031 11

County

Agriculture

and fishing

Industry

Extracting

industry

Processing

industry

Construction

Tirana-Durres

39,520

58,240

7,833

50,331

94,813

Durres

19,010

16,289

1,386

14,941

9,724

Tirana

20,510

41,951

6,447

35,391

85,089

Albania

250,126

153,668

60,195

93,473

151,793

Table 1.5 The structure of GVA of the region by economic sectors, 2012 (in Million ALL) 12

10

Source: INSTAT, Regional Statistical Yearbook 2015

11

Source: INSTAT, Regional Statistical Yearbook 2015

12

Source: INSTAT, Regional Statistical Yearbook 2011-2015

28


lation

itants)

Percentage

to the total

Density (inhabitants/km 2 )

Absolute

Percentage

to the average

Population projections

2031(inhabitants)

Percentage

Absolute

to the total

Population density

2031(inhabitants/km2)

Percentage

Absolute to the average

37.0%

442.7

439.6%

1,244,904

44.7%

514.85

531.98

9.5%

359.9

357.4%

279,796

10.1%

365.27

377.42

27.5%

481.0

477.7%

965,108

34.7%

584.21

603.65

100.0%

100.7

2,782,309

100.0%

96.78

Females Difference % of change

2031

2011

2016

2021

2026

2031

2031-2011

(2031-2011)/2011

1,244,904

520,291

553,520

582,060

605,695

623,026

211,560

20.5

279,796

134,370

134,462

135,793

135,793

135,596

10,012

3.7

965,108

385,921

419,058

446,941

469,902

487,430

201,548

26.4

2,782,309

1,451,690

1,423,372

1,405,910

1,390,550

1,369,680

-125,053

(4,3)

ocessing

ndustry

Trade, Hotels

Construction Services and

Restaurants

Transport

Post and

Telecommunication

Other

services

GVA at

basic prices

50,331

94,813

366,686

95,330

54,093

30,547

189,375

555,989

14,941

9,724

68,903

16,367

29,121

2,683

28,955

114,434

35,391

85,089

297,783

78,963

24,972

27,864

160,419

441,555

93,473

151,793

599,160

143,570

75,369

47,068

333,153

1,154,747

29


Agriculture

Extracting Processing

County

and fishing

Industry

industry industry

Construction Services

Tirana-Durres

15.8%

37.9%

13.0%

53.8%

62.5%

61.2%

Durres

7.6%

10.6%

2.3%

16.0%

6.4%

11.5%

Tirana

8.2%

27.3%

10.7%

37.9%

56.1%

49.7%

Albania

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Table 1.6 The structure of the region GVA by economic sectors, 2012 (in %) 13

County

Employed

in the public

sector

Employed in the

non-agricultural

sector

Employed in the

private

agricultural sector

Long-term

unemployment

Average gross

salary in the

public sector

Tirana-Durres

71,144

211,360

56,860

18,626

54,740

Durres

11,700

38,000

32,820

3,872

52,513

Tirana

59,444

173,360

24,040

14,754

56,966

Albania

163,885 318,571 442,883 82,133 53,025

% e T-D 43 66 13 23 103

Table 1.7 Employment by sector in the region, 2014 13 Table 1.9 Poverty indicators in the region, 2012 (%) 13

County

Poverty indicators (%)

Percentage Gap Severity

Tirana-Durres

15.21

3.19

1.05

Durres

16.50

3.63

1.27

Tirana

13.92

2.74

0.82

Albania

14.31

2.96

0.97

13

Source: INSTAT, Regional Statistical Yearbook 2015

30


Trade, Hotels

struction Services and

Restaurants

Transport

Post and

Telecommunication

Other

services

GVA at

basic prices

62.5%

61.2%

66.4%

71.8%

64.9%

56.8%

48.1%

6.4%

11.5%

11.4%

38.6%

5.7%

8.7%

9.9%

56.1%

49.7%

55.0%

33.1%

59.2%

48.2%

38.2%

100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

100%

County

Total

Females

Youth

15-24

Primary

Comprehensive

high school

Educational level

Vocational

high school

University

Tirana-Durres

31,409 16,879 5,104 17,974 7,359 3,745 2,330

Durres

9,734

4,650

1,590

5,386

2,590

1,021

737

Tirana

21,675

12,229

3,514

12,589

4,769

2,724

1,594

Albania

141,998

72,467

22,282

76,929

39,299

17,627

8,143

% e T-D

22.12

23.29

22.91

23.36

18.72

21.25

28.62

Table 1.8 Registered unemployed jobseekers and relevant education, 2014 13

County

No child

One child

Two children

Three or

more children

Tirana-Durres

3.7% 16.5% 17.0% 34.5%

Durres

1.7%

18.0%

21.7%

33.9%

Tirana

5.7%

15.0%

12.3%

35.0%

Albania

4.5%

12.4%

15.6%

33.1%

Table 1.10 Population in poverty according to the number of dependent children, 2012 (%) 13 31

13

Source: INSTAT, Regional Statistical Yearbook 2015


Regional competitiveness profile: Tirana-Durres metropolis in the Balkan context

TIRANA-DURRES

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

DURRES

ADRIATIC

SEA

ECONOMIC

AREA

GREEN

BELT

TIRANA

>50%

of the national

GDP

14.3% CONSTRUCTION

9.7% INDUSTRY

20.7% AGRICULTURE AND FISHING

8.9% TRANSPORT

46.4% TRADE AND SERVICES

BELGRADE

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

UNEMPLOYMENT

15.9%

40%

of the national

GDP

AGRICULTURE

BELGRADE 6.3% TELECOMMUNICATION

9.3% CONSTRUCTION

13.7% PROCESSING INDUSTRY

3.5% TOURISM

40.3% TRADE

16.7% INDUSTRY

10.2% OTHER

Figure 1.2 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Belgrade

32


PRISTINA

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

NATURE

AGRICULTURE

PRISTINA

1% AGRICULTURE

7% INDUSTRY

5% CONSTRUCTION

8% REAL ESTATE

9% OTHER

54% TRADE AND SERVICES

SKOPJE

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

SKOPJE

NATURE

42.4%

of the national

GDP

11.1% AGRICULTURE

6.81% CONSTRUCTION

15.1% MANUFACTURING IND.

5.7% TRANSPORT AND TELECOM.

32.32% SERVICES

19.2% TRADE

8.95% OTHER

Figure 1.3 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Pristina and Skopje

33


SARAJEVO

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

SARAJEVO

NATURE

32.8%

of the national

GDP

14% TRANSPORT

15% PROCESSING IND.

30% FINANCE AND CONSTRUCTION

40% TRADE

ZAGREB

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

UNEMPLOYMENT

17.1%

AGRICULTURE

ZAGREB

NATURE

33%

of the national

GDP

6.5% AGRICULTURE AND FISHING

34.6% INDUSTRY

58.9% TRADE AND SERVICES

Figure 1.4 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Sarajevo and Zagreb

34


SARAJEVO

ACCESSIBILITY

AIR

ROAD

SEA

RAILWAY

SERVICES

EDUCATION

HEALTH

GOVERNANCE

ECONOMY

32.8%

of the national

GDP

AGRICULTURE

SARAJEVO

NATURE

14% TRANSPORT

15% PROCESSING IND.

30% FINANCE AND CONSTRUCTION

40% TRADE

Figure1.5 Comparison of the Tirana-Durres metropolitan region with Ljubljana

35


1.2 Combination of the

national plans

Based on the Law no.107/2014 “On planning

and development of the territory”, as amended,

and by-laws for its implementation, the

national instruments of territorial planning

are: the General National Plan, as the highest

planning instrument, the sectorial national

plans and the detailed plans for the areas of

national importance. Under this context, the

Ministry of Urban Development, as the ministry

responsible for territorial planning and

development, undertook the initiative to draft

three national plans: the General National

Plan, the Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan for

the Coast and the Integrated Cross-Sectorial

Plan of the Economic Area Tirana-Durres. The

initiatives and work to draft these documents

have been carried out in parallel and in a

coordinated manner. The simultaneous

drafting of these three plans enables

harmonization among their policies and their

further elaboration from the national level of

the GNP to the regional level of the coastal

area and the economic area Tirana-Durres.

The General National Plan

The General National Plan is the highest

instrument in the hierarchy of territorial

planning. As such, it is the basis for the

coordination and correlation of the national

sectorial policies and plans by giving them a

territorial perspective. The GNP is the guiding

framework for developments in the territory

with definitions for a 15-year period.

It is a platform where the economic

interests are harmonized with other

interests such as territorial cohesion,

environmental protection and the protection

of the cultural and historical heritage.

the engines of this country’s economy. One

of these poles is the metropolitan area of

Tirana-Durres.

Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan of the

Coast (Coastal ICSP)

The Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan for the

Coast aims to determine the main directions

of the development of the coastal belt in

order to mitigate the negative effects of the

spontaneous and uncontrolled development

of the area, as well as to lead the sustainable

development of its assets during the next

15 years. The Coastal ICSP ensures the

integration of territorial policies within the

framework of the government’s program

to transform the belt into an influential

factor in the economy and to stimulate its

competitiveness in relation to other similar

coastal regions. This plan will guide the

development of the coastal belt, while

ensuring, above all, stronger protection of the

environment, nature, landscape and assets of

the coastal region.

Sectorial plans and strategies

Within the framework of drafting the ICSP

Tirana-Durres, all the sectorial strategies

developed by line ministries, which have an

impact on this area, have been consulted

with. Under this context, the Draft-National

Strategy for Development and Integration

2015-2020, draft-National Strategy for Tourism

Development 2015-2020, the Transport

Strategy, the Economic Development Strategy,

the Strategy on Environment, on Energy, etc., 14

have been taken into consideration.

Among the most important provisions of

the GNP are the hierarchy of urban centres

and development poles which will serve as

14

Meanwhile, although a part of the sectorial strategies were still in the drafting process when ICSP Tirana-Durres was under

way, the working group meetings continued with the staff of the relevant ministries so that sectorial policies could be best

reflected in the plan.

36


GNP

General National Plan

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan

Coastal ICSP

Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan

Development Strategy

Tirana County

Development Strategy

Durres County

GLP Tirana

GLP Durres

GLP Kamez

GLP Shijak

GLP Vora

GLP Kruja

Figure 1.6 Hierarchy of the territorial plans

37


1.3 Coordination of

the plan

After the 1990s, Albania has performed

some important steps with regards to

decentralization, in terms of the political and

administrative context as well. This process is

considered as one of the first most important

reforms of the new democratic state. After the

political decentralization, which is considered

to have been successfully completed, the

following period coincides with the fiscal

decentralization. One of the most important

initiatives of this period is the Law no. 8652

“On the organization and functioning of local

government”, as amended, dated 31/07/2000,

which defined urban planning along with the

development control, as a function of the

municipalities and the communes themselves.

required to perform the harmonization of the

two levels. The drafting of ICSP Tirana-Durres

serves as a good practice, an example to be

followed in drafting other plans for planning

regions.

The Integrated Cross-sectorial Plan of the

economic area Tirana-Durres includes the

territory of the following municipalities: Tirana,

Durres, Kamza, Vora, Shijak and Kruja.

This plan, which shall serve as the basis for

the development of local plans, addresses

the strategic aspects that will facilitate intermunicipality

coordination. Municipalities need

to further detail the policies and obligations

deriving from the General National Plan and

the Integrated Cross-sectorial Plan of the area

Tirana-Durres.

Until July 2015, Albania was managed by

369 communes and municipalities, first level

LGUs and 12 regions, second level LGUs.

Many of the communes and municipalities,

due to the migration of the population and

the small number of their population failed

to create economies of scale in order to raise

the finances required for the good governance

of their territory. This, accompanied by the

unclear role of the region (qark), led to a

chaotic situation of the development of the

territory and to its monocentric development.

With the political changes of 2013, one of the

major reforms of the new government was

closely associated with the issue of good

governance of the territory or otherwise known

as the territorial reform. Territorial planning

is directly affected by this reform, not only

with regards to the administrative aspect, but

also in terms of the territorial approach of the

national and territorial plans.

Inherently, planning at national level is mostly

characterized by territorial development

policies, while the local one focuses more on

land use. The new layer of the cross-sectorial

plans for the economic area Tirana-Durres and

the coast has a more strategic approach to the

territory, thus offering the missing instrument

38


CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

MUD / NTPA

LINE MINISTRIES

REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

TIRANA COUNTY

REGIONAL

DEVELOPMENT AGENCY 2

DURRES COUNTY

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

TIRANA

VORA

DURRES

SHIJAK

KRUJA

KAMEZ

Figure 1.7 Coordination of the plan

Ishem

Thumane

Kruje

Cudhi

Bubq

Fushe Kruje

Sukth

Nikel

Durres

Durres

Manez

Katund i Ri

Maminas

Xhafzotaj

Shijak

Shijak

Gjepalaj

Rrashbull

Preze

Vore

Berxulle

Vore

Kashar

Ndroq

Zall Herr

Kamez

Kamez

Paskuqan

Tirana

Tirana

Vaqarr

Farke

Zall Bastar

Dajt

Petrele

Shengjergj

Berzhite

Administrative border of the LGU-

Municipality affected by the plan

Peze

Baldushk

Kerrabe

Administrative border of the LGU-Commune

Border of the planning region and unit for which

the ICSP Tirana-Durres is being

Map 1.1 Areas affected by ICSP Tirana-Durres

39


2SWOT analysis,

territorial systems

and development

scenarios


Contents

42

2.1 SWOT analysis

44

2.2 Conclusions

44

2.3 Goals and principles

45

2.4 Territorial systems

45

2.5 Territorial sevelopment scenarios


2.1 SWOT analysis

The drafting of the Integrated Cross-sectorial

Plan of the economic area Tirana-Durres

was preceded by an in-depth analysis of the

territory. The main findings of this analysis

are presented in the form of a SWOT analysis

herein. Following the territorial analysis,

in line with the instructions of the DCM no.

671, dated 29/07/2015, “On the approval of

the Territorial Planning Regulation”, the

S

Strengths

territorial division has been carried out

accordingly into five basic territorial systems:

urban, infrastructural, agricultural, natural

and water systems. The drafting of the vision

was preceded by three different territorial

development scenarios. These scenarios

provide a clear conclusion on the positive and

negative impacts of different development

alternatives. Consequently, the derived vision

comes as a natural step composed of the best

alternatives and with less negative impacts on

the territory and its development.

- urban population predominance;

- high human capital;

- national road axes, which serve as economic axes;

-

Wvariety of

Weaknesses

urban development;

- higher concentration of economic activity in the country;

- high number of educated young people;

- high number of universities and laboratory and research centres;

- employment of professional staff, “brain gain” from other regions;

- presence of different transportation modes (road, sea, air, railway);

- intersection O Opportunities

of axes and corridors of international importance (north-south and east-west);

- diversity of cultural heritage in the region;

- adequate geographical conditions for the development of agriculture;

- rapid economic growth of the region;

- opportunities for the development of agricultural industries, such as fishing, etc.;

- educated T

S

Threats

Strengths

workforce;

- high presence of water network (rivers and lakes);

- presence of several national parks and environmental protected areas.

W

Weaknesses

- migration of the population from rural to urban areas;

- urban sprawl on agricultural lands;

- unused and degraded industrial areas;

- national axes that end in transport “funnels” causing traffic jams and artificial traffic;

- lack Oof well-organized Opportunities

inter-city public transport;

- lack of green regional/urban/local spaces;

- poor management of urban traffic;

- poor traffic signalling (horizontal and vertical);

- increased use of individual cars;

- outdated and inefficient railway system;

- lack

T

of opportunities

Threats

to use alternative transportation;

- high number of cultural heritage objects that need restoration;

- lack of road infrastructure and supporting infrastructure to promote cultural heritage;

42


S

Strengths

- lack of infrastructure for the collection, storage, marketing and sale of agricultural products;

- lack of investments in agricultural technologies and of an image for the marketing of local

products;

- degradation of the landscape and environment due to unplanned constructions;

- erosion along rivers and hilly areas;

- discharge of untreated waste into the rivers Erzen and Ishem;

- Wlimited and Weaknesses

unconsolidated waste recycling;

- levels of PM10 and PM2.5 in the air above the EU norms;

- lack of urban waste water treatment plants;

- lack of the economic cluster.

OS

Opportunities

Strengths

- satellite towns as residential and employment alternatives (Vora/Shijak/Sukth);

- economic potential and capacity for the formation of economic clusters;

- opportunities for the development of creative industries;

- opportunities for the development of the logistics cluster and light industry;

- WT

Threats

continuous Weaknesses

education for professional growth;

- better combination of all modes of transport;

- improvement of the logistics networks;

- integration between the protection of cultural heritage and the promotion of cultural tourism;

- promotion of cultural heritage, traditions, customs, handicrafts, gastronomy, festivities, folklore, etc.;

- development and promotion of a combined cultural-natural-coastal tourism;

- awareness of the private sector to cooperate and invest in the supporting infrastructure;

- opportunities O Opportunities

for the creation of regional recreational spaces;

- opportunities for the creation of regional parks.

T

Threats

- seasonal population in certain areas, especially congestion during the summer;

- the current road network is inadequate to meet future traffic that may result in traffic jamming;

- increase of the number of individual cars in high percentage each year;

- failure to improve road safety and minimize air pollution caused by traffic;

- failure to improve public transport (in quality and quantity);

- abandonment of rail transport;

- damages to cultural monuments by man, by time and economic inability to intervene;

- migration of the population from peripheral areas towards Tirana and Durres, as a consequence of

which historic settlements are abandoned and the immovable cultural heritage is endangered;

- failure to coordinate the urban and rural development;

- contamination of the agricultural land due to urban activities with long-term and harmful

consequences to health;

- risk of contamination of groundwater;

- risk of flooding;

- risk of damage to the vegetation cover;

- degradation of the landscape and the environment;

- lack of quality certification of products.

43


2.2 Conclusions

In conclusion of the in-depth analysis and the

application of the SWOT structure to evaluate

the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities

and threats which the economic area Tirana-

Durres faces, certain important indicators

emerge, which will be used in the further steps

of drafting the ICSP Tirana-Durres.

Challenges

In order to achieve a sustainable territorial

development, Tirana-Durres region has to face

a number of challenges, which are:

- global economy and regional

competitiveness;

- integration of informal settlements;

- urban regeneration and housing;

- mobility and transport;

- technological gap overcoming;

- digital infrastructure;

- environmental condition and waste

management;

- change of lifestyle.

Values

The region is also characterized by some

features highlighted as ‘levers’ that will enable

the achievement of major goals, territorial

development aspirations and integration

into the European economy if they are used

according to a well-coordinated strategy.

The core values of the region, on which its

future development will be anchored, are:

2.3 Goals and principles

Goals

-- Become a factor of influence in the Balkans

and the Mediterranean;

- Empower and promote regional economic

networks (countrywide);

- Accomplish today’s aspirations and help the

achievements of future generations, youth and

families, for prosperity;

- Preserve agricultural land from urbanization;

- Develop infrastructure and promote

sustainable regional mobility;

- Protect the environment and heritage.

Principles

- Sustainable regional development based on

competitiveness;

- Balanced polycentric development to ensure

prosperity in the region;

- Consolidated urban-rural development

for agricultural land and environmental

protection;

- Equity in access to infrastructure, energy and

services;

- Protection and sustainable use of the capital

and natural, cultural and historical values.

- nature, culture and history;

- high diversity of economic sectors;

- young population;

- high level of educated population;

- favourable geographical position.

44


2.4 Territorial systems

Based on the DCM no. 671, dated 29/07/2015,

“On the approval of the Territorial Planning

Regulation”, the territorial system is: “... a

series of community territorial components,

interdependent and interactive with each other,

which form a whole”. The Planning Regulation

defines five territorial systems, upon which

are based and prepared the territorial policies,

strategies and interventions in the territory.

Urban system

The urban system is formed by a set of urban

territories bordered by the green line.

Infrastructural system

The infrastructural system includes the major

infrastructural networks at national, regional

and local levels. The infrastructural system is

formed by the network of the basic category of

land use “infrastructure” (IN) and is protected

by a buffer zone bordered by the red line.

the development of an agricultural type in the

territory.

The existing territorial systems have been

used as the main element in the development

of territorial scenarios and then of the vision

for the development of the metropolitan area

Tirana-Durres.

2.5 Territorial

development

scenarios

In the context of drafting a strategic vision,

three territorial scenarios have been

developed. Their presentation in the document

has been elaborated in such a manner in

order for the difference between them to be

read clearly and easily, as well as the impact

of each one on the territory. The scenarios

are: Monocentric (Tirana); Bicentric (Tirana,

Durres); Functional Polycentrism.

Natural system

The natural system consists of landscapes,

unspoiled natural areas, ecological corridors

and spaces that have a basic category of

use “nature” (N), in line with the relevant

legislation.

Water system

The water system is the entirety of

groundwater and surface water resources

consisting of all water bodies, including

shores, in line with the relevant legislation.

The water system is formed by the network

with basic categories of use “water” (U) and is

protected by the blue line.

Agricultural system

The agricultural system, consists of

agricultural land occupied by crops, orchards,

vineyards and olive groves, wherever located

and that bears fertility as its essential feature,

and the channels and reservoirs serving to

it. The agricultural system is formed by the

network of territories with basic categories of

use “agriculture” (A). This system is a result

of the interaction, in time, between human

activities for cultivation and construction, and

45


Scenario 1- Monocentric (Tirana)

The first scenario (Figure 2.1) considers the

need for the provision of a road infrastructure

for faster mobility, which will cause the

economic interaction in the Tirana-Durres

highway to continue further. Consequently, an

expansion of the secondary interurban road

is predicted, in order to convert it into a fast

mobility axis. Meanwhile, in the eastern part

of the city of Tirana the ring network, which

will enable faster north-south and east-west

crossing, will be completed. The Tirana-Durres

highway will turn into a genuine economic

area. Tirana is given an important priority

for the development of the whole region

and infrastructure will be developed for this

purpose.

Advantages

- Intensification of economic relations in the

Tirana-Durres axis;

- Diversion of heavy traffic in the secondary

interurban road of Ndroq;

- Vora as an urban centre of greater

importance than its current one and more than

any other centre between Durres and Tirana;

- A space for business development along the

Tirana-Durres axis;

- Opportunities for the development of clusters

in the Tirana-Durres axis.

Disadvantages

- Fragmentation of agricultural land;

- Loss of the agricultural landscape in the area

of Ndroq;

- Further sprawl of business in the Tirana-

Durres axis;

- Loss of opportunity for redevelopment and

reuse of former industrial areas;

- Higher traffic along the highway for

commuting purposes.

Scenario 2- Bicentric (Tirana, Durres)

The second scenario (Figure 2.2) is centred

around the idea of the expansion of the Tirana-

Durres highway, as a good opportunity to

improve the speed of movement in the region.

Moreover, Tirana-Ndroq-Durres road turns

into a space for recreation. A priority is given to

Advantages

- Faster mobility between the two main cities

Tirana and Durres;

- Tirana and Durres as the two main centres;

- Protection of the agricultural landscape

along the Ndroqi axis;

- Regeneration of former industrial areas;

- Priority for economic specialization in

logistics.

the redevelopment of former industrial areas

as well. The region experiences an economic

development mainly focused on logistics and

mobility, transit and processing of goods.

Tirana and Durres remain the two main poles

of development.

Disadvantages

- Fragmentation of the Tirana-Durres

economic zone;

- Marginalization of secondary centres along

the highway, such as Vora, Shijak, Sukth;

- Increase of traffic at the entrance of the two

main cities Tirana and Durres;

- Further expansion of businesses on the

agricultural land along the highway.

46


Scenario 3- Functional polycentrism

The third scenario (Figure 2.3) has in its

substance the increased role of secondary

centres like Vora, Shijak and Sukth, in the

development of economy, as well as the

potential to provide housing in the region.

Economic diversification is another priority,

which can be achieved through specialization

of centres in the respective fields where they

have leading advantages. The infrastructural

network is adequate for the urban and

economic development.

Advantages

- Faster and more convenient mobility;

- Lower impact on the environment;

- Increased role of secondary centres;

- Diversion of the main flows of heavy traffic

from the city centres;

- Economic specialization supported by the

adequate infrastructure;

- Protection of agricultural land and natural

landscapes;

- Concentration of economic development in

specific areas.

Major infrastructure interventions are related

to the partial expansion of the Tirana-Durres

highway, respectively the segment of Vora-

Shijak, and the expansion of the axis Fushe

Kruja-Vora. Infrastructural interventions are

completed by the creation of ring networks in

the two main cities, as well as the reactivation

of the railway network Tirana-Durres -

“Mother Teresa” airport.

Disadvantages

- Need of substantial funding for building the

necessary infrastructure.

47


Fushe Kruje

Sukth

Vore

Kamez

Durres

Shijak

Tirana

Golem

Ndroq

Krrabe

Figure 2.1 Scenario 1

Fushe Kruje

Sukth

Vore

Kamez

Durres

Shijak

Tirana

Golem

Ndroq

Krrabe

48

Figure 2.2 Scenario 2


Fushe Kruje

Sukth

Vore

Kamez

Durres

Shijak

Tirana

Golem

Ndroq

Krrabe

Figure 2.3 Scenario 3

49


3Vision and

strategic

objectives


Contents

52

55

59

59

59

60

60

Vision

3.1 Regional competitiveness

development strategy

3.2 Strategic objectives

SO1. Sustainable economic development

SO2. Improve the quality of life in urban

and rural centres

SO3. Improve infrastructure, transport and

mobility in the region

SO4. Protect and improve the quality of the

natural environment


Vision of the Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan Tirana-Durres

THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF TIRANA-DURRES, A

COMPETITIVE ECONOMY AT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL

LEVEL; AN IMPORTANT ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SETTING THAT

MANAGES TO BECOME THE LEADER OF DEVELOPMENT

IN THE BALKANS; AN ECONOMY BASED ON INNOVATIVE

INVESTMENTS, PROMOTING CREATIVE BUSINESSES THAT

ENCOURAGE A HIGH LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL

EDUCATION AND TRAINING.

A REGION WITH A HIGH QUALITY OF LIFE THAT RESPECTS AND

PROMOTES HEALTHY LIFE STYLES; THAT VALUES AND

PRESERVES THE ENVIRONMENT, THE HISTORICAL

AND CULTURAL PAST; THAT ENSURES ACCESS TO QUALITY

SERVICES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE

COMMUNITIES.

AN ECONOMIC SETTING OF HIGH PROSPERITY AND ORIENTED

TOWARD SUBSTANTIAL EMPLOYMENT DEVELOPMENTS;

WITH EFFICIENCY IN ACCESS AND MOBILITY AT REGIONAL,

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL; BASED ON STRATEGIC

ROAD, RAIL, SEA AND AIR LINKS; ADEQUATE FOR THE

NEEDS AND DEMANDS OF THE RESIDENTS AND BUSINESSES.

52


Figure 3.1 Vision statement

The Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan of Tirana-Durres relies on important documents that guide

national development. Thus, NSDI for example, has served as the first reference in formulating policies

on competitiveness and promoting innovation, the importance of human capital for social cohesion and

the sustainable use of natural resources. GNP regards it as the engine of the national economy. It is an

important pole of regional development, which is based on the principles of global economic competition,

on the creation of economic clusters and the metabolic development of the territory. A foremost priority in

the region will be access to knowledge and investments towards technology and innovation. The Tirana-

Durres region aims to establish the bases of territorial development to enhance the quality of urban life

and to support the creative industry, which will enable the technological hop of this region in the future.

53


KRUJË

VORË

KAMËZ

DURRËS

SHIJAK

TIRANË

KAVAJË

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Road axis

Railway

Marine transport

Infrastructural hub

Airport

Port

Urbanized area

Economic area

Recreational water area

Green area

54

Map 3.1 Vision as per the Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan Tirana-Durres


3.1 Regional

competitiveness

development strategy

The development of the vision can be achieved

through the integration of priority sectors, by

combining:

• The promotion of the interaction of regional

economic networks, strengthening strategic

infrastructure with the development of human

capital, which means skilled workforce

towards contemporary technologies.

• A balanced development of urban centres,

preserving the physical and environmental

characteristics of the territory. In this context,

of primary importance is the protection of

agricultural land and water resources. The

identification and promotion of investments to

improve the areas and objects that constitute

the historical and cultural heritage of the

region will help to strengthen the region’s

identity, making it more attractive for the

quality of life provided, as well as for foreign

investments.

As above, central government institutions,

regional municipalities, regional development

agencies, business representation chambers,

civil society and academia should be guided

in generating collaborative formats to

create an integrated management system

among stakeholders according to roles and

responsibilities.

The region of Tirana-Durres will continue to

develop as the leader of economic growth for

the whole country, as a competitive region

at the Balkan and Mediterranean level.

Such development will be based on regional

poles and areas that generate diversified

employment.

Spatial poles will be empowered by the links

of strategic corridors of energy, transport and

entry / exit ports of the region as focal points

for the diversified economic development

of regional enterprises, to create clustered

activities in the economy, and to ensure that

the region serves as the main gateway to the

interaction of people and goods at the national

level.

These territories and territorial networks

will serve as the basic elements to guide the

attractiveness of employment in the region

by creating the critical mass needed for the

economy of scale. It is aimed at generating

a significant population size in urban

agglomerations, by fostering concentration of

services and solidification of urban centres.

The plan supports the development of

human resources to create the identity as an

international economic centre by developing

/ building capacities in education, training,

knowledge and innovation in order to create an

efficient, specialized employment environment

that responds to the level of development of

the Mediterranean and the Balkan region,

creating opportunities in attracting talent and

knowledge.

The connection and harmonization of

employment centres and networks will go

hand in hand with the development of urban

and rural centres, to create sustainable

communities based on the principles of

a compact urbanization that safeguards/

protects agricultural land. Supported by public

transport, efficient public services, urban

environment with recreational areas that

assist in the development of regional tourism,

preserving tradition, culture, history, collective

memory and the environment with a view to

becoming an attractive and vibrant region for

attracting FDI and international offices.

Rural development and the restructuring of

rural centres will be promoted in a symbiotic

relationship between nature, agricultural

areas and urban-rural centres. Thanks to this

relationship, conditions will be established

to diversify the typologies of agricultural

enterprises as well as agricultural products.

This symbiosis will create opportunities for

sustainable communities in rural areas, by

reducing internal regional migration, and by

creating specialized employment depending

55


on the functions of the urban centres. Public

services and infrastructure of rural areas will

be developed on the principles of consolidation

and regeneration of the centres.

The environment and the entire regional

natural ecosystem will be treated as an

important asset that enables the regional wellbeing

of people and living creatures. Protecting

and improving the natural ecosystem will be a

key focus in responding to global challenges

towards climate change. A special attention is

given to the creation of connected ecosystems,

where rivers and natural green corridors are

connected to protected natural areas.

Combining these factors will serve as

a qualitative step towards sustainable

development, addressing a new opportunity to

respond to regional challenges, and creating

the conditions for being competitive in the

Mediterranean and Balkan region.

56


Factors affecting competition at different geographical levels:

Preconditions for competitiveness

at a national scale

- promoting a sustainable political

environment;

- independent legislative institutions

and security for all residents.

Competitiveness factors that

play a leading role at regional

level

- promoting an investment climate and

investment areas;

- supporting an adequate infrastructure

for urban-rural development;

- efficient interconnection of sea-land /

rail-air transport with the urban and

economic development areas;

- developing the power, infrastructural

and telecommunication network;

- effective governance in regional management

and branding, efficient public

services that promote efficiency and

transparency;

- supporting the revitalization of natural,

environmental and socio-cultural

resources.

Competitiveness factors at the

residential / city centre level

- integrating and diversifying the regional

economy;

- supporting the global export-oriented

companies with branded regional products;

- developing with a focus on private

research and development institutes and

universities in support of domestic business;

- addressing the solution of urban issues

with a "bottom-up" approach;

- governance focused on improving the

environment and the business climate

with a focus on environmental protection.

Competitiveness factors at an

enterprise level

- supporting the dissemination of the

best operational practices;

- encouraging the harmonization of

development, marketing and branding

strategies;

- developing input opportunities for

businesses;

- supportive infrastructure and

policies in the enterprise and entrepreneurship

environment.

57


Soft factors of regional and local competitiveness:

Skills and education

Access to skilled workforce (attraction

of people and new talents);

regional or national learning centres

focusing on development based on

opportunities and regional strengths,

enabling the qualification and successive

certification, as well as translating

regional knowledge into concrete

activities with an impact on regional

development.

Economic infrastructure

Infrastructure facilitations for access to

markets and opportunities for consumers,

both physically and electronically;

ease of commuting (effective regional /

urban-rural multi-modal public transport

system); appropriate strategic

areas focusing on technology and

economy, added services of bank

crediting in investments for development;

supplying clean, safe and

cost-effective energy.

Innovation

Developing access to global

networks, investments in research

and development, to the innovation

network related to regional SME

development opportunities, in order

to maintain a long-term competitiveness

for increased opportunities in

attracting global elite companies.

Quality of life

An attractive environment for an international

workforce; efficient access to

employment, services and regional

tourist attractions; an environment of

high physical, natural and socio-cultural

quality; efficiency in healthcare

services; a high quality built environment,

including parks, green spaces,

urbanization and other natural spaces.

Enterprises dynamics

Encouraging the organization of

regional enterprises in the network /

added value chain in the global markets;

continuous intensive knowledge

of human capital for enterprises;

access to global enterprise networks;

developing a climate of trust and

interconnection between firms and

higher education institutes, research

and development institutions, and

supporting innovative entrepreneurship

skills through the creation of

business incubators.

Strategic regional branding

The vision of key stakeholders at the

central / regional / local level to work in

a coordinated manner; integrated

strategies for economic, social and

environmental development, to lead and

promote the development of the region

at the international level, particularly

with regard to planning, land use,

transport and entrepreneurship; high

quality of services and products; branding

the region as a tourist destination

and an opportunity for attracting FDIs.

58


3.2 Strategic objectives

Within the context of reaching the agreed

vision, four key strategic objectives have

been defined. Each of the strategic objectives

is elaborated in the subsequent chapter

through the relevant policies that will guide

the implementation process of the Integrated

Cross-Sectorial Plan of the economic area

Tirana-Durres.

SO1. Sustainable economic

development

The metropolitan region of Tirana-Durres is

the economic centre of Albania. It will continue

to be the economic engine of the country

and will turn into a competitive region within

the Western Balkans. The region will turn

into a space which supports the principles of

global economic competition, the creation of

economic clusters, based on the principles

of metabolism, whereby the production and

further development is carried out under the

paradigm of a closed cycle, where the wastes

of one process are used as a raw material for

another process. The Tirana-Durres region

will transform into a space that will support

creative businesses and industries, which will

enable the technological hop of this region in

the future.

Target for 2030:

1. increasing the GDP in the region by 10%;

2. reducing youth unemployment by 5%;

3. reducing overall unemployment by 8%;

4. increasing investments in technology by

10%;

5. establishing 4 specialized economic

clusters;

6. launching 4 economic development

incubators.

SO2. Improve the quality of life in

urban and rural centres

The chaotic development of the last decades

associated with informal development provides

a complicated urban overview. Considering

the high concentration of urban areas in the

region, this objective aims at improving the

quality of life and environment for residents

in the Tirana-Durres area, attracting talents

and foreign companies, in addition to domestic

ones. Improving the environment through

projects of regeneration, densification and

integration will be a good opportunity to

provide models of sustainable communities,

will increase the attraction of human capital

at the international level, will reduce the

ecological footprint and will promote the

construction industry, which is currently

struggling.

Target for 2030:

1. improving energy efficiency in the existing

house stock by 50%;

2. increasing the social housing stock by 30%;

3. improving infrastructure and integrating

informal areas to a level of 80%;

4. regenerating urban poles at 50% of the

territory;

5. regenerating the rural centres by 50%;

6. regenerating the agricultural irrigation

infrastructure by 80%;

7. developing the 5 regional centres for the

trading of agricultural products.

59


SO3. Improve infrastructure, transport

and mobility in the region

The third strategic objective focuses

on creating the basic conditions for

the functioning of the region from the

infrastructural point of view. SO3 raises over

three pillars, which are:

- Developing regional access to the

Mediterranean and Balkan metropolises, by

strengthening the role of the port of Durres

and “Mother Teresa” airport.

- Improving mobility through the creation of

interconnected modes of transport between

the poles of this area in order to improve

the links between businesses and suppliers

and the access of individuals to the provided

regional services.

- Providing healthy ways of pollution-free

movement for pedestrians and residents in the

region.

Target for 2030:

1. complete regeneration of the railway line

Tirana-Durres and connection to the airport;

2. reducing the use of individual cars by 30%;

3. constructing 100 km of bicycle lanes;

4. developing by 60% the agricultural road

infrastructure;

5. 30% of public transport with non-polluting

energy (electricity / biomass, etc.).

SO4. Protect and improve the quality

of the natural environment

The fourth strategic objective is dedicated

to the region’s most important asset, the

environment and nature assets. SO4 contains

three main pillars for the protection and

improvement of the environment, which are:

- Preserving the natural resources and

protecting the environment, where water is

regarded as a development priority.

- Improving the quality and safety, as well as

access to the Adriatic Sea, through the use of

technologies with zero harmful emissions.

- Integrating the natural systems with the

design of green infrastructure and creating the

networks of parks at local and regional level.

Target for 2030:

- increasing by 30% the protected areas fund in

the region;

- reducing by 40% the pollution in the rivers of

Erzen and Ishem;

- improving the quality of water in the beaches

on the Adriatic by 40%;

- interrupting by 80% the discharge of

wastewater into rivers, lakes and seas;

- reducing by 25% the harmful emissions

(CO).

60


PRINCIPLES CHALLENGES OPPORTUNITIES GOALS

VISION

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

1 2 3 4

Sustainable

economic

development

Improve the

quality of life in

urban and rural

centres

Improve

infrastructure,

transport and

mobility in the

region

Protect and

improve the

quality of

the natural

environment

POLICIES

Economic

development

Urban

development

Rural

development

Transport and

infrastructure

development

Environmental

developmen

STRATEGIC PROJECTS

Economic

development

Urban

development

Rural

development

Transport

and infrastructure

development

Environmental

development

and

protection

Figure 3.2 Structure of the plan

61


4Regional

development

policies


Contents

69

70

71

71

71

74

74

74

76

78

78

81

4.1 Economic development policies

EP1- Develop service economy

EP1.1- Territorial component

EP1.2- Human component

EP2- Regional knowledge and innovation network

EP3- Develop SMEs and entrepreneurship

EP3.1- Develop human capacities

EP3.2- Enterprise interaction networks for innovation

EP3.3- Territorial development of SMEs

EP4- Regional incubators and clusters

EP4.1- Regional incubators

EP4.2- Development of economic clusters


90

94

94

94

98

108

108

113

113

114

116

119

120

120

121

122

EP5- Territorial economic development

EP6- Regional branding and tourism

EP6.1- Tourism as an added value

EP6.2- Service tourism

EP6.3- City and weekend tourism

4.2 Urban development policies

UP1- Polycentrism and hierarchy of urban centres

UP1.1- Public services

UP2-Consolidation of urban centres

UP2.1- Densification of urban centres

UP2.2- Regeneration of urban poles

UP3- Integration of informal areas

UP4- Accommodation and social housing

UP4.1- Accommodation

UP4.2- Social housing

UP5- Comprehensive regional community space


122

124

124

127

128

131

132

132

133

135

136

137

138

UP6- Energy efficiency in buildings

UP7- Urban mobility network

UP7.1- Biking and walking

4.3 Rural development policies

RP1- Territorial zoning and consolidation of agricultural land

RP1.1- Consolidation and use of agricultural land

RP2- Consolidation of rural centres

RP2.1- Rural services and community development

RP3- Rural economic development and regional

agricultural poles

RP3.1- Support activities for agricultural economic

development

RP3.2- Product regionalization

RP3.3- Innovation in agro-industry and agro-environment

RP4- Economic development of private farms and

cooperatives


138

138

139

141

142

143

143

143

143

145

145

146

147

148

149

RP4.1- Restructuring of agricultural farms

RP4.2- Opportunities for cooperation – the establishment

of private cooperatives

RP5- Development of the food chain

RP6- Rural regional tourism

RP7- Branding and marketing of rural areas

RP8- Transport in rural areas

RP9- Environment and renewable energy

RP9.1- The environment

RP9.2- Renewable energy

4.4 Transport and infrastructure development policies

TP1- Strategic regional road networks

TP2- Multimodal system and interurban public transport

TP2.1- Regional multimodal mobility

TP3- Railway mobility

TP4- Traffic management


150

150

151

151

153

153

155

156

158

159

161

162

164

166

TP5- Freight mobility

TP6- Bicycle mobility regional itineraries

TP7- Infrastructure, energy and telecommunication

TP7.1- Underground infrastructure

TP7.2- Energy infrastructure

TP7.3- Electronic communication infrastructure / ICT

4.5 Environmental development policies

EP1- Conservation of natural landscape (natural and

environmental heritage)

EP2- Protection and management of surface and ground

water resources

EP3- Green infrastructure

EP4- Risk management of natural disasters

EP5- Regional waste management

EP6- Climate changes

EP7- Monitoring environmental quality


Regional Development Policies

The Integrated Cross-Sectorial Plan of the

economic area Tirana-Durres has been

drafted with the aim of creating a guiding

framework for the sustainable development

of the region and the goal of reaching its

projected vision by 2030. This is a strategic

document set up to serve the relevant

institutions to guide developments in the area,

and to mobilize capital investment as well

as human capital itself. The means through

which the Tirana-Durres ICSP operates to

achieve the vision and strategic objectives are

the regional development policies and relevant

projects within each development policy.

The policies of the plan, although sectorial,

are combined with each other to further break

down the four strategic objectives of the ICSP

for the economic area Tirana-Durres. The

regional development policies outlined in this

chapter provide mandatory principles and

guidelines to be reflected and further detailed

in the general local plans (GLPs) that will be

drafted by the municipalities where the Plan is

extended. The chronicle of defining strategic

objectives follows in the successive chapters

with regional development projects and

recommendations for their implementation by

the Local Government Units.

This chapter presents the policies that outline

the aforementioned objectives, divided into 5

themes organized according to the respective

sectors:

• Economic development policies

• Urban development policies

• Rural development policies

• Infrastructure and transport

development policies

• Environmental development policies

We must reemphasize the fact that the

division of policies in this chapter, or their

sectorial grouping, is only done for the

purpose of their communication methodology.

While the guiding principle in drafting this

document is integration and intertwining. The

strategic objectives are closely interlinked

and serving to each other, as are the regional

development policies and the projects that

follow them, regardless of the sector within

which they fall.

68


4.1 Economic development policies

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Developing service

economy

Regional knowledge

and innovation network

Developing SMEs

and entrepreneurship

Regional branding and tourism

Territorial economic development

Regional incubators

and clusters

Figure 4.1 Economic development policies

Developing regional economy

The harmonization and merging of

development factors that make up the

strategic objectives will set the foundations

for the development of the regional economy,

focusing on increasing the export network in

products and services. Therefore, the basic

framework to detach from the raw materials

economy dependency is created and also

the conditions to make efficient and develop

the “Service Economy”, based on ideas,

specialized employment and innovation,

or otherwise known as “Knowledge and

Innovation Economy”. 15

The “Knowledge and Innovation” economy is

at the same time a green and environmental

friendly economy and faced with the

challenges of climate change, it will create

the conditions for a transition from the carbon

economy to the development and use of clean,

non-polluting industrial processes, generating

at the same time opportunities for investment

and specialized employment. 16

As above-mentioned, the aim is to combine

the successful elements of the regional

enterprise’s economy with innovation and the

economy of ideas developed by educational

institutions. Meanwhile, a quality natural and

urban physical environment will be promoted,

thus generating opportunities for developing

and providing clean energies for businesses

and residents of this area.

The key component of this approach is to

build a regional innovation network based on

human capital, knowledge and creativity. These

elements, supported by clear development

frameworks and dedicated investment or

grants, will serve as key factors to produce

added value in the region’s enterprise

economy.

The aim is to turn the region into a creative

Balkan and Mediterranean hub that draws

FDIs and international offices focusing on

R & D (Research and Development).

Such sustainable development approach unites

and promotes the focal points of the economy

by creating new opportunities for efficient use

of resources, allowing us to develop an exportdriven

economy and focused on global services

and innovation.

The development of these factors is

interconnected in several pillars, and each of

them is reflected as follows:

1. Municipalities of the metropolitan

region need to develop an approach to

15

https://www.oecd.org/sti/sci-tech/1913021.pdf

16

http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/smartspecialisation.htm

http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/presenta/smart_specialisation/smart_ris3_2012.pdf

69


competitiveness, focusing on a globally

interconnected economy. This means that they

should foster cooperation between regional

actors for the development of the enterprise’s

economic network by providing supportive

conditions and platforms for regional actors

to operate as complementary and competitive

units of each other, supported by research

and development for innovation, for globally

operating branded products.

2. Developing social capital: networks, ties,

trust, distribution of values and behaviours

of the population. Both central and local

governments should provide the right

environment to increase productivity per

person, by developing fiscal and legal

instruments in support of human capital,

lifelong knowledge and skills, ensuring

that the potential and dissemination of

development is maximized so that the entire

region can contribute and take advantage of

the positive results.

3. Developing human knowledge capital: skills,

knowledge, creativity. Creating dedicated

frameworks, platforms and grants that support

and promote research and development

investment to ensure that the region continues

to play a leading role in the knowledge-based

economy network. Building the “knowledge

economy” will serve to create a region with a

focus on the innovation of regional enterprise

products, where the latter will reach the right

climate to create globally known brands.

4. Developing the physical capital and

supporting infrastructure for the production

of goods and services (transport networks,

ICT communication networks, technological

development areas, buildings, machinery,

etc.). Infrastructural development of the region

should rely on investments and projects that

foster municipal cooperation to work under

a regional development framework, ensuring

efficient mobility, safe energy supply with clean

energy and low environmental pollution. The

development of strategic mobility and ICT

infrastructure are basic factors for promoting

the achievement of development poles. As

such, these networks should be supported

by the development of the regional gateways

to provide the necessary regional links with

the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean

countries.

5. The region needs to provide efficient

platforms and services based on smart

technologies that promote information and

decision-making of local residents in the

implementation of local democracy.

This approach will provide a framework that

facilitates and promotes interaction with

residents and businesses by creating proactive

decision-making on future development

directions.

6. Developing environmental capital: the

environmental and natural physical quality

around which people work and live. The

protection and sustainable development of

the territory should be guided by the creation

of an environment of high physical and

environmental quality, promoting a balanced

territorial development within the region.

These steps provide for the establishment of

a basic framework to return the metropolitan

region into an essential gateway to the Balkans

and the Mediterranean. In order to ensure

a sustainable growth in the 21st century

economy, the plan will foster the development

of territorial poles supported by “specialized

employment”, clustering of enterprises and

branches of the economy, as well as the

development of the global value chain. 17

EP1- Develop service economy

Enterprises in the region are shifting the focus

of operations from the product manufacturing

economy to the services one. The analysis of

these regional actors shows that added value

services are attracted mainly to urban centres

in Tirana and Durres, as the latter provide

physical and digital connections to the network

of global urban centres to a satisfactory level.

In this context, the plan supports and promotes

17

http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/smart-specialisation.pdf

http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/20182/96243/Global+Value+Chains+and+Smart+Specialisation+Strategy/8546

d7e1-0219-4ed4-905a-e637731d4846

70


the role of the region as a hub of foreign

investments with links to global networks,

initially ensuring an appropriate environment

for ICT services and infrastructure.

Line ministries, governmental agencies and

municipalities of the metropolitan region

should create the conditions for maximizing

the networking of structures and actors in the

development of the service and knowledge

economy.

EP1.1- Territorial component

It is suggested to create territorial support

poles for the service economy in the urban

centres of Tirana and Durres, such as: the

Central Business Area; industrial park;

technological park; economic development

technological area. The development of these

poles and structures should be supported

by efficient infrastructural networks, closely

linked to the ICT platforms, as well as the

mobility and public transport.

EP1.2- Human component

Line ministries and municipalities in the

region should simultaneously promote the

development of continuous knowledge of

human capital and business entrepreneurs in

a number of priority sectors, by establishing

and developing certification structures and

platforms that enable measurable standards

recognized by the EU.

Developing skills and knowledge for

employment aims at promoting, attracting and

retaining the human capital with developed

skills to support the needs of the service

economy in the globally linked business

development model.

To develop this factor, it is recommended to:

• Expand the personal skills through

permanent training, teamwork training on

problem solving, trainings on specialized

services in support of the global client. Expand

the profile of knowledge and skills in social

and political sciences, including foreign

languages;

• Train and profile in exact sciences,

technology and innovation, train skills for

the development of creative industries, train

skills in ICT and maths, as well as create

skills in response to new areas of economic

development such as the “economy of

programs and programming”;

• Developing specialized employment.

Developing skills in the field of electronic

networks should respond to the need for

future generations of businesses based on the

“4th Industrial Revolution” in sectors such as:

transport, communication, logistics, trade,

supply network and global demand etc.

The municipalities of the region should support

a favourable environment for translating

knowledge and skills into innovation,

promoting the creation of virtual monitoring

and certification platforms, the knowledge

cluster and the know-how exchange network

globally.

EP2- Regional knowledge and

innovation network

Knowledge and skills are the key factors of

the region’s development. Although the nature

of knowledge dissemination in the region is

largely public, its gained externalities appear

to be more developed in regions where there is

a presence of higher education institutions.

The development of regional knowledge should

depend not only on the “top-down” institutional

approach, or on the informal development

dimension of innovation dissemination by

the SME-s themselves. Public institutions

should address the achievement of a proactive

cooperation and interaction of all regional

stakeholders.

Innovation development should be addressed

to R & D supported by public and private

institutions that promote interaction in vertical

and horizontal plans. The target approach

should be to distribute innovation as a product

of R & D, in order to strengthen the SMEs of

the region.

18

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/

71


The governing structures should develop

regional schemes and policies that promote

the interaction process of actors (enterprises /

academia / public institutions) to develop R &

D and innovation with a focus on SMEs in the

region. These approaches must have flexible

frameworks, given that the very nature of

innovation is very variable.

It is suggested to build a regional innovation and

knowledge board and fund, involving all regional

actors (universities, research institutes, state

agencies, banking system, regional enterprises,

researchers and industry chambers, SMEs and

entrepreneurs) connected in a network among

them and the global factor.

Creating this structure will not only help in

developing innovation, but will guide demand

and investment towards the strengths of action

of regional enterprises.

This approach will guide development

according to real needs and global market

demands, creating concrete new opportunities

in products and services with export focus.

The primary development factors for

innovation are shown in the table below,

accompanied by the respective contributors

and indicators:

Primary factors Contributing factors Contributing indicators

Access to knowledge

Ability to transform

knowledge into

value-added

products and services

• Developing poles based on science

and innovation;

• Developing and accessing networks,

thanks to the cooperation of industry

with the academia;

• Developing the private sector of R & D;

• Strengthening skills and knowledge

from the international network of

science through ICT.

• Developing human capital and

specialized employment;

• Private sector trust and cooperation

climate;

• Developing access to financial capital;

• Developing innovative activities at

international level.

• R & D expenditures;

• Scientific publications;

• Number of researchers in the labour force;

• Use and access to ICT;

• ICT expenditures in% of the GDP;

• Human Development Indicators;

• International cooperation in R & D.

• Education system statistics;

• Activities and patents;

• Private financing offer;

• FDIs;

• Ranking of international competitiveness;

• Growth and development of SMEs;

• Networking and composition of enterprise

sectors;

• Level and sectors of foreign trade.

Desire to innovate

• Creating a positive economic and

political macroclimate;

• Developing innovative entrepreneurship;

• Structures and platforms that promote

cooperation between the academia

and the private sector;

• Clustering and developing

international interaction networks;

• Activities linked to open networks and

platforms.

• Conditions for the political and macroeconomic

framework development (GDP,

inflation, corruption, informal

economy, etc.);

• Number of "start-ups";

• Number / performance of incubators,

scientific technological parks (or similar);

• Regional development and clustered

activities;

• Changing organizational structures of

enterprises, including their

demographic changes.

Table 4.1 Primary development factors for innovation 19

19

Source: IKED (Strengthening innovation and technology policies for SME Development in Albania)

72


Local factors for R & D and regional innovation development:

• Establishing a regional institution for regional development, information and economic

training;

• Establishing the regional board and fund for innovation and economic development;

• Promoting territorial development areas for geographic clustering of institutions and

enterprises;

• Developing new R & D institutes, financing and monitoring platforms, enterprise efficiency,

global market and absorption of innovation by regional stakeholders;

• Developing interconnection with global knowledge, research and development networks;

• Creating the legal framework of certifying / patenting institutes on copyright and intellectual

property rights;

• Strengthening the role of the banking system in clear schemes that support innovation

development research, applicable by SMEs;

• Funding on the basis of differentiated partnership schemes for universities and institutes that

conduct research with measurable impact on the development and dissemination of innovation

among SMEs in the region;

• Annual monitoring by the regional agencies and board on the efficiency of universities work in

R & D development focusing on the dissemination of innovation based on EU standards;

• Developing a R & D based regional innovation strategy among all regional cluster

stakeholders;

• Establishing a common, interactive, shared platform with clear roles for participating actors,

funding methods and monitoring systems linked to global knowledge networks;

• Developing R & D knowledge and innovation instruments, applicable by regional SMEs;

• Developing effective funding schemes for R & D and regional innovation;

• Promoting interrelated schemes to increase individual research through PhDs; strengthening

the role and approach of PhDs with a focus on SMEs innovation;

• Creating systems of permanent training and certification, development and absorption

of knowledge from human resources in regional SMEs with a focus on standardization and

certification of products, services and modes of interaction in global markets;

• Promoting successful cooperation cases for innovation and connection to global knowledge

networks for attracting FDIs and international institutions.

73


EP3- Develop SMEs and innovation

The metropolitan region represents a primary

profile in the economic development of

enterprises within Albania. It also plays a key

role in the national economy. It is important

that investments be given a priority to boost

competitiveness in the region and ensure

that SMEs play a leading role in achieving

economic growth, by diversifying the range of

export-oriented products and services.

The business environment needs to be

developed to meet the needs of regional

SMEs, by providing a dynamic and stimulating

climate for actors’ interactive engagement.

The first step is to create a climate of trust

and security toward innovation, with mediumterm

and long-term policies for domestic and

foreign companies. The development of the

regional enterprise environment will require

some of the mechanisms to be activated and

made efficient in order to achieve:

1. Specialized training and knowledge on

human resources, as per priority sectors;

2. Development of horizontal and vertical

interaction networks of the economy, to

interact at a global scale;

3. Territorial development organized in the

poles, corridors and areas that support the

interaction of SMEs.

EP3.1- Develop human capacities

Skills and technical knowledge are essential

for SMEs to support and enhance the diversity

of enterprise activities, to develop productivity

levels, and to stimulate and guide innovation

in business ventures. The plan promotes the

establishment and development of specialized

education and employment centres, as

follows:

- Develop specialized employment centres

with focus on development in priority areas

for each municipality.

These centres should closely act with

university programs and courses to

develop SMEs innovation and regional

entrepreneurship. It is suggested that these

centres provide profiled knowledge on

certain market segments. This approach to

expand specialized knowledge should be set

up closely linked with cluster development

frameworks;

- Develop centres and platforms for

vocational training courses, focused on

the development of lifelong knowledge and

skills. They and their development programs

should be closely linked to the SMEs and

entrepreneurship development board. The

role they can play can be more efficient if

there is a cooperation with incubators and

business accelerators;

- Develop regional training platforms on the

areas of green economy, smart economy and

innovation;

- Consult and instruct entrepreneurship,

based on the development of school curricula

with this approach;

- Develop mixed policies, combining funding

and consultations, access to specialists

of strategic sectors in the network of

international professionals;

- Develop programs and projects that

support new generation interconnection

with the global entrepreneurship network

from specialized centres, based on start-up

business models.

EP3.2- Enterprise interaction networks

for innovation

The creation and development of regional

economic agencies should be carried out in

order to create support networks for clusters

and business incubators development,

as well as to enable a connection among

collaborative structures to foster the global

value chain. The aim is to interconnect these

institutions in a network and through common

electronic platforms that will increase the

efficiency of their interaction, based on

regional strategies. Collaboration of these

actors can be guided by a joint regional board,

supported by the Regional SMEs Support

74


Crediting

Guarantees

Equity

Grants

Investment

readiness

Education

Talent Skills

Professional

training

Student

orientation

BARRIERS

Costs

Financing

Marketing

Competition

Information

Talent

INTERVENTIONS

Research and

development

policies

Entrepreneurship

Infrastructure

Education

Business climate

Taxes

Incubator

Research

laboratory

Prototypes

Design centres

Scientific park

Manufacturing

laboratory

Global

competition

Standards

Procurement

New clients

Access to

finance

Human

capital

Policy

framework

Support

networks

Market

demand

INNOVATION

within SME-s

outside SMEs

COMPETITION

Quality

Interconnected services

Opportunities

Knowledge

Social

Demand

Social

Capital

Supporting

entrepreneurship

Research and

Development

Agencies

E-Platform

Commissioners

Issuers of

dedicated grants

Research Centres

Technology

Transfer Centre

Technology

Centre

Open Innovation

Platforms

Cooperation

projects

Sustainable

development

Population aging

Social innovation

Clustering

University-SME

Collaboration

SUPPORT

SERVICES

Trainings

Counselling

Professional

services

TYPES OF

ENTERPRISES

Companies

specialized in

global sales

"Gazelles"

"Hidden

Champions"

Large enterprises

Figure 4.2 Innovation and competition in the economy

75


Fund for Innovation. The board, through

supporting mechanisms, is an added value in

stimulating interaction for the progress and

development of SMEs processes. The Regional

Fund may consist of a separate regional

financial budget as well as the contribution of

stakeholders such as SMEs, municipalities,

universities, etc.;

For the further development of innovation

networks it is suggested to:

- Develop public, private or PPP research

centres / institutes; specialized structures

in certification and patenting of products;

“Techno-pole” technological innovation centres

of domestic or foreign ventures;

- Develop a common regional strategy that

fosters innovation and the development of

economic networks in priority sectors by

establishing cooperation between enterprises,

young entrepreneurs, research institutes,

universities, local and regional development

agencies and the “SMEs and innovation

board”;

- Strengthen SMEs cooperation schemes and

build relevant policies based on their profiles

and innovation portfolios;

- Create platforms that promote programs and

cooperation projects between education and

research institutions of regional enterprises,

creating new practices based on the needs of

SMEs to diversify technical tools and the range

of regional products;

- Create platforms that promote SMEs

connection to major businesses and

international corporations, to enable the

expansion of innovation externalities in

the region. These should be platforms that

promote SMEs innovation thanks to the links

in global networks for the sale of products and

services;

- Create “one-stop shop” offices in every

municipality of the region. Each of the

municipalities should enhance the level of

services, using ICT infrastructure serving all

citizens, and especially business;

- Support programs and projects to develop

entrepreneurship in “Start-ups”. These

programs should inspire and integrate

cooperation schemes between public and

private partners, encouraging access to the

banking sector and private financing;

- Make efficient the regional links with the

global enterprise network. Create long-term

programs that facilitate linkage and interaction

for exchanges and capacity building (e.g.,

through business networks, workshops,

seminars, etc.);

- Facilitate funding for new high-tech start-up

entrepreneurs to develop their products, by

creating frameworks that enable third-party

funding;

- Create annual joint venture regional events.

Establish a culture of celebration of successful

cases.

EP3.3- Territorial development of SMEs

Territorial development should be guided

by the principle of good land management,

preserving and conserving it. This implies

that the municipalities of the region should

promote and develop functional geographical

agglomerations to accommodate regional

enterprises. The future development of

these territorial nodes, inside and outside

urban centres, should be oriented near the

primary road and railway axes, by not creating

linear strips, but by developing concentrated

territorial poles. It is suggested to support

strips and poles with assistive areas within

the territory, to develop future services, and to

create the possibility of interaction in groups

for services and infrastructure.

The development of poles, zones and corridors

should be reinforced with public and private

networks and services that support product

marketing, financial and legal services, ICT

infrastructure, healthcare services, logistics

networks and centres, parking areas,

public transport networks and stations,

development of secondary road networks,

and infrastructural reinforcements above and

76


Research and development

Innovation

Crediting,

Guarantees,

Equity

Demonstration

Means of production

Patenting of concepts

Tax reduction

policies

Grants

“Cash”

Money

Financial

support

Production of prototypes

Copyright

Third party

financing

Money

equivalent

to “cash”

Increasing quality

Finding first clients

Support

service

provided

Investment readiness

Awareness-raising

Internationalization

Acquisition

of knowledge

Training

Human capital

Marketing/Branding

Technology

Market and

technological

intelligence

Knowledge

management

Non-financial

support

Networking/ Clustering

Research, development,

& innovation,

human capital

Establishing standards

Figure 4.3 Public support components toward SMEs

77


under the ground in order to avoid natural

disasters.

Based on the analysis of the geographical

agglomerations of these structures, the plan

proposes the development of the following

nodes (poles, corridors, zones):

• Economic development technological area

• Spitalle, Durres;

Tirana “Kthesa Kamez”-Kashar Corridor

• (Tirana-Durres highway);

• Kamez-Nikel Corridor;

• Porto Romano-Spitalle- Shkozet, Durres

Corridor;

• Vore-Kashar Corridor;

• Kombinat-Vaqarr Pole, Tirana;

• Kinostudio Pole, Tirana;

• Shkoze Pole, Tirana;

• Airport pole Tirana-Rinas;

• Shkozet Pole, Durres;

• Shijak-Sukth Pole.

The focus is to concentrate the service

functions, to prohibit a linear alignment along

the entire highway, to create strips / barriers

with green areas, and to strengthen the

natural areas near these territories.

The GLPs of the regional municipalities,

Tirana, Durres, Vora, Kamez, Shijak, should

clearly determine these supporting territories

for the business structures listed above.

EP4- Regional incubators and clusters

The Tirana-Durres metropolis, as a Balkan

gateway, will increase the presence of new

ventures in the region by developing business

incubators, boosting the opportunities for

“Start-ups” success and generating added

opportunities for the economy. The aim is

to create/promote new jobs in innovation.

In this context, cooperation with research

institutions is essential.

EP4.1- Regional incubators

Incubation is the instrument that supports

the development of new ventures. It helps

in forming and consolidating them, by

guaranteeing the initial support needed to

achieve economic sustainability. Whereas the

space where business ideas and projects are

incubated and marketed is called an incubator.

This is where young entrepreneurs grow, and

conditions, facilities and expertise are created

to address the needs of their ideas.

Support and training in

management and crediting

Idea and enterprise

INCUBATOR

Support and training in

business administration

and management

Links to investors and

global strategic partners

Workplaces dedicated

to new enterprises

New, consolidated and

globally interconnected

enterprise

Legal and technical

support

Figure 4.4 What is a development incubator

78


Based on the priority areas of enterprise development in the metropolitan region, it is herein proposed:

Territorial potentials of regional incubators

TIRANA

DURRES

KAMEZ

SHIJAK

- business innovation

incubators; (northern

area, the boulevard

“Dëshmorët e Kombit”)

- academic incubators

for creating the

knowledge cluster;

(Centre of Tirana/

University area)

- business innovation

incubators (Spitalle

area);

- sectorial incubators;

(Shkozet)

- general incubators.

(Durres centre)

- agro-incubators;

- sectorial incubators.

(Kamez, economic

corridor)

- agro-incubators;

(Shijak centre)

- sectorial incubators.

(economic area)

- sectorial incubators of

creative industry.

(Kinostudio; former

textile combine); (Former

auto-tractor company)

Table 4.2 Regional incubators

Incubators can be developed in public, private,

or cooperation schemes (PPP). Triple-helix

operation structures need to be developed

for their establishment (central / local

government-business - academia interaction).

Regarding the territorial development, it is

suggested that these structures be placed

near the economic poles, areas and corridors,

or knowledge and research institutions,

supported by very good access to public

transport.

Incubators can also be used as territorial

development instruments, serving as catalysts

to regenerate former industrial areas, using

physical assets under state administration.

They can be accommodated in structures

under public ownership or administration.

Their development can be accomplished

through PPP schemes, where state institutions

run the process by building frameworks and

monitoring long-term development.

Incubation stages

Pre-incubation, is related to the overall activity

necessary to support potential entrepreneurs

to develop their ideas and business plan

to strengthen the opportunities for the

achievement of an effective and successful

start-up. These is achieved through training

and specific assistance throughout the steps

and objectives.

Incubation takes care of the necessary support

for start-ups, up to the expansion stage. This

process usually lasts up to 3 years of the

activity of a new venture, which coincide with

the most significant years for its development

and achievement of maturity. The support

in this phase usually consists of access to

services, in: financing, training, consulting,

guidance and specific training.

Post-incubation relates to the establishment

of services and the performance of activities

when a company has reached the conditions

and stage of maturity and it can go on by itself.

79


Various services may be needed for SMEs to

promote sales or the overall productive climate

through globalization strategies for branded

products in the global added value chain.

Incubators dealing with the post-incubation

process are otherwise known as business

accelerators.

Typologies of incubators

• pre-incubators;

• academic incubators for the creation of the

knowledge cluster;

• general incubators;

• sectorial incubators;

• business innovation incubators.

The objectives of the IBI-s (Innovation-based

Incubators) should be based on the regional

specifics and potentials by:

• identifying the economic sectors that have

a key position and perspective in innovation

(logistics, semi-products, garment industry -

fashion);

• identifying the network through which work

can be conducted to achieve the goal, based on

research and development activities.

Preconditions for the establishment of IBI-s

• Should be based on services developed in

sectors favoured by free competition emerging

from the market demand for innovation.

• The specific requirements of local markets,

based on research and potentials of global

trends.

• The need to close “gaps” in the “supply

chain” services, driven by the added value of

the regional economy.

• The existence of a specialized expertise and

profiled structures, skills and specializations

of the community, as well as cooperation with

global level experts.

• The establishment of training, specialization

and certification centres after a regional

assessment has been conducted on potential

SMEs stakeholders and their status in financial

capacities and resources.

• The regional innovation strategy as a

prerequisite to interconnect the IBI-s system.

Partnerships for innovation

• Chambers of Commerce and Industry;

• Regional and local agencies and central

government;

• Parks of science and technology /

technopoles;

• Municipalities / urban communities;

• NGOs;

• Association of the Community of Industry

and SMEs.

Innovation-based incubators

Potential regional

development on domestic

needs / opportunities

The existence

of qualified expertise

The existence of broadbased

territorial partnership

The need to fill in the

gaps in the supply

chain services

The existence of

market demand

Figure 4.5 Innovation-based incubators

80


AN INTERACTIVE

SPACE

Concentration of

professionals and

specialized SMEs

High productivity,

research institutes

and universities

Regional economic

development

agencies and board

Entrepreneurship and

innovation

Advantage in regional

competitiveness

Figure 4.6 What is an economic cluster

EP4.2- Develop economic clusters

Regional enterprises (SMEs) mainly appear

to have a lack of critical mass in interaction,

lack of a climate of trust and cooperation, lack

of talents and regional knowledge, and lack

of cooperation with economic development

institutions.

Therefore, it is firstly aimed to develop a

climate of trust and then interaction among

actors to create high quality diversified

products and services. The linkage of all

interactive actors in the regional production

cycle will increase the possibility of

international competitiveness.

What are clusters and how do they operate?

Clusters appear as a geographical

concentration of companies and related

institutions in sectors and sub-branches

of mutually complementary industries,

encouraging exchanges and joint activities,

creating added value to products, services or

platforms, in trade and economy.

These bodies operate horizontally and

link local and regional actors, creating

conditions and supporting climate for the

economy. Clusters develop cooperation and

competitiveness of companies and accelerate

the spread of regional innovation.

In the global value chain, efficiency, speed,

adaptability, quality, innovation, network and

critical mass are the key elements of the

development and marketing of products and

services. Clusters enable the development of

these conditions and qualities with a goal and

under a common management. They facilitate

economic interaction with global corporations

and increase the prospect for success of

branded regional firms / brands. On the other

hand, their development will create increased

opportunities to brand the metropolitan

region and become a link to the global value

chain.

Building institutional structures for

developing a climate of cooperation between

business, academia, government institutions

and civil society is essential to the survival of

clusters in the global economy.

The plan supports the development of these

structures for interaction between actors and

introduces the framework of principles to be

based on:

• Developing towards common regional

objectives approaching to the service

economy and knowledge economy;

81


• Creating a climate of trust, cooperation and

teamwork among the actors;

• Developing connections among businesses

on common interest structures (cooperative

and competitive), as complementary to one

another;

• Developing interactive networks and

structures to promote innovation, with a view

to obtaining globally competitive products and

services.

The main challenges in the formation of

clusters:

• Creating a climate of trust. Local, regional

and central institutions should produce legal

and fiscal incentives to support the creation

of this climate, which is the main factor to the

functioning of the cluster;

• Creating a climate of cooperation. Through

the mechanism of joint decision-making with

governing boards, or legal or fiscal initiatives,

the cooperation of actors involved in the

cluster can and should be supported and

Fazat zhvillimore të klasterit

strengthened;

• Agreeing on the use of product patents and

innovative processes. If cooperation is guided

by clear operating platforms, supported by

legal instruments, then agreement can be

reached;

• The establishment of common approaches

to disseminate knowledge and skills among

actors in a cluster should be guided by

independent public or private institutions;

• The distribution of benefits should be

run by management boards, where public

institutions should be supportive actors;

• The lack of time to deal with responsibilities

and interact between actors needs to be

addressed by promoting the use of electronic

platforms.

Given the complexity and challenges of cluster

building, it is recommended to build combined

and systematic strategies with all-inclusive

approaches:

Cluster

development

stages

Cluster in

creation

Matured

cluster

Cluster in

transition

Champion at

the national

level

World-class

cluster

Reborn

cluster

Cluster that

supports

emerging

industries

Public support

for cluster

development

Specific programs and policies that address each stage of development

Evaluation of

developmental

stages

Standardization and evaluation

Figure 4.7 Cluster development stages

Let’s make a perfect cluster policy and 20

cluster programme, Berlin/Copenhagen, 2012

20

Let’s make a perfect cluster policy and cluster programme, Berlin/Copenhagen, 2012

82


Models of regional actors all-inclusiveness

should be based on:

“Triple Helix Concept” or “Quad Helix

Concept”

These two concepts help interaction to:

1. Promote and make efficient the role of

academia, education / learning, research and

development centres serving to productivity

and innovation;

2. Network among actors (government,

business, academia / civil society) where

innovation on products and services is due to

the interaction between them and not as an

expectation of the government policies;

3. Develop proactive approaches where each

actor supports the roles of other institutions.

(referring to the figure)

ACADEMIA

Administration and deanery

Academics

Students

GOVERNING

AUTHORITIES

State

Regional

Local

Innovation and

entrepreneurship

CLUSTER

Competitiveness

and regional

development

Innovation and

entrepreneurship

Innovation and

entrepreneurship

INDUSTRY

Corporations

Capital

Business organizations

SME

Figure 4.8 “Triple helix” concept

83


Dimensionet e ndryshme të një klasteri dhe politikat dhe/ose programet përkatëse

Cluster business

environment,

structured by:

a) Macro-economy

b) The terms of the

structural framework:

infrastructure, regulation,

well-functioning

of goods, services,

labour market etc.

Cluster

participants

Cluster

management

institution

Intervention policies /

programs:

Macro-economic and

fiscal policies

Infrastructure programs,

labour market policies /

programs, etc.

R & D and innovation

programs, business

development programs,

training and education

programs, export

promotion programs etc.

Supporting programs

(financial or technical)

Figure Let’s make 4.9 Different a perfect dimensions cluster policy of and a cluster cluster and programme, respective Berlin/Copenhagen, policies and / or programs 2012

21

Develop regional clusters

Based on the analysis of agglomerations of

enterprises, the road and rail access network,

the distance / proximity to the institutional

centres, urbanized centres and proximity to the

airport and ports, four typologies of specialized

clusters have been selected.

Regional agencies, regional municipalities,

universities, institutes, and the regional SMEs

and innovation board, based on the stage of

development and interaction of clustering

(clusters under creation), should take clear

steps in building responsible institutions and

management structures.

The typologies of the proposed regional

geographic clusters are:

• Innovative business cluster –

technological hub;

It is proposed to develop technopolises as

centres focused on research and development

of innovative technologies, global marketing

network and innovation networks.

(the pole of Rinas airport; the northern centre

“Dëshmorët e Kombit” boulevard in Tirana; the

centre of Spitalle, Durres)

• ‘Furniture industry’ and textile industry

(clothing/footwear) cluster;

It is proposed to develop regional centres

specialized in ‘Furniture and Fashion’

sectors. These structures should promote the

development of specialized school curricula as

well as specialized employment. They should

guide the cooperation of entrepreneurs who

produce partial products or raw materials, to

products that complement each other.

(the poles of ‘Kombinat’ in Tirana, Kamez,

Shijak)

• Creative industry cluster;

Develop centres with a focus on the creative

industries of various dimensions, such as

music, fashion, media, visual arts, culture etc.

(the pole of ‘Kinostudio’ in Tirana, Durres

centre)

21

Let’s make a perfect cluster policy and cluster programme, Berlin/Copenhagen, 2012

84


• Logistics cluster;

Develop logistics centres and networks with

a focus on rapid mobility and fast processing

of goods. These centres should support their

success on efficient connections with regional

entry-exit ports as well as on the range of

services they provide thanks to the strategic

locations.

Operation of these nodes should be managed

linked in a network by the traffic operational

centre in the Vora urban centre. (the poles:

Shkozet, Durres, Vora, Kavaja, Fushe-Kruja)

The establishment of institutions that will

guide the process of clustering, provision of

training and knowledge, as well as research

and development for innovation, should be

accompanied by long-term fiscal and legal

policies from line ministries.

The promotion of interaction should focus not

only on cluster stakeholders but also on the

establishment of joint development, marketing

and branding strategies, so that all clusters

(according to four clustering typologies)

can support one another in complementary

services and products.

Science, knowledge, training and innovation

institutions should create a proactive approach

to the cooperation of these clusters, which

would channel innovation towards closed (full)

cycles of production and sales of products,

from raw materials to marketing and branding

on a global scale.

Role of governance in the establishment of

clusters

Central and local governance should not

create cooperation groups between actors that

do not have a prior interaction history, even if

only informal.

Public institutions should promote a climate

of institutional trust in building cluster

stakeholder interaction. Public institutions

should take a primary role in the initial, mainly

guiding phases of the cluster support strategy

development process and in the conduct

of public-private dialogue on institutional

policies and bureaucracies that hinder the

development of industry and business.

The key roles of public governance, which will

enable a qualitative step in the development of

clusters are:

• Structures and platforms that promote

fostering confidence for stakeholders’

cooperation.

• Strategies and programs with clear roles and

responsibilities that support the participating

stakeholders. Creating a framework of action

plan and system monitoring to support

management boards. Developing trained and

motivated human resources of public service,

to manage cluster-level platforms that monitor

the performance of clusters.

• Dynamic fiscal and legal support schemes,

public services supporting stakeholders,

networks, services and final products.

• Supportive macroeconomic and political

climate to achieve goals and results, fostering

global cooperation, such as competing in

attracting foreign funding. Develop efficient

schemes to provide direct access to finance for

these interactive groups.

• Public institutions should develop strategies,

policies, programs, projects, structures

and platforms that promote the creation of

a climate of trust and cooperation among

stakeholders;

• They should form clear frameworks that

define the roles and responsibilities of the

participating stakeholders of the three abovementioned

spheres;

• They must build dynamic fiscal and legal

support schemes, supported by public services

for the involved stakeholders, their networks

and products;

• They should foster the creation of a

macroeconomic and political climate

to achieve goals and reach tangible

and measurable results. They ought to

predetermine the macro conditions necessary

to develop global cooperation and to create

facilities for attracting foreign funding.

85


There are a number of mechanisms where

public institutions can engage in cluster

building. Below are listed 20 positive

interventions that can be adapted by

government and government agencies:

Role 1: Laying “foundation stones” for

support

All levels of government should develop

resources to support the basic conditions for

the necessary growth of the four clusters.

This includes basic education for the

population through successive levels of

training, in profiled secondary and higher

education; developed road infrastructure

in the strategic poles, support with public

transport in economic areas, services

in infrastructural networks; convenient

accommodation and a healthy environment.

Role 2: Creating supportive and stimulating,

not preventive and discouraging, policies

Effective clusters require clear policies at

national level, which enable and encourage

the interaction of regional stakeholders.

Institutions should develop effective

frameworks and policies that link particular

elements to an innovative system between

the public and private sector, academia and

civil society, in a systematic and coordinated

approach to SMEs development.

Role 3: Collaboration and networking

The roots of many clusters lie in numerous

projects undertaken around the world in the

1990s to encourage and support collaboration

between firms through networks.

Cooperation between cluster-based

businesses is considered essential and

occurs through interaction networks. They

should be supported by operating platforms

that facilitate the processes and supply

chain of products, based on market demand.

The ability to create and formalize selective

networks is vital for competitive clusters.

Role 4: Establishing and supporting

communication channels

Digital platforms and electronic

communication channels with separate

roles and responsibilities can facilitate

communication and structure the research

for specific information. Given that these

platforms can bring new businesses to the

region, governance should focus on their

support.

Digital platforms should include the database

of service producers and providers, their

skills and contacts, staff education levels,

announcements on employment opportunities

and new technologies. Specialized regional

public websites can perform or provide

information on government policies on

clusters and public support or interventions

in clustered structures.

Role 5: Reorganizing governmental service

and delivery structures

Many governmental services are fragmented,

such as: training, education, funding,

technological and promotional assistance.

Often they are the responsibility of various

ministries and agencies. These services can

be reformed with an orientation towards

clusters, shifting from a sector-oriented

approach to the one oriented towards regional

problems and economic development.

These reorganizations can be performed

with minimal changes, acting through

intermediaries or setting up one-stop-shop

service centres. An important change in

approach would be the formation of interinstitutional

teams of agencies that include

cluster expertise, supported by regional

platforms with clear roles and balanced

specific responsibilities.

The fundamental change would be the

establishment of new regional agencies

focusing on economic development, which

will cover the development of the main

clusters. In all cases it is imperative that staff

have direct industry experience and be able

to understand the problems faced by cluster

companies, their technologies or customers

and the global markets.

86


Role 6: Reorganizing government

information delivery services

Clusters offer an opportunity to provide

information and services in an alternative

way, ensuring that this information is

more oriented towards the primary areas

of the regional economy than on a broad

basis. It will be very helpful for local and

regional development agencies that cluster

organization and service providers have

gathered and published data on the clusters

identified by state or private institutions.

Employment, start-up data, sector growth

rates and contributing networks will help

clusters and agencies plan and compile their

programs.

Agencies and operating structures should

consider access to successful examples.

Often in transition economies, clusters

are limited to learning just within their

boundaries and are disconnected from

knowledge sources and new technologies

that help to achieve competitive positions.

Cooperation between local and foreign

structures is suggested to build successful

cases.

Role 7: Setting up support for

entrepreneurship and learning networks

New entrepreneurs and companies need

networking, compared to existing companies,

because they have less experience and have

not yet established their routines. Stabilized

businesses in the market are rich in

information, advice and knowledge.

The most effective networks are those

established on the basis of relationships

created between entrepreneurs, such as

incubators, economic development programs,

common capital resources, regional

associations, etc.

Innovative companies can benefit greatly

from networking, i.e. on common issues of

sectorial technologies.

Role 8: Building a specialized workforce

Nothing is more important for the

development of clusters in the region than the

development of their human resources.

This factor is one of the main sources why

clusters are more dependent on public

governance, which constitutes the major

investor in education and training. Companies

seek access to workforce that is able to apply

their skills to the work environment and

through their knowledge contribute in specific

job environments mainly focusing on research

and innovation.

It is suggested to reform school curricula

with a focus on interaction with the SMEs

and establish agencies and research and

development centres that support priority

cluster sectors.

Role 9: Use the cluster in a learning context

The context in which knowledge acquisition

takes place is of great importance in the

formation of the workforce.

Institutions providing knowledge and training

within the clusters produce more productive

and informed workers, with regards to the

labour market and with better skills to

connect with employers. With the designing

of specialized curricula, jobseekers can

assess the value of the cluster, understand

more about their environment, and be more

encouraged to pursue a career in these

interactive networks.

Role 10: Promoting the development of

specialized skills and professions centres in

each cluster

Regions can create centres of excellence

around clusters. Cluster training centres

linked to existing education institutions

may become leaders in the survey and

development of industry needs, development

of new curricula by keeping in touch

with cluster boards, updating standards,

comparing practices in other fields and

gathering information about clusters’

professions and programs.

Centres should not necessarily be operating

structures exercising their activity in a

physical building, they can also be a virtual

centre that can organize teams from different

educational institutions, to work on specific

87


problems, to run R & D, or to develop

programs where all products and information

will be available throughout the country.

These centres can help firms determine

which training programs are more in need

of teaching, technological development

and industry-related information. They can

provide and develop access to the region for

social groups excluded from educational

opportunities.

Role 11: Promoting innovation and

entrepreneurship

Innovation and entrepreneurship are the

engines of promoting economic development

and growth of the cluster. Most of these

groups are formed by former entrepreneurial

employees of existing employers, following

the expansion of the supply chain and new

market potential, or in response to lower

performance of existing companies. Cluster

development policies should encourage these

groups that are vital to the renewal of cluster

primary resources.

Innovation, as well as entrepreneurship, are

heavily influenced by the region’s educational

processes and cultural norms. They can

be improved by intentional support policies

designed by the government focusing on

young entrepreneurs who serve as catalysts

in its dissemination.

Role 12: Ensuring platform support at

national level and seeking EU funds for

cluster development

Only a small number of clusters can provide

sufficient income from membership fees,

almost all others are constantly seeking

funding to support their respective activities.

International, national or regional support is

crucial to many of these collaborative groups.

By helping them to identify and provide

funding each year, governance can give

clusters the necessary support to have a safe

place in the global economy. It is suggested

to develop financial and legal packages that

promote these clusters and networks.

Role 13: Creating funding mechanisms

New and innovative ideas that arise from

networking are the main factors to develop

business creation and expansion.

Therefore, the most important cluster

development strategies should be based

on research and innovation cooperation

networks. Embryonic clusters include many

new and potential entrepreneurs, relying

on cluster-oriented investment needs,

ranging from capital base and product

development funds, to capital for new

ventures, for interconnecting networks and

wider horizontal reach out of participating

firms. Government support can be secured by

setting up funding mechanisms, by designing

policies with minimal bureaucracy based on

promoting product chain development as well

as on branding and marketing strategies.

Funding schemes should be developed in

such a way as to encourage decision-making

roles in cluster management boards.

Role 14: Allocating investments to maximize

cluster impact

Clusters provide an added opportunity for

sharing resources in certain groups to

maximize impact on the economy. Major

investments in an important cluster group,

often industrial parks or research and

development centres, are common ways to

build its reputation and attract other firms

to work in the network. The ways in which

agencies and boards of directors allocate

resources to clusters should be particularly

sensitive to the degree of maturity of the

cluster.

Embryonic clusters have different needs

from matured clusters. Reorganization

of agencies and institutions to focus on a

particular cluster is only suitable for already

consolidated / matured groups. Industrial

parks and incubators with the theme of a

cluster will help attract new members to a

potential embryonic cluster.

88


Role 15: Promoting funding programs that

increase competitiveness

One of the easiest ways to foster cooperation

between firms and achieve economies of

scale is by considering only proposals from

joint venture groups, even if they are in the

initial stages of cooperation.

Objectives for such funding may include:

• support towards business concentrations or

associations with complementary features of

each other;

• company consortia for the technical and

managerial services needed to train network

companies;

• consortia of small companies that serve to

develop or improve job vacancies.

Role 16: Investing in R & D clusters

Much of the advanced scientific research is

conducted in public / private universities.

Historically, they have been funded

through the curricula, but not necessarily

related to regional economies. Funds

are usually focused on publications, not

commercialization. Research in these

institutions should be promoted, driven by

the needs of the local economy and not by

the global trend in faculty development. In

such way, investments can have immediate

benefits.

Clusters can be supported by:

a. adding to the funding criteria

the importance and potential of

commercialization that scientific research

can have on the regional and local economy,

based on measurable and monitorable

results;

b. allocating more research funds in less

favoured parallel institutions.

Role 17: Encouraging the use of incubators

Incubators are already widely used

instruments for supporting new and small

business ventures, providing space and lowcost

technical and consulting services that

promote the dissemination of knowledge and

technology within clusters.

It is suggested to build them with

partnerships between the private business

and academia, where central and local

government can be coordinators and

facilitators of decision-making processes.

Role 18: Establishing technological centres

Many developed economies have invested in

technology centres as part of the regional

economic development policies. These

centres are often linked with educational

institutions and incubation centres, but there

are times when they are independent.

Focusing on local technology clusters can

stimulate innovation and simplify technology

transfer.

Role 19: Using clusters as a promotional

mechanism

Different states have used clusters to selfpropagate

as suitable places to do business

and to visit. Scotland, New Zealand, Canada,

Spain, Ireland and Italy are some of the

countries that have used clusters effectively

to promote regions with a focus on investors

and potential new clients.

The creation of these opportunities will have

to be integrated with regional development

and branding strategies, as well as national

regional policies.

Role 20: Supporting the development of

export networks

Small and medium-sized companies suffer

from lack of resources and skills / knowledge

on interaction opportunities with potential

partners and buyers in other countries to

maximize the potentials of the global market.

Governance can foster the creation of workbased

export companies in the clustered

network, with the aim of attracting skills /

knowledge from enterprises for the creation

of a regional information base that can

create a critical mass to exploit global export

opportunities. Usually the result is a forum

for collaboration / cooperation with a wider

scope than just exporting products.

89


EP5- Territorial economic development

Poles, areas and corridors of economic

development

In order to enable the realization of the above,

the municipalities of the region should offer

for future businesses good quality spaces of a

size appropriate to their nature. Depending on

the advantages of each urban centre and their

hierarchy (as defined by the GNP), these LGUs

should guarantee:

• Developing competitive and attractive spaces

for central business areas, industrial and

technological parks, SMEs development areas,

which can attract and accommodate diverse

businesses with specific needs;

• Service offices covering business needs, for

administrative services;

• Infrastructural networks, over and

underground, efficient in mobility and power

supply, water, sewage service etc.;

• Effective public transport system that

provides the possibility of combining different

modes;

• ICT telecommunication networks, which

guarantee fast connections and exchanges

globally;

• High quality natural and urban environment,

enriched in natural and physical assets, with

links and modes of movement that do not

create pollution and negative impact;

• Regional municipalities need to consider

and propose ways to avoid increased risk

from natural factors and natural disasters in

these areas. It is proposed to develop special

infrastructures in support and protection of

these strategic investments of regional and

national relevance.

• The General Local Plans (GLPs) of the

municipalities in the region should foresee and

present the proposed economic development

areas and the respective buffer zones for

future enlargements.

Regional strategic areas for territorial

development:

“Mother Teresa” airport is supported with

fast access, equipped with railway and road

infrastructure. The aim is to efficiently link it to

the regional ring system, and with the national

axis as well.

The planning and maintenance of territorial

spaces for capacity increase at passenger

and freight terminals in the future should

be paramount to land management by line

ministries and municipalities affected by this

development.

The pole Rinas airport - Berxulle appears

as the primary development area of the

metropolitan region. The plan supports the

establishment of structures of national and

regional importance in this territory. These

structures with development potential can

be: elite businesses, university and innovation

research pole, national fairgrounds, regional

hospital, national stadium, innovative business

cluster.

National port areas

The port of Durres and the energy port of

Porto Romano are the strategic naval ports.

The plan strengthens the fast interconnection

and access of these two poles, as well as

their equipment with modern infrastructure

to withstand the increased volumes of

passengers and goods in the future.

The Port of Durres must create access and

stationing for:

1. Passenger station, for the anchorage of

medium and small-sized vessels;

2. Tourist station, for the anchorage of large

cruise ships;

3. Port service and processing area, for the

anchorage of cargo containers;

4. Port service area, for the anchorage of the

fishing fleet;

5. Port tourist area, for the anchorage of

yachts.

Stationing areas should be developed with

space for storage and management of flows,

relying on reserve space for capacity increase

in relation to flows until 2030.

90


The port space for the management of tourist

flows, cruises, yachts and fishing should

create open access for interconnection with

the city, to increase the attraction between the

port and the city as well as to develop the local

economy. These flows have a direct impact on

the development of metropolitan area tourism,

thus the spatial interconnection strategy

should be borne in mind and enforced.

The opening of these spaces as primary

port facilities should be accompanied by

the revitalization of the city waterfront and

the reallocation of the cargo area, for more

functional clusters.

These structures have a direct impact

on regional employment and the hotel

infrastructure of the region. It is suggested

that the hotel and recreation areas be located

close to these flows or create efficient links

with these areas.

Port of Porto-Romano

The proximity of this hub with the economic

development technological area in Spitalle,

as well as the direct access to the national

corridors and the Shkozet logistics area,

creates opportunities for the development and

strengthening of this asset.

Economic development technological area

Spitalle

As a primary area of national and regional

economic development, it should be

supported with services and quick access

for passengers and goods. Its connection

to the over and underground infrastructural

network, as well as its supply with energy and

telecommunication system should be the focus

of development for the line ministries and the

municipality of Durres. Eliminating the risk

of flooding in this strategic axis (Shkozet -

Porto Romano) should be accompanied by the

development of the necessary infrastructure

and their management system. The road

connection of this corridor with the ring

system of the city of Durres should have

a priority for development, for an efficient

management of the mobility flows.

The economic axis Porto Romano-Spitalle-

Shkozet is strengthened by the railway

connection and a secondary multimodal

station (freight train, bus, taxi, light public

transport).

The plan proposes the addition of port areas

near the energy port and the creation of

the necessary space for the reallocation of

the piers of raw materials from the port of

Durres, to this port. The plan proposes the

development of the main terminals, such as:

1. terminal of general goods and cereals;

2. terminal of construction materials such as

cement and clinker;

3. terminal of minerals and coal;

4. waste terminal, such as scrap.

The change of anchoring of these port flows

will increase quality of air in the city of Durres,

will improve the quality of life of the residents

and will create more opportunities to develop

the city towards regional tourism.

91


For further economic development and qualitative overrun in the economy, the plan defines the

following areas as strategic poles for regional economic development:

Tabela 17. Polet ekonomike në rajon

Pole

Highway Tirana-Kashar-Vore

Vore - Maminas

Kamez - Nikel

Kinostudio

Airport-Rinas

Kashar - Kombinat -Vaqarr

Durres port-Shkozet

Durres-Sukth / Shijak

Spitalle

Porto-Romano Port

Kavaje

Characteristics

- services

- light industry

- showroom

- fair centre

- logistics

- construction materials

- agro-industry/processing

- showroom

- fair centre/space

- business centre

- wood processing

- logistics

- trade / processing

- construction materials / light industry

- garment industry

- semi-products

- creative industry

- media

- graphic design / advertising / graphic studios

- creative industry / fashion

- fair centre

- hotels

- R&D innovation centre

- university campus

- elite business services

- national stadium (olympic)

- airport logistic services

- logistics

- industry support services

- light industry

- storage-processing spaces

- garment industry

- port services

- logistics

- storage

- processing

- manufacturing

- trade

- agro-industry

- agricultural services

- recreation services

- logistics

- garment industry

- economic development technological area (of national importance)

- services, light industry

- technological park

- energy port

- logistics

- port areas dedicated to industry

- agro-industry

- light industry

- garment industry

92

Table 4.3 Economic poles in the region


Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

Road infrastructure

Rail infrastructure

Logistics centre

Airport

Port/Anchor point

Economic area/corridor

Industrial area

Industrial energy port

Business cluster

Regional hospital

University/incubator/innovative hub

Agricultural production

Main centre/farmers market

University of Agriculture in Tirana

Map 4.1 Economy

93


EP6- Regional branding and tourism

The creation of a “regional brand” is a key

factor to the recognition and economic growth

of the region. The Regional Development

Agency no. 2 and the municipalities of the

region should develop a regional promotion

and marketing strategy, based on the regional

strengths (physical, human, environmental,

socio-cultural, economic, natural and manmade

capital), to promote a more competitive

environment, and attract specialized human

capital and foreign investments.

The thematic framework for the development

of regional “Branding and Marketing” should

include and take into consideration:

• Regional identity and the sense of belonging;

• Community branding and preserving their

authenticity, as a priority in creating conditions

for a climate of trust and cooperation;

• Developing regional brands of products and

services “Made in Albania”;

• Promoting told experiences, based on

positive personal experiences (tourists,

potential investors, traders);

• Creating and promoting regional image,

successful achievements in the region, based

on the cooperation climate of partnerships

with domestic and foreign actors;

• Promoting “landmarks”, unique symbols for

the region not only of the “objects” category,

but also territorial and natural potentials, such

as unique regional locations or services;

• Recruiting local or international businesses

in building and presenting a “regional

message” (as a business climate promoter);

• Promoting and branding the sustainable

habitat and community living in harmony with

nature.

EP6.1- Tourism as an added value

Efforts to develop regional tourism have

as their main goal the creation of a unique

metropolitan destination with natural assets

that provide unique opportunities and services,

with an active, inclusive and multi-ethnic

community and an innovation-based business

climate.

The plan aims to combine the services and

quality products of regional businesses with

cultural-historical-natural tours, and provide

a high quality agri-tourism service in rural

areas.

This approach will serve to diversify choice

options and to extend the visitors stay in the

region.

Regional capitals for tourism development:

• Human capital: the most precious value from

which regional tourism should be promoted;

• Geographical values and attractive territorial

poles, access to them and the quality of

the environment as key factors for the

development of tourist destinations;

• Special products and services, with a

particular identity, in the form of “patented

and branded regional brands” with innovative,

efficient and competitive innovation;

• Image, culture and services, as positive and

unique elements with a direct impact on the

development of regional tourism.

EP6.2- Service tourism

Service tourism is a kind of consequence, as

the main reason for the movement of persons

considered as visitors to this category is to

obtain the services provided in the region.

Efforts to develop regional tourism create

opportunities for visits of this category to be

accompanied by the recognition and enjoyment

of other goods provided by the region.

Service tourism extends the stay of visitors

in the region and serves to establish their

relationship and familiarization with it.

94


Regional framework of the touristic destination sustainable management

Sustainable tourism development

Good government

Good promotion

Sustainability

Destination

Planning and management

Sustainability

Destination

Development

Sustainability

Destination

Promotion

Following strategies and practices

that facilitate balances, sustainable

management and touristic destination

management

Following a kind of style and level of

tourism that contributes to the

social, cultural, political and

environmental sustainability of a

country to live and work in, as well

as visit.

Promoting tourism inside and

outside a destination for attracting

and influencing the right visitors

Figure 4.10 Regional framework of the touristic destination sustainable management

This familiarization and the positive

impressions of each visitor will work

independently for the marketing of the region

in contemporary passive forms.

Services / business tourism includes events of

limited duration that can be held in two-threeday

packages such as conferences, festivals,

service and products of regional industries

fairs etc. This tourism typology does not

depend on transport costs, but on the quality

and efficiency of services and human capital

values of the region.

The Regional Development Agency no. 2 and

the municipalities of the region should build

a common, clear and integrated strategy for

the development of this type of tourism. They

should encourage the spirit of cooperation

between stakeholders to provide daily or

weekend packages, accompanied by tour

guides and quick access to services.

The Regional Tourism Board should develop

strategies to promote annual events, based

on supporting infrastructure, territorial poles,

human values, business products and services.

The agency and the municipalities should

promote cooperation between stakeholders

to integrate regional values, assets and

capital into tourist packages. The plan aims at

supporting and developing assets, as follows:

• Human resources: building knowledge

packages for this service typology, as well as

creating certification opportunities. Providing

continuous teaching through academia and

SMEs cooperation to certify tourism services;

• Creating tourist poles, attractive for

investments, equipped with quality services in

physical and electronic infrastructure;

95


• Establishing areas for fairs, events and

conferences, supported by fast access and

certified quality hotels for these services.

Developing business centres near the

economic development poles, such as the pole

Airport-Rinas;

• Promoting products and services of regional

industries with “patented and branded regional

brands” that play a role in attracting and

creating the conditions for the development of

regional conferences, symposia and exhibitions

and fairs. Unified regional packages should be

created, combining various tourism variations

of conferences with cultural and natural

services;

in “Business-class” hotels, as well as creating

opportunities for information associated with

quick internet access.

• Creating quick access to options for leisure

time, rehabilitation and recovery, historic and

cultural services and outdoor sports.

• Interlinking events, fairs and festivals to

attract and diversify the range of tourists in:

business centres, fair centres, universities,

business parks, industrial parks, hospitality

structures near the airport for transit trips.

• Creating clear annual calendars of major

events, serving business support and regional

branding. Annual events, invariable in time,

which create trust and promote foreign

investments, events with a clear typology and

focus, such as Tirana Smart City, Fashion

Week, Film Week, Design Week, Health Week,

Technological Innovation Week, etc.

• Image building and branding: promoting a

positive image for a unique region through

tourism services and business. Promoting

tourist elite areas with services and hotels.

Possibilities of the region to extend the

duration of stay of business tourists:

• Establishing monitoring facilities of the

catering standards and promoting innovation in

the hospitality-tourism sector, to increase the

possibilities of choice among hotel typologies

in the category of “Business hotels”.

• Promoting certified travel management

companies and weekend tours that stimulate

staff training at specialized centres and create

seasonal employment opportunities for young

people through guides of evening events and

weekend tourism.

• Promoting regional destinations and

historical sites with unique services through TV

channels and the creation of multidimensional

animations for the presentation of the region

96


Areas of action within the category of service / business tourism, which should be integrated into the

regional branding strategy by RDA2 and the municipalities of the region, are:

Medical

tourism

Tourism of

conferences

and symposia

Education and

entrepreneurship

tourism

Rehabilitation

and recovery

Sports, Fitness,

Fashion and Style

Medical services

at competitive,

innovative and

quality prices in

dentistry and

medicine.

Integrated

promotion into

specific packages,

focused on the

foreign market.

Holding conferences

and

symposia where

this service can be

promoted.

Creating annual

events for international

symposia as

well as fairs related

to academia and

industry.

Enabling and

promoting

internship

packages, learning

platforms and

entrepreneurial

opportunities.

Promoting

network links with

research institutes

from incubators.

Promoting

health rehabilitation

opportunities

with

integrated

packages

related to

outdoor

walking,

gastronomy and

specialized

curative

services.

Promoting

marathons,

championships,

sport events in

favour of health.

Promoting

fashion industry,

linked to creative

and artistic

industries.

Integrated

tourism

packages.

Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders

Connecting

research

institutes, university

network and

local business

network with

certification

centres and

tourist agencies.

Business and

innovation incubators,

global SMEs

partners, universities

and academia,

regional development

structures,

regional municipalities

and ministries

responsible for

culture, education,

economy and

tourism.

Tirana-Durres

regional municipalities,

Ministry of

Social Welfare and

Youth, Ministry of

Education and

Sports, Employment

Offices,

Universities, the

Regional Development

Fund, the

Ministry of

Tourism.

Tirana-Durres

regional

municipalities,

Ministry of

Health, regional

businesses and

organizations.

The Ministry of

Social Welfare

and Youth, the

Ministry of

Education and

Sports, the

Ministry of

Health, regional

municipalities

and business.

Regional Tourism Board, municipal council, academia, central government, society.

Table 4.4 Areas of action in business tourism

97


EP6.3- City and weekend tourism

The vibrancy of the cities of Tirana and Durres

should be promoted in an integrated manner,

to create a multi-ethnic and diversified tourist

offer. The aim is to develop the weekend

tourism climate, by combining several

potential tourism typologies and facilities

accommodated near the urban, rural and

natural poles. The plan encourages and

seeks to harmonize the interaction of natural,

cultural and recreational tours, serving as

a core platform for building diverse tourist

packages and for all age groups.

The presence of international entry gates

in the region, enables the attraction of two

massive flows in this tourism typology:

• Attracting international tourists - quick

access through the port and the airport. The

aim is to develop regional branded packages

that provide low transportation costs and

diverse accommodation opportunities;

• Attracting domestic tourists - multiple

efficient and quality choice options, organized

in mix service packages.

The Plan supports:

• the development of absorbing / attracting

poles with complementary functions serving

to the economy and tourism, aiming at the

connection of geographical, physical, human

and cultural potentials;

• the regeneration of cultural-historical assets

accompanied by tourist services and guides;

• the creation of spatial conditions for services

in function of holiday destinations;

• the development of physical (of tourism

poles) and virtual links for quick access to the

global market;

• the interconnection of tours / guides in

natural territories with centralized services in

urban and rural centres;

• the development of unique destinations for

cultural and nightlife events.

The table below presents the weekend tourism

development poles, while the following provide

some guidance on them:

• Creating recreational and entertainment

poles; The aim is to solidify and interconnect

tourism packages that create economies of

scale and a critical mass for tourism services.

Tourist areas and poles must first be equipped

with infrastructure, enabling rapid access and

multimodality in transport. These areas need

to be supported with tourism services, as well

as massive parking lots to cope with tourist

flows. The urban centres Tirana, Durres,

Shijak, Vore, Kamez, need to regenerate or

revitalize poles in service of tourism, based

on the typologies set out in table 4.5. These

poles should promote the development of

interconnected events, combining those of

nature, agri-tourism, recreation, culture

and heritage. Event organization should be

supported with service infrastructure and

marketing platforms;

• Stadiums, fair centres and areas of mass

events should be equipped with all the service

infrastructure, interconnected with multimodal

transport, parking areas and security services;

• Sites of youthful, artistic and creative

character promoting culture and art should

be revitalized in two directions: regeneration

of buildings, squares and infrastructure, as

well as the development of human resource

capacities, to provide services focusing

on culture, art and tradition. For example,

“creative neighborhoods” promoting the

spread of culture through music, painting,

poetry and applied arts, should be established

in cooperation with local human capacity

building.

Other assets affected by this development

are the regeneration of historic buildings

with architectural values. These structures

should be made available to tourist services,

as museum centres, hotels, cultural sites, etc.

The regeneration of historic neighborhoods

with architectural values should serve to the

establishment of creative neighborhoods,

areas for promoting crafts and areas serving to

culture and heritage. Their establishment and

98


development should be supported by incentive

policies for public-private partnerships.

Municipalities affected by the plan should

combine interaction between creative

neighborhoods and pedestrian areas, creating

a climate diversified in functions and services,

to increase the critical mass of users, and to

create economies of scale in these poles;

• The development of nature-focused

tourism, in addition to the use of natural

assets, should be supported by recreational

functions related to rural development and

agri-tourism.

It is suggested to construct green corridors

along the river beds, equipped with

infrastructure for off-road cycling and

outdoor hiking. These mobility axes should

be developed in such a way as to provide

safe movement and low impact in nature.

The services provided in them should be

combined with service packages in the rural

and cultural heritage areas of the region. The

creation of physical infrastructure in green

corridors should be combined with areas

that promote heritage and culture. Mobility in

these axes should be equipped with physical

and virtual information infrastructures;

Tirana

Durres

Potentials outside the urban areas

Cultural and natural tourism.

Unique cultural services and

natural recreation accompanied

by recreational parks linked to

health care.

Tirana centre - Dajt - Farke -

Kashar

"Sea and Sun" tourism, rehabilitation

and recovery.

Seaside and quality services in

food, relaxation, hotel and

health services.

Unique and multidisciplinary,

massive, annual festivals, for

the promotion of quality life

and entertainment.

Cape of Rodon - Bay of Lalzi -

Bisht Palle - Bay of Durres

Natural tourism and

gastronomy

Natural recreation, culinary,

tradition-culture. Support in

the creation of tours and

structures of eco-tourism,

related to nature, wineries and

local food varieties

Tirana, Vore, Petrele, Peze,

Preze, Gjokaj.

Road axis Tirana-Ndroq-

Shijak-Durres.

Tirana centre

Creative neighborhoods with

traditional architecture and

unique services in culture, art,

crafts, music, nightlife and

unique events.

Tirana centre

Service poles for cultural

events such as fashion, music,

opera, theatre, ballet, movies,

etc.

Durres centre

(historic centre)

Historical and cultural area,

neighbourhood with unique

architecture and opportunities

to promote cultural-historical

life.

Durres centre

Potential in the creation of

handicrafts and tourism

festivals, crafts industry and

museums.

Events serving to tourism.

Nature and recreation tourism:

Dajt, Farke, Cape of Rodon,

Patok, Fushe Kuqe, Bay of Lalzi.

Support in concentrated

investments in agro-environmental

and ecotourism

services.

Nature and rural tourism in:

Peze, Ndroq, Pjeze, Katund i Ri,

Hamallaj, Kuç, Bubq, Patok,

Fushekuqe, Canyons of Tujan,

Brar, Peze, Ndroq, Shkalle,

Arbane, Farke, Ibe.

Table 4.5 Potentials of the region for weekend tourism

99


• Creating food festivals and combining them

with natural recreational tours will enable

the connection of urban and rural areas. This

approach aims at the promotion of primary

focus areas, culinary and natural recreational

events. Natural tours should be combined with

inn facilities near rural centres, promoting

rural development and “Slow Food” tourism

typology. The plan supports the creation of the

axis focused on agri-tourism combined with

natural recreation, such as:

1. Tirana - Peze - Ndroq - Pjeze - Hamallaj -

Bay of Lalezi - Durres;

2. Cape of Rodon - Preze - Vore - Kuç - Ndroq

- Petrele - Priske - Ibe;

3. Kruje - Lagoon of Patoku - Rrushkulli

Reserve - Bisht Palle - ‘Currila’ Hills Durres.

• Regional municipalities should develop the

necessary infrastructure for outdoor sports

such as bicycle and hiking routes and air

sports. The provision of information boards

and the preparation of apps will increase the

possibilities for the development of

safe and diverse events throughout the year. 22

Tirana Durres Kamez Vore Shijak

Ishem River

(sub-branches);

Erzen River

(sub-branches);

Bicycle and hiking

routes, interconnection

of the

cultural and

natural areas

(regeneration and

requalification).

Zall-Herr, Park of

Dajt, Ibe, Berzhite,

Mullet, Petrele,

Preze.

Regional park:

Peze Helmes,

Kashar

Erzen River

(sub-branches);

Bicycle and hiking

routes, interconnection

of the cultural

and natural areas

(regeneration and

requalification).

Bisht Palle, Bay of

Lalzi

Regional park:

The Cape of Rodon,

Vore

Urban park:

Currila hills.

Ishem River

(sub-branches);

Bicycle and hiking

routes, interconnection

of the

cultural and

natural areas

(regeneration and

requalification).

Urban park:

Paskuqan,

Zall-Herr, Dajt.

Ishem River

(sub-branches);

Bicycle and

hiking routes,

interconnection

of the cultural

and natural areas

(regeneration

and requalification).

Water basins;

Regional park:

Ndroq, The Cape

of Rodon

Erzen River

(sub-branches)

Bicycle and

hiking routes,

interconnection

of the cultural

and natural areas

(regeneration

and requalification).

Natural areas;

Regional park;

Water basins.

Tradition-cultural

tourism;

Historical objects:

Arapaj, Porto

Romano, Ishem, The

Cape of Rodon.

Tradition-cultural

tourism.

Tradition-cultural

tourism;

Historical objects:

Axis: Ibe-Petrele-Peze-Ndroq.

Tradition-cultural

tourism;

Historic objects:

Preze, Bubq.

Tradition-cultural

tourism.

Table 4.6 Natural corridors in tourism development

22

Agri-tourism and rural / natural tourism are treated in rural development policies

100


Regional tourism cluster

In order to develop a mutual sustainable

tourism promotion network, the aim is to

develop a regional tourism cluster with the

participation and cooperation of several

stakeholders, such as service tourist agencies

of events, hotels, restaurants, adventure

sports, handicrafts, craftsmanship and

the local community that carries tangible

heritage values, etc. The scope is to construct

integrated programs, supported by fiscal and

legal policies to foster interaction climate

between stakeholders. Their interconnection

should also be supported by the contribution of

organizations of cultural heritage protection,

universities, vocational schools, the institute

of cultural monuments, craftsmen of wood or

stone, etc.

An example of such a potential development

could be Kruja with its fortress, the market

ensemble (Bazaar), the development of

craftsmanship and handicrafts, the line of

ethnographic and historic museum, the line of

restaurants, hotels, tour agencies, adventure

sports, exploration of nature, festivals, etc.

Linking these services to each other and

the possibility of interconnecting with the

surrounding region constitutes a unique

potential.

This contribution will be deposited in a special

account, where all members can have access

to overseeing the collection of fees, and at the

end of each year it will be planned to be used

for specific projects aimed at developing and

promoting tourism in the region. The projects

should be subject to joint decision-making.

Funds may also be deposited by organizations

or individuals who wish to contribute to the

development of tourism in the region.

The fund will be managed by a group of

members selected from various groups that

will form the board of the Regional Tourism

Fund. This board should have a statute and

operational regulation under the legislation

in force. Municipalities are recommended to

be part of this regional fund and to adapt their

local contributions and align local policies in

harmonization with regional objectives.

Creating an interactive regional platform,

with restoration and conservation specialists,

academics of cultural heritage, professional

tour guides, masters of historic construction

techniques, etc., would serve as an added

value in terms of cultural heritage and its

transmission from generation to generation.

Tourism board and fund

The creation of a mutual regional fund for

regional tourism development will serve to

unify strategies and investments to the benefit

of tourism for the entire metropolitan region.

All accommodation and entertainment

businesses, which are willing to contribute to

and use the “trademark” of the region, must

apply a symbolic utilization or attendance fee

for their clients, from 1-3 euro (indicative).

101


Travel

agents

Tour

operators

Public relations

and market

research

services

Local health

care and other

services

Hotels

Attractions

and activities

Food suppliers

Local

transport

Property

services

Restaurants

Airlines, cruise

ships

Duty-free,

souvenirs

Maintenance

services

Banks,

currency

exchange

Governmental

agencies

Academic

institutions

Industry

groups

Figure 4.11 Organization and cooperation structure of tourism stakeholders

102


Public-private partnership in tourism

Formality

agreement

Clear description

of goals

Tourism

industry

Tour

operators

Universities

Public

sector

Tourist

destination

communities

Tourists

Local

state

department

Organizational

structure

Leadership skills

Funding:

- Finding

investments

and financing;

- Ensuring initial

funds;

- Overcoming

barriers to

investment.

Marketing and

promotion:

- Developing

destination

images;

- Facing

competition;

- Electronic

marketing;

- Market

coverage.

Infrastructure /

Human

Resources:

- Developing

transport

infrastructure;

- Sewerage and

public hygiene;

- Security;

- Education and

training.

Products:

- Attraction on

development;

- Conservation

of the

environment,

culture and

traditional

resources;

- Creation of

standards and

quality.

Resources and

attractions:

- Cultural,

natural and

historical;

- Events and

festivals;

- Entertainment;

- Tradition;

- Culinary;

- Atmospheric

conditions;

- Tourist

infrastructure;

- Accessibility.

Flexibility

Social network

Efficiency in

performance

Figure 4.12 Conceptual model for public-private partnership for the development of regional tourism

103


Guidelines for the development of urbannatural

tourism

• Tourism and development infrastructure

The provision of quality tourist infrastructure

is a prerequisite for attracting investment and

tourists in the region. The main components

of tourist infrastructure include road, rail,

airport access, low cost airfares, road

transport facilities, accommodation facilities

(hotels, motels, hostels, youth hostels, etc.),

restaurants, tour operators, attractive tourist

websites, tourist shops, etc. Regional / local

identity should be maintained when developing

supportive infrastructure with public or private

developers to help tourists find the local

experience in this region.

Local government structures should promote

the development of new tourism products

with appropriate infrastructure, such as

the establishment of centres of culture and

specialized education in potential locations;

construction of entertainment parks for

children; creating the necessary conditions in

favour of outdoor adventure (rock climbing,

mountain biking, sport fishing, parachuting,

water sports, outdoor walking, etc.). These

areas should be equipped with basic tourism

infrastructure such as: public toilets,

prohibition of crossing through risky spots,

information centres, fuel stations, police

stations, first aid centres, play areas, shelters,

telephone booths and parking areas along

the roads of the tourist destination. The local

government should mobilize the private

investments of the region, to build services and

tourism infrastructure.

In particular, information infrastructure needs

to be improved and built in road entries of

the regional tourist corridors and attractive

tourist poles; electricity and digital (ICT)

supply should be improved; public transport

in tourist poles should be improved; airport

services and low cost mobility should be

improved; new attractive poles based on

perennial tourism should be developed;

services should be improved with a view

to increasing the tourist stay in regional

destinations; non-elite-only hotel structures

should be developed, but also in the service

of young people based on youth tourist poles

supported by urban, rural and natural all-year

events. Local and regional government should

develop short and medium term strategies

to integrate various tourism typologies with

tourist packages, in order to attract certain

sectors of the global tourism market. The

regional tourism board, and regional or central

government tourism support departments

should prepare strategies and action plans

for regional tourism development. These

strategies should create synergies and

cooperation with the needs and conditions

of stakeholder development from the private

sector, conducting ongoing consultations on

infrastructural requirements and support to

specific regional destinations.

• Ensuring quality

It is imperative to set standards and quality

regime for operating structures such as

hotels, restaurants, tour operators, travel

agencies and other touristic service providers.

These standards have to be adopted on a

large scale, they should be presented with

interest groups in order to agree upon and

ensure quality, followed by a strong compliance

and monitoring regime. This standard and

certification regime should be linked to similar

international regimes, aiming to approximate

with the standards of European countries.

International certification will be very useful

for businesses, consumers, government,

local communities, and no less for the

environment. For business, this will help to

improve the quality of their services and unfair

competition, reducing operating costs and

providing an edge to long-term marketing

and branding strategies. In addition to

providing opportunities for economic benefits

to local communities, certification also

provides enhanced opportunities to respect

and promote local culture and tradition. For

governance, certification will raise industry

standards in areas such as health, safety, the

environment, social and economic stability, and

will lower the cost of support and regulatory

services.

• Creating a business environment for

investment

The success of tourism in the metropolitan

area is based on the synergy between the

public and private sector. Governance should

104


act as a catalyst to create an appropriate

environment and a facilitative and promotional

framework for private investments. Regional

municipalities should provide land / territory

for long-term lease, based on subsidized

rates for tourism projects in less developed

areas.

In order to facilitate the rapid adoption of

tourism projects, tourism development areas

should be presented as soon as possible

according to the typologies and priority

functions. In order to promote investment in

the tourism industry, the regional tourism

board and local and regional government

units will need to create a unit to promote

tourism potentials to attract investors from

the domestic or foreign private sector. Efforts

should also be directed to attracting foreign

investors and donors to large scale projects

such as mixed-function resorts, four-star

and five-star international brand hotels,

adventure and event centres, amusement

parks, natural and cultural holiday villages.

These government units should present

special and interrelated schemes to attract

foreign investment to these types of projects,

using various incentives, such as concessions

or partnerships. If required, the government

should adopt legislation that will grant

tourism the full status of an industry.

• Visitor safety

The safety of tourists is of paramount

relevance, both from the point of view

of tourism economy development and

accountability at national and international

level. These factors should take precedence

in the overall security policy of the region

to provide a safe and secure environment

for visitors, during travel and at tourist

destinations. The safety of tourists should

not only be based on providing a climate of

security against crime, but also on providing

security measures and infrastructural

certification in outdoor movements, services

and products offered.

• Institutional and regulatory reforms

The central and local government should

develop an efficient fiscal and legal regulatory

regime not only to ensure the best quality of

tourism services but also to facilitate private

investment in the sector. The regulatory

regime should also support the role and

development of human capacities in the

state administration in order to generate

opportunities to carry out successful tourism

policies. This regime should promote

licensing and registration of businesses by

typologies, given their existing unequal status.

A high implementation standard of these acts

will lead to increased tourism activity in the

country.

Especially based on:

- Acts of hotels and restaurants on

compulsory inclusion in the Advisory

Committee membership, to ensure equal

representation of stakeholders, to review

registration criteria, to determine health and

safety standards, and to determine pricing

provisions and taxation.

- Acts of travel agencies to be included in the

Advisory Committee membership to bring

the focus to tourists and introduce a special

regulatory regime for travel agencies and tour

operators.

- Tour guide acts should be reviewed in

accordance with the above statutes, apart

from the introduction of effective enforcement

provisions.

• Marketing and image building

A metropolitan image needs to be built

and also increase tourists confidence in its

attractivity. The government should make

every effort to promote the metropolitan

region as a favourite tourist destination, both

to domestic and foreign tourists.

To this end, the following measures are

necessary:

- Conducting observations in the main

tourism market and preparing a strategy

to further strengthen the existing tourism

markets by developing new tourist products,

focusing on local tourists, youth, students and

certain low-cost market sectors.

- Developing a detailed tourism portal for

the metropolitan region to provide a onestop-shop

solution in order to facilitate the

105


participation of visitors interested in obtaining

up-to-date information on hotel reservations,

transportation and regional tour packages.

-The printed and electronic media should be

used as a cost effective way to project the

tourist attractions of the metropolitan region

in the global and local markets. Seasonal

tourism promotion opportunities should be

designed through press and electronic media

to improve the efficiency of hotels and services

in mountainous / hilly and natural areas during

non-favourable seasons.

- Participating in various national and

international tourist exhibitions and fairs, to

highlight the potential of the metropolitan

region tourism.

- Establishing a task force on tourism

marketing in order to improve public-private

coordination between the public and private

sector to develop a joint marketing strategy

and promote the region as a tourist destination

throughout the year.

- Events such as festivals, water sports and

outdoor activities, food, folklore, history

festivals, etc., should be promoted in advance

to attract local and foreign tourists. A calendar

of events should be provided on the region’s

tourism web portal with the expected dates

and details of all events. It is suggested that

calendars are annual and unchangeable, in

short and medium terms.

A regional branding strategy needs to be

developed through: developing interesting and

multilingual tourism information materials

such as tour guide maps, travel handbooks

and information leaflets, providing extensive

dissemination and regular updates; developing

a regional tourism portal; promoting and

developing PPPs for tourism marketing and

joint campaigns; organizing cultural and

sports events for the promotion of tourism;

adapting the demographic trends of European

and global tourism.

facilities in favour of this sector; to revise

programs at university level qualification; to

regularly monitor labour demand and supply

of the sector; to introduce new programs

and promote the establishment of new

institutions from the private sector and develop

international links for national institutions.

• Mobilizing resources

The implementation of this tourism policy

will depend on the availability of the right

resources. The resource mobilization plan

includes the following:

- Setting a minimum threshold in the annual

development fund to ensure certain amounts

of the annual public funds and also defining

the development of tourism as a priority sector

for the government.

- Mobilizing private sector investments

in tourism development through a strong

public-private partnership regime and

limited government resource management to

generate more funding.

- Introducing user tariffs to a number of

infrastructure and tourist services to make

them sustainable in the long run. Providing

subsidies to vulnerable areas. Tourism as a

leisure activity will be promoted as a viable

economic sector through return on investment

from revenues collected from tourists.

- Mobilizing donor funding should be key

to implementing this policy, where the

regional board and regional municipalities

should organize donor conferences, inviting

multilateral donors to demonstrate the areas

they will be willing to support.

Improving efficiency in administrative and

managerial equipment and facilities will

result in cost reduction, removal of inefficient

expenditure losses and leakages in vulnerable

areas.

• Developing workforce

The availability of trained and skilled

workforce has been a key obstacle to the

development of tourism in the region. It is

suggested to strengthen and improve the

curriculum in education and private training

106


Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

Road infrastructure

Rail infrastructure

Airport

Port/Anchor point

Bicycle/hiking routes

Connecting landscape itinerary

Coastal landscape itinerary

Tourist potentials/stations

Green area

Water surface area

Recreational water space

Service, business, cultural and historical tourism

Sun and sea tourism

Natural, recreational, traditional and cultural tourism

Agri-tourism

Map 4.2 Tourism

107


4.2 Urban development policies

URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Polycentrism and

hierarchy of

urban centres

Urban mobility

network

Consolidation of

urban centres

Energy Efficiency

in Buildings

IIntegration of

informal areas

Comprehensive

regional community

spaces

Accommodation

and social housing

Figure 4.13 Urban development policies

This section of the regional planning guidelines

reviews trends, challenges and areas focusing

on the development of urban areas, centres

and communities involved in them.

To provide increased opportunities for the

development of these areas, the plan takes

into account the best similar examples in

the region and provides regional solutions

to urban territorial development issues

through integrated policies. The latter

would be insufficient per se if they were

not accompanied by territorial definitions,

recommendations and obligations to act

for the stakeholders involved in matters of

territorial administration and management

in the metropolitan area.

UP1- Polycentrism and

hierarchization of urban centres

historical and territorial characteristics of

the development of these centres.

Determination of the hierarchy of urban

centres is simultaneously supported by the

role and position defined by the General

National Plan, where each centre is

considered contextualized and integrated

with the neighbouring centres.

The hierarchization policy of the centres

is applied to promote specialization and

complementary relationships in relation to

one another. Setting a hierarchy will, among

others, enable the increase of the efficiency

of public investments in these territories.

The table below provides orientations on the

role of urban centres based on the hierarchy:

This policy aims at defining a clear hierarchy

between the urban centres of the region.

Reflections are simultaneously based on the

108


Centre

Hierarchy

Priority

Tirana

Metropolis

- Political and economic centre of the region with high

density;

- Focused on the service / global trade sector;

- Space for high quality business development within the

urban area;

- Focused on attracting international cultural activities such

as festivals, sports events etc.;

- High quality services at national scale.

Durres Primary centre - Economic centre of the region;

- Focused on port services;

- Space for business development of services related to

ground and maritime (blue economy) logistics;

- Focused on attracting international events such as

festivals, sports events, etc.

Kavaje Secondary centre - A centre focused on logistical services related to agroindustry;

- Focused on coastal tourism;

- Alternative housing (lower cost) for young families;

- Improving public and social spaces.

Vore Tertiary centre - A centre focused on logistical services;

- Alternative housing (lower cost) for young families;

- Quality regional public services;

- Improving public and social spaces.

Kamez Tertiary centre - A centre focused on logistical and manufacturing services;

- Alternative housing (lower cost) for young families;

- Improving public and social spaces.

Shijak Tertiary centre - A centre focused on services for agriculture;

- Developing agro-industry;

- Alternative housing (lower cost) for young families;

- Improving public and social spaces.

Fushe-Kruje Local centre - A centre focused on logistical and agro-industry services;

- Improving public and social spaces;

- Public services at local level.

Sukth

Katund i ri

Ndroq

Peze

Local centre

Local centre

- A centre focused on services for agriculture;

- A collection centre or regional market;

- Focused on agro-industry.

- A centre focused on agro-tourism;

- Creative space;

- Opportunities for high quality and low density residencies

outside the centre;

- Improving public transport.

Table 4.7 Role of urban centres based on the hierarchy

109


Metropolis

Primary

centre

Secondary

centre

Tertiary

centre

Local

centre

Locality

Petrele

Mullet, Stermas, Picall, Shenkoll,

Gurre e Madhe, Gurre e Vogel,

Daias, Barbas, Fikas, Mangull,

Qeha, Shytaj, Hekal, Kryezi,

Percellesh, Durishte

Farke

Farke e Vogel, Lunder, Mjull

Bathore, Sauk, Selite

Dajt

Linze, Shishtufine, Tujan, Brrar,

Ferraj, Priske e Madhe, Surrel,

Lanabreges, Shkalle, Qafmolle,

Darshen, Selbe, Murth

Zall Bastar

Bastar i Mesem, Bastar-Murriz,

Vilez, Zall-Mner, Mner i Siperm,

Bulçesh, Zall Dajt, Besh, Dajt,

Shengjin i vogel, Selite Mali

Berzhite

Ibe, Dobresh, Ibe e Poshtme,

Pellumbas, Mihajas-Cirme, Kus,

Fravesh, Kllojke, Pashkashesh,

Luge-Shalqize, Rozavere

Tirana

Krrabe

Baldushk

Mushqeta, Skutere

Mumajes, Fushas, Balshaban,

Shpate, Isufmuçaj, Mustafakoçaj,

Koçaj, Kakunj, Vesqi, Parret,

Shenkoll, Vrap, Shpat i siperm

Shengjergj

Verri, Ure, Burimas, Shengjin,

Façesh, Bize, Fage, Parpuje,

Vakumone, Domje, Derje

Vaqarr

Allgjate, Arbane, Bultice, Damjan-

Fortuzaj, Gropaj, Lalm, Prush,

Vishaj, Sharre

Kashar

Yzberish, Mezez, Yrshek, Katundi i

Ri, Kus, Mazrek

Peze

Peze Helmes, Peze e Vogel, Varosh,

Maknor, Dorez, Gror, Grece, Pajane,

Gjysylkane

Ndroq

Zbarqe, Kerçukje, Zhurje, Lagje e

re, Pinet, Sauqet, Çalaberzeze,

Shesh, Grebllesh, Menik

Zall Herr

Dritas, Çerkeze-Morine, Qinam,

Kallmet, Herraj, Pinar, Priske e

Vogel, Radhesh

110


Metropolis

Primary

centre

Secondary

centre

Tertiary

centre

Local

centre

Locality

Kamez

Paskuqan

Bathore, Laknas, Valias, Frutikulturë,

Bulçesh, Zall-Mner

Babrru Qender, Koder e Kuqe,

Shpat, Fushe e Kerçikeve, Koder

Babrru, Paskuqan Fushe, Paskuqan

Koder

Marqinet, Sharge, Gerdec, Gjokaj,

Kuc, Marikaj, Picar

Vore

Preze

Ahmetaq, Palaq, Fushe Preze, Gjeç-

Koder, Ndermjetes, Breg-Shkoze

Berxulle

Mukaj, Domje

Synej

Butaq, Rrikaj, Hajdaraj, Peqinaj,

Rrakull, Bago

Luz i Vogel

Vorrozen, Beden, Blerimaj

Kavaje

Golem

Kryemedhej, Tilaj, Seferaj, Golemas,

Qeret, Karpen, Zik-Xhafaj,

Kanaparaj, Agonas, Karpen i ri

Helmas

Zikular, Lis-Patros, Shtodher, Çete,

Momel, Habilaj, Çollakaj, Kryezi,

Cikallesh

Sukth

Hamallaj, Kulle, Perlat, Vadardhe,

Rushkull, Hidrovori

Ishem

Likmetaj, Kertushaj, Kapidanaj,

Gjuricaj, Lalez, Kuraten, Bize, Draç,

Shetaj

Durres

Katund i Ri

Jube, Qerret, Fllake, Bisht-Kamez,

Rinia, Erzen, Sukth, Adriatik

Rrashbull

Arapaj, Shenavlash, Shkallnur,

Manskuri, Romanat, Bozanxhije,

Xhafzotaj

Manez

Armath, Borç, Hamallaj, Kameras,

Rade, Shkalle, Fshat Manez

Maminas

Karreç, Vlashaj, Karpen, Bodinak,

Metalle, Bilalas, Rubjek

Shijak

Xhafzotaj

Pjeze, Rreth, Sallmone, Koxhas,

Borake, Guzaj, Vllazerimi

Gjepalaj

Hardhishte, Çizmeli, Eminas i Vogel,

Likesh, Kenete, Shtraze, Shahinaj,

Shetel

111


Metropolis

Primary

centre

Secondary

centre

Tertiary

centre

Local

centre

Locality

Barkanesh, Picerrage, Brret

Fushe-Kruje

Arrameras 1, Luz 1, Hasan, Larushk

1, Halil, Zgerdhesh, Zalle, Luze 2,

Larushke 2, Arrameras 2

Bubq

Bilaj, Budull, Mazhe – Madhe,

Mazhe – Vogel, Mallkuç, Murqine

Kruje

Nikel

Tapize, Qereke, Rinas, Virjon,

Buran, Mukaj, Kurcaj, Zeze

Thumane

Koder-Thumane, Borizane, Derven,

Gramez, Thumane, Bushnesh,

Dukagjin i Ri, Sukth-Vendas,

Miliska, Derven Koder

Cudhi

Cudhi-Zall, Noje, Mafsheq, Shqeze,

Shkrete, Cudhi – Kant, Kroi Madh,

Bruz-Zall, Bruz-Mal, Rranxe

Table 4.8 Urban centres hierarchy division

112


UP1.1- Public services

The range of public services provided by each

of the urban centres should be based on the

structure of the hierarchy of centres presented

by the ICSP for the Economic Area Tirana-

Durres. The municipalities of the region should

aim at improving and enhancing services

quality based on their citizens’ access in the

classical form, but also adding the ‘online’ (via

the Internet) form.

A particular focus should be placed on creating

the right environment and successful publicprivate

partnership schemes for those services

that are difficult or impossible to achieve by

state structures. Attention should also be

dedicated to the drafting of management

plans for public entities, with clear roles and

responsibilities of public stakeholders, to act

and monitor.

Public services in the territory should be

developed pursuant to the principles and

definitions of the law “On planning and

development of the territory”, and the

regulations for its implementation.

Particularl support will be given to the

establishment of integrated services networks

connected among them, such as the promotion

of digital platforms to facilitate public services

for all categories of the population.

UP2- Consolidation of urban centres

This policy aims at establishing compact urban

centres.

Urban consolidation is the process of urban

growth and development in compact urban

areas that foster intelligent concentration and

densification, supported by rapid access to

mobility and efficient public services for all

social groups.

The aim of consolidation is to protect

peripheral areas (peri-urban) from

uncontrolled residential development and

reduce the ecological footprint of urban

centres.

It is suggested to use instruments such as:

densification, requalification and regeneration

of residential areas in urban centres.

The continuous demand for housing and

employment in the region should be oriented

not only towards the restructuring of centres

but also towards access to housing, public

services and regional employment interlinked

to public transport.

Public-private partnership and instruments to manage and monitor functions and

services on the territory

Local communities

E-governance

Community representatives should have a voice and actively participate

in decision-making on the provision of a full range of local public services

by strengthening the role of the council.

Effective use of information technology on the steps of planning and

services. Identifying field problems in service delivery by institutions.

Increasing online public services and information (e-governance), for

time efficiency on liabilities payment, security and transparency of public

institutions, time efficiency of public transport and city guides.

Table 4.9 Public-private partnership

113


The plan promotes the consolidation of urban

centres based on:

• a better territorial utilization, efficient and

intelligent land use densification, reducing

the development pressure in the peri-urban

area as well as in the agricultural and natural

system;

• a conservation of land in the peri-urban area

for urban-agricultural services and recreation

and rural tourism services;

• strengthening rural-urban access and

connections;

• a promotion and regeneration of the centres

in degraded urban territories;

• a definition of minimum / maximum

density for new areas of development or

redevelopment related to transport flows in

employment;

• a regeneration of residential areas / poles;

• a promotion and development of “TOD”

(Transit-Oriented Development / development

oriented towards public transport) area in

urban areas primarily focused on “CBD”

(Central Business District);

• a utilization of the territory with mixed

functions at a high density (Mix-use);

• a promotion of walking and cycling in urban

areas;

• short inter-city distances, less dependent

on vehicles to reduce energy consumption and

CO2 emissions;

• a reduction of environmental pollution and

increase of green areas;

• increased living standards thanks to

efficient services for residents, reduction of

infrastructural and service costs.

UP2.1- Densification of urban centres

The densification of centres will positively

contribute to the functionality of the

metropolitan area by creating a balanced

and sustainable system of using the urbanrural-natural

territory. This approach will

allow development and urbanization in these

territories, without adversely affecting the

agricultural land and without exploiting natural

territories.

• Urban densification should focus around

strategic areas / poles focusing on improving

the efficiency of services and quality of life. The

densification of urban areas should be linked

to the functional characteristics in the different

areas / poles of urban territories, taking into

account not only the density of housing but

also the ratio of the regional commuting.

• Urban densification should be applied

intelligently, ensuring that the characteristics

of diversity and spatial unity are preserved in

urban structures. As above-mentioned, the

latter must relate to the surrounding areas,

taking into account the future spatial impacts

that densification can bring to land use for

peri-urban areas.

Developing upon these principles will allow

efficient use of existing values, promote

economies of scale in community services,

enhance quality of life, and increase

environmental regeneration opportunities

in urban peripheries. In order to guarantee

the development and consolidation of urban

centres, densification should follow the

following course:

1. Initially, the use of existing unused

buildings should be encouraged, including the

regeneration of unfinished buildings in these

areas. It is suggested to apply differentiated

taxation for unused dwellings or for second

homes with temporary use.

2. Exploit the opportunities for “urban filling”

in urbanized centres, focusing on the mixed

use of the territory, where special emphasis

should be given to service facilities and those

of recreation and leisure, accompanied by

public transport for the residents of the region.

3. The development of new urbanization

areas should focus on the use of low fertility

land near the overground and underground

connecting infrastructure, accommpanied by

public transport access, to link employment

areas with existing settlements.

114


This approach should maximally avoid the

conversion of agricultural land for housing use.

Differentiated taxation on the use of

agricultural land for housing in peri-urban

areas is suggested.

In achieving this goal, the municipalities are

suggested to use land development tools, as

defined by the Law 107/2014 “On planning and

development of the territory”, as amended,

such as: compulsory development, transfer of

development rights, conditional intensity and

/ or other similar tools, which may be set out

in the regulations of the General Local Plans.

The areas specified for densification should

be served with public transport.

As a first step, it is suggested to maintain

the public transport development axis, by

ensuring corridors for this type of mobility in

the future.

These areas should promote mobility

alternatives, such as with bicycles or walking.

Urban centres affected by densification

policies are:

Tirana, Durres, Vore, Kamez, Shijak-

Xhafzotaj, Sukth.

Higher densities in housing should:

• provide opportunities for all social groups

with differentiated income, in appropriate

areas;

• create different housing opportunities and

choices;

• promote social integration throughout the

metropolitan area.

Specific areas in need of restructuring/

redevelopment should be identified.

These areas must possess real potential

and potential for growth in the future, to

ensure the desired development in terms of

restructuring and redevelopment;

(Re)development of areas should be promoted

in already built territories in response to

prohibiting development on agricultural

lands.

Areas specified for densification need to be

treated as a whole “environment”.

Investments should be focused on

infrastructure, above and underground, on

urban quality and mixed use buildings, green

spaces for residents, social facilities.

The development should promote safety

and security for residents by means of

establishing areas supported with services,

lighting and rapid access.

115


UP2.2- Regeneration of urban poles

The municipalities of the region should direct

the need for development and investment in

their urban centres to increase the quality of

life and service efficiency. In order to reach

value-added investments for the region

and the community, it is suggested to use

regeneration programs, which should include

many sectors such as economy, education,

healthcare, accommodation, employment,

housing and the environment.

These programs should combine the

regeneration of communities with that of the

urban areas through development and action

strategies, based on the following principles:

redevelopment, rehabilitation, revitalization,

conservation of heritage and environment.

• The regeneration of urban poles aims at

creating efficient and vibrant urban areas

that help to deliver balanced services to

communities in these centres. It is intended

to avoid monocentrism, and it is required to

create conditions for development of areas

with diversified functions.

Development should not be directed to

peri-urban areas, so as not to create new

development areas with increased impact on

nature and agricultural land. It is aimed at

combining the revitalization of existing urban

blocks with the growth of community services.

Urban blocks can be readdressed thanks to

revitalization or redevelopment, bringing better

housing conditions and community service

opportunities.

The municipalities of the region should

foresee in their GLPs the density conditions

as well as the geographic areas of the

regeneration extent, based on estimates

of population, service, access and

infrastructural growth.

• Urban pole regeneration programs should

rely on the principles of sound and sustainable

communities.

The first step is to redevelop the areas such

as former industrial areas that have lost their

primary function and have already become

part of the urban centres. These areas and

their structures represent an opportunity to

increase community services.

The second step is to use them based on

different development and management

schemes, with such tools as: the right to

conditional transfer of property or public

private partnership.

Regeneration programs should be

accompanied by clear management schemes

to enable the establishment of sustainable

economic systems.

These revitalization centres should promote

and guarantee the development of local

economies as well as of communities.

Using such mechanisms as BID / Business

Improvement District along with dedicated

grants and public-private partnership

schemes, will enhance the ability to develop

sustainable communities in regeneration

areas.

These schemes should provide opportunities

not only for urban regeneration, but

simultaneously should provide the conditions

for community employment.

• Urban pole regeneration programs

should guarantee rapid access of these

centres to the economic development areas

of residential centres by means of public

transport. These programs should develop

the necessary infrastructure, preserve the

cultural and historical identity of the areas

and the collective memory of communities.

Create living and working conditions thanks

to the mixed use of the territory, preserve the

quality needed for green areas and access to

urban parks. It is preferred to develop urban

poles that promote walking in pedestrian areas

associated with services as well as connected

to employment and ecological transport.

116


Pursuant to this policy, the municipalities are

suggested to use land development tools, as

defined by the Law 107/2014 “On planning and

development of the territory”, as amended,

such as: compulsory development, transfer of

development rights, conditional intensity and

/ or other similar tools, which may be set out

in the regulations of the GLPs.

Moreover, in the context of urban regeneration

programs, other tools ca be also used, which

have been successfully applied before such

as BID (Business Improvement District / Area

focused on business), TOD (Transit-Oriented

Development / mixed-use development

oriented towards public transport, etc.).

For an effective management of interventions,

it is suggested to use cross-cutting

development strategies, where initiatives may

come from different levels of the bottom-up

or top-down hierarchy, but certainly including

the following groups in the management

processes:

• central governance;

• local governance;

• civil society;

• academia;

• business;

• community.

Models for regenerative initiatives should

build upon a clear vision, strategies and

action and monitoring plans.

Pole

Tirana-Kamez

Kombinat, Yzberisht, Sauk,

Farke, Shkoze, Kinostudio,

Allias, Administrative unit

no. 9 and no.11

Babrru,Bathore, Paskuqan,

Koder-Kamez, Bregu Lumit,

Ndroq

Vore, Marqinet, Gerdec,

Sharge, Bubq, Preze,

Marikaj, Maminas

Shijak-Xhafzotaj,

Sukth-Katund i Ri, Pjeze

Durres, Spitalle, Kenete,

Arapaj, Plazh Golem

Characteristics

The location and number of regeneration poles in informal urban

areas should be developed by the respective municipalities through

the GLP-s and the municipal development strategy.

It must be based on the aforementioned principles on environment,

employment, housing, technological areas of economic development,

public transport, enterprise and PPP.

No new urban poles should be created outside the green line

limiting construction, and in peri-urban areas as well. The poles

should build upon an intelligent and controlled density, calculated

in infrastructure and services based on the trend of population

growth in the region.

Development typologies are based on the hierarchy of the centres,

their spatial typology, municipal territorial public values, level of

development and investments in the territory, with infrastructure

and public and private services, and intervention measures to be

taken.

Development methods: community projects / programs

(revitalization), urban regeneration, reallocation-resettlement

and redevelopment.

Urban-rural regeneration should not be promoted in areas with

natural hazards, in protected sectorial areas, (i.e. industrial waste

areas) in poles / axes / corridors of national relevance. Investments

and development should be diverted from these areas that are in

conflict with the principles of sustainable development and increase

expropriation costs.

Table 4.10 Urban regeneration poles

117


Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

Economic area

Peri-urban area

Agricultural area

Marginal rural area

Environmental protected area

Urban centres densification

Urban pole regeneration

Rural pole regeneration

118

Map 4.3 Densification of urban centres


UP3- Integration of informal areas

The phenomenon of informal development

in the territory still remains a disturbing

element for the Albanian society. In the region

of Tirana-Durres this phenomenon is very

present, and therefore the policy aims to help

improve the quality of informal urban spaces in

the region, by means of tackling the problem

in two main directions: in the legal aspect,such

as the closure of the legalization process and

in terms of infrastructure, such as improving

infrastructure and integration of urban

communities in urban centres.

The development and regeneration of informal

areas should be based on approaches focusing

on people as well as policies on urban

interventions.

Policies addressing solutions to informality

issues must be based on understanding

social inequalities expressed in space, and

on the multidimensional nature of social

problems. Effective responses must be based

on integrated strategies on the development

of marginalized groups with diverse

problematics. Interventions in marginalized

areas should be based on:

order to increase efficiency and economy of

scale in services and to reduce the ecological

footprint in these centres.

• The development of urban strategies that

take into account not only access to housing,

but also the economic, environmental and

social development of these residents, mainly

based on the following 5 steps:

1. formalization and legalization;

2. regulation and planned development in

terms of land use;

3. urban regeneration strategies;

4. resettlement and reallocation;

5. creation of mixed use territories;

Interventions strategies in informal dwelling

areas should simultaneously interact with the

social housing strategy and property titles on:

1. social housing and tenancy opportunities;

2. low-cost dwellings in mixed housing blocks

(15-20% of the residential block area).

• The conservation and enhancement of

environmental values and preservation of

water resources.

• The improvement of the conditions of

services, transport, under and overground

infrastructure.

• Urban renovation by means of improving

infrastructure, public spaces, accessibility,

removing dividing barriers between buildings

and developing socio-cultural centres.

Interventions should be based on urban

renovation strategies and community

regeneration.

• Redevelopment of residential blocks which

should encourage building constructions

with mixed functions and vertical density and

utilization. A vertical densification model is

suggested to create more green spaces in

119


Zonat informale për zhvillim dhe integrim urban/rural

Pole

Kamez-Tirana

Koder-Kamez, Paskuqan,

Shkoze, Farke

Vore

Marqinet, Berxulle, Marikaj,

Maminas, Rade, Manez,

Sukth, Katund i Ri

Shijak-Xhafzotaj

Durres, Kenete, Plazh

Characteristics

The location and number of regeneration poles in informal urban

areas should be developed by the respective municipalities through

the General Local Plans and the municipal development strategy.

Development must be based on the aforementioned principles on

interconnection, integration and harmonization of urban centres in:

environment, employment, housing, economic development

technological areas, public transport, services, enterprise,

public-private partnership.

Revitalization of informal areas must be in harmony with the

revitalization of urban poles to unify development and investments,

in order to integrate these centres in the urban communities.

However, this proces should not create any new urban poles outside

the green line limiting construction, and in peri-urban areas as well.

The poles should build upon an intelligent and controlled density,

calculated in infrastructure and services based on the trend of

population growth in the region.

Development typologies, with regards to which intervention

measures should be taken, are based on the hierarchy of the

centres, their spatial typology, municipal territorial public values,

level of development and investments in the territory, with

infrastructure and public and private services.

The development methods include community projects / programs

(revitalization), urban regeneration, reallocation-resettlement and

redevelopment. Urban-rural regeneration should not be promoted

in areas with natural hazards, in protected sectorial areas, (i.e.

industrial waste areas) in poles / axes / corridors of national

relevance. Investments and development should be diverted from

these areas that are in conflict with the principles of sustainable

development and increase expropriation costs.

Table 4.11 Informal areas for development and integration

UP4- Accommodation and social

housing

UP4.1- Accomodation

New developments in housing should be based

on the trend of population growth, changes in

family structure and the factor of population

aging, providing adequate housing spaces for

these changes manifested in the population

demographics of the region.

Residential areas should contain different

areas for housing, services, rental facilities

and different housing categorizations for the

needs of new families as well as for the third

age group.

Housing densification should be “smart”,

on a human scale, ensuring that the living

conditions of residents in these areas are not

compromised by overcrowding. Densification

should allow and develop the use of territory

with mixed functions, interrelated to service

areas, and an efficient infrastructure.

• Housing should meet the regional

accessibility needs for all social groups and

individuals.

• The apartments should ensure differentiated

typologies for all age groups and functions;

they should be accessible by public transport,

and have living standards based on a m 2 per

capita/apartment basis.

120


Potential

Alternative housing pole (for young families in Tirana)

Alternative housing pole (for young families in Durres)

Alternative housing pole for redevelopment and

revitalization (future development, for the expansion

of Tirana 2030)

New areas with development potential in urban

centres, based on fast access to road networks and

economic poles in Tirana - Kamez.

(Other regional poles in secondary centres have been

determined in the rural policies.)

Pole

Vore-Marqinet

Shijak-Sukth

Kamez

Babrru-Paskuqan-Bathore

Former garment combine

Administrative unit no.2 - Sauk-Shkoze

Njësia administrative 2-Sauk-Shkozë

Laprake-former tiles factory

New areas with development potential in urban

centres, based on fast access to road networks and

economic poles in Durres.

(Other regional poles in secondary centres have been

determined in the rural policies.)

Durres Plazh

Durres Kenete

Durres Spitalle

Table 4.12 Poles and areas with development potential for housing

• The creation and development of rental

housing strategies and programs (as

an unexploited value) should be linked

to the region’s supply and demand. The

development of these strategies should be

closely linked to the online address system

in the national and local registers.

This instrument will develop new

opportunities for taxation and monitoring

of primary and secondary housing, bringing

additional space to the allocation of seasonal

tourist and student flows, and generating

additional revenues for the municipalities

of the region.

UP4.2- Social housing

Beyond determining the general needs for

housing in the General Local Plans, the

municipalities should establish precise

definitions on the needs for social housing.

These forecasts should be based on local

requirements as well as projections of

population growth in the short and

medium term.

Thus, municipalities are recommended

to prepare social housing and buildings

allocation programs on the territory, taking

into account the purpose of the plan to

improve the quality of life across the region,

with the objective of increasing by 30% the

social housing stock in the region.

It is recommended that 10-15% of the

development of collective housing be used

for marginalized groups, or for new families,

depending on local needs.

The municipalities can use programs of

development rights transfer or conditional

development intensity as instruments for

achieving this goal.

Public-private partnership schemes are

encouraged, with the National Housing Entity

and the Ministry of Urban Development

playing an important role.

Partnerships between local government

structures and private businesses should

be accompanied by schemes and grants

dedicated to meeting community needs.

121


UP5- Comprehensive regional

community space

The region of Tirana-Durres, should become

a model of all-inclusiveness in meeting the

needs of communities and their integration in

the society and local economy. The regional

spaces must provide access to all groups and

individuals.

Urban spaces, squares and infrastructure

should be designed in such a way as to meet

the needs of all communities and especially

of disabled people.

Public spaces and all buildings must be

flexible and accessible to user groups with

different needs and characteristics. The

possibilities of building inclusive spaces

within cities should include:

• Improving urban furniture in the road axes

and urban squares, including pedestrian axes.

Creating squares and parks as multi-use

spaces at different hours of the day, according

to the most needed specific functions.

• Building local and inclusive economies

through local market centres and trading

areas in cities, providing broad access to all

groups.

• Linking the community public health

agenda with the use of public spaces for

these functions. Regenerating communities

through the planning of socialization areas

and the use of community schools.

• Services to encourage higher levels of

physical activity during the day in public

spaces and residential quarters, through the

creation of gardens, within urbanized blocks.

Creating small parcels for the development

of urban agriculture. It is suggested to apply

pilot projects for urban farms in cooperation

with schools and the community.

This approach should be run and managed by

urban block administrators.

• Interconnecting residential blocks among

them with green areas, without building

barriers. Planning green, healthy, sunlighted

blocks during the day and lit during the night.

Constructing the “green network” in the

urban centres which connects the isolated

green areas, providing therefore an easier way

of use for the residents but also increasing

the potential of natural areas impact.

These networks will create increased

opportunities for an integrated treatment

of rainwater in urban blocks, thus reducing

problems in the wastewater treatment

network.

UP6- Energy efficiency in buildings

Improving energy efficiency in buildings

should be based on reducing costs spent

on energy, improving quality of life, and

protecting the environment.

The municipalities of the region need to

increase energy efficiency in public and social

buildings, aiming a complete retrofitting

of the facades that enable the reduction

of electricity use, using alternative energy

resources, and improving the infrastructure of

internal networks in buildings.

A total retrofitting of 50% of municipal public

service buildings is intended.

Initiatives for business and individuals

participation in improving energy efficiency

in buildings should be promoted and

encouraged. The support should consist in

policies that make a differentiation in the

price of electricity by hour (cheaper price on

night hours, depending on usage typologies,

individual or service), or by creating

successful PPP schemes.

The efficiency and facilitation of policies and

PPP projects, as well as encouraging soft

loans for residents, would reduce the need to

consume electricity from the grid.

• Encouraging the use of green terraces with

mixed functions, such as condominiums, with

dedicated spaces for solar panels, would

122


Sustainable communities

Governance

Services

Transport

and

interconnection

Environment

Equality

Economy

Housing

and an

arranged

environment

Social

and

cultural

When

decisions are

taken with

reference

to a community,

the

residents

shall be

involved in the

decision-making

process.

The community

should

enjoy a sense

of civic values,

responsibility

and pride.

Transport

means,

including

public

transport,

help people to

travel within

and between

the communities,

thus

reducing

dependency

from private

cars.

Structures are

needed to

encourage

safe walking

and biking in

the locality.

High quality

services for

families and

children

(including

early years of

childcare).

Affordable

public,

community,

voluntary and

private

services

(retails, fresh

food,

commercial,

information

and counselling

services)

that can be

reached from

anyone in the

community.

Active efforts

are needed to

minimize

climate

change

(people

should be

encouraged to

recycle and

save water,

not to misuse

land, not to

destroy

forests and

new fields).

Cleaner, safer

and greener

quarters shall

be created

(e.g. by

reducing

waste and

graffiti and

maintaining

pleasant

public

spaces).

People from

all ages,

races,

cultures and

skills should

be provided

with access to

services,

employment

and education

in the

community.

This impartiality

is not a

luxury. This

should be a

normal thing

for anyone.

Such

impartiality

should last

longer in

order to

ensure

opportunities

The residents

of the locality

should have a

possibility to

earn income

for a better

quality of life.

They should

be encouraged

to start

small

businesses

and spend

within the

locality in

order to help

in improving

the businesses

of the

others.

Successful

businesses

generate

more jobs for

more people

and better

living

standards for

many people

in the

community.

Creating a

place with a

positive spirit

for people and

local

characteristics.

Attractive,

safe and

useful

buildings for

the people

using them.

Buildings

inviting people

to go there. A

lot of public

spaces for the

people to play

and relax.

Creating a

community

spirit. The

people should

be always

welcomed to

join various

events. The

neighbours

should take

care and

respect each

other.

Everyone

should be

treated fairly.

Low levels of

crime, drugs

and anti-social

behaviours,

with sustainable,

effective

and community-friendly

policies.

Well

managed

Efficient

service

Efficient

enterprises

Environmental

awareness

A right to

everyone Prosperity Quality

design and

construction

Active,

all-inclusive

and

safe

Figure 4.14 Sustainable communities

123


further affect a better management of the grid.

It is suggested to promote lending schemes

on using photovoltaic panels for residential

and social buildings.

• The municipalities of the region should

promote the development of housing blocks

with “green” certificates/ecolabelling,

providing differentiated taxation to use these

assets.

Supporting PPP schemes on compulsory

use of smart digital energy infrastructure

for buildings would further develop the

conditions for creating urban areas with low

environmental pollution.

UP7- Urban mobility network

Urban mobility needs to be developed to meet

the mobility needs of residents and services

provided by businesses in the region in order to

ensure a qualitative living and efficient mobility

in time.

The aim is to build connected networks under

a continuous cycle, based on:

• a long-term, flexible vision and a clear

implementation plan;

• a broad-based participation in choosing the

vision and modes of transport;

• a balanced and integrated development of

all modes of transport, i.e. road, railway, water,

air;

• a clear and permanent assessment,

monitoring and reporting with measurable

indicators of the performance by the local and

regional structures.

Urban mobility plans should cover all forms

and modes of transport for all urban regional

agglomerations, including the movement of

private and public vehicles, passenger and

freight vehicles, whether motorized or nonmotorized,

in motion or in parking areas.

Mobility networks should combine extraurban

and urban mobility flows, creating multimodal

mobility nodes in strategic poles, where

ring systems and primary regional axes are

connected.

Municipalities should develop clear legal and

fiscal policies on the mass parking areas near

these nodes, aiming to reduce extraurban

mobility flows within urban centres.

The connection and harmonization of urban

mobility should combine clear schemes and

policies on:

• the motorized movement of residents;

• urban logistics;

• public vehicle mobility;

• alternative mobility ways without

environmental pollution.

Strategic poles and areas of urban

densification should be supported by efficient

public transport and specialized lanes that

promote the use for commuting and tourism

mobility.

The aim is to build public mobility schemes

with integrated tickets for mixed use,

with differentiated prices for different

social groups, as well as for different daily

schedules, to avoid the use of private vehicles.

UP7.1- Biking and walking

To minimize urban traffic problems,

alternative modes of transport, such as

bicycle riding and walking, are needed. The

following measures can be used to promote

and encourage increased use of bicycle

transport:

• Connecting, expanding and improving

spaces for bicycle use in primary road axes

would provide the missing conditions for

creating and using an interconnected and

accessible network for all residents.

• Improvement of safety conditions in

bicycle travel axes should be established by

developing vertical and horizontal signaling,

creating separating barriers and enabling

the division of flows in intersections between

vehicle users.

• Obligatory provision of the bicycle network

and service areas should be developed by

124


each municipality, such as: safe parking in

public facilities and institutions, transport

modes interchange possibility, bicycle

renting facilities etc. These services can be

developed through partnership schemes

where local authorities can guarantee the

realization of road infrastructure, while other

partners can support the development of soft

infrastructure.

• Stimulating the use of electric bicycles can

serve as an added scheme to reduce the use

of private vehicles. Municipalities should link

funds generated by public parking with the

opportunities to develop the infrastructure

necessary for this mode of mobility. The

charging facilities for these devices should

be provided in public squares and nearby

institutions.

Municipalities should support incentive

policies in differential taxation for the use of

alternative modes of transport.

Pedestrian mobility in urban centres.

Primary, secondary and local centres should

give prioritize pedestrian mobility.

• Creating quick axes between housing blocks

for pedestrians and eliminating barriers

in residential blocks would make this type

of movement efficient, such as removing

partition walls outside private properties,

eliminating interconnection barriers between

residential blocks. These approaches should

give priority to the movement towards priority

areas such as: public institutions and sociocultural

centres, as well as the multimodal

public mobility stations.

• Pedestrian mobility should be based on safe

access during late hours, enabling lighting

and mobility opportunities for people with

disabilities.

125


Adriatik

Mamurras

Ishëm

Gramëz

Thumanë

Borizanë

KRUJË

Cudhi

Hamallaj Plazh Kuratën

Hamallaj

Perlat

Armath

Shkallë

Manëz

Rrushkull Kullë Manëz

Rinas

e vjetër

Prezë

Gërdec

Kameras

Dritas

Katund i Ri

Radë Marqinet

Qerekë

Rinia

Vadardhë

Shargë

Qerret

Rubjekë

Muçaj

Bilalas Allçaush

Maminas

Bërxullë

VORË

Zall Herr

Sukth

Marikaj

Picar

KAMËZ

Laknas

Bathore

Vlashaj

Shënavlash

Gjokaj

Karpen

Spitallë

Sallmonaj

SHIJAK Metallë

Mazrek Yrshek

Paskuqan

Bodinak

Këneta Xhafzotaj

Shahinaj

Kuç Kus

Mëzez

Shtrazë

Kashar

TIRANË

Shkozet

DURRËS

Gjepalaj Kënetë

Gropaj

Rrashbull

Yzberisht

Allgjatë

Shetel

Pjezë

Prush

Arapaj

Hardhishtë

Sauqet

Vaqarr

Sauk

Shesh

Shkallnur

Rromanat

Pinet

Pezë Helmës

Golem

Zhurje

Bubq

Ndroq

Budull

Bilaj

Breg

Shkozë

Pezë e Vogël

Fushë Krujë

Zezë

Zgërdhesh

Nikël

Arbanë

Stërmas

Vishaj

Zall Bastar

Dajt

Farkë

Lundër

Mullet

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Shëngjergj

Qerret

Pezë

Mushqeta

Kërrabë

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Synej

Bago

Vorrozen

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Planning region border of ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the local government sub-units

Administrative border of the local government units

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Locality

126

Map 4.4 Urban centres and the territory comprising ICSP Tirana-Durres


4.3 Rural development policies

RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Territorial zoning

and consolidation

of agricultural land

Consolidation of

rural centres

Rural economic

development and

regional agricultural poles

Economic development

of private farms and

cooperatives

Rural regional

tourism

Environment and

renweable energy

Transport in

rural areas

Branding and

marketing of rural areas

Food chain

development

Figure 4.15 Rural development policies

This section of regional planning policies

examines the trends, challenges and

opportunities of rural development,

consolidation of agricultural land, rural

centres and community, service delivery and

rural enterprise development, taking into

account the best analysis and examples.

Rural development policies aim not only

at improving the environment, but also to

improve the quality of life in rural areas,

to meet the needs of the population with

food products and to increase the value of

agricultural production by supplementing the

food chain throughout the region of Tirana-

Durres.

The municipalities of the metropolitan region

should develop harmonized strategies among

them to develop a balanced and functional

rural environment between nature and man.

The main drivers of welfare promotion in rural

areas should be addressed in:

• Increasing the employment rate of the

population in the rural area, not only in

agriculture, but also in non-agricultural

activities related to it indirectly;

• Increasing labor productivity through

specialization in particular sectors thanks to

improved technologies in the service of agroindustry;

• Improving infrastructure, constructing the

ring road network, water supply, improving

ancillary infrastructure in favor of agriculture

development (irrigation and drainage

systems), improving community service level;

• Improving conditions on service needs for

rural communities in urbanized centres.

Establishing appropriate trading, collection

and storage centres, applying technology to

market agricultural products;

• Promoting and preserving natural resources

for a sustainable territorial management.

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Rural regeneration policies aim at improving

and promoting urban-rural areas through the

development of the built environment, and by

preserving agricultural land in agricultural

areas and the natural and water system.

The plan aims at linking the change in

land use, economic development and

the environmental aspect. Consequently,

economic and land use policies will be

categorized according to peri-urban,

agricultural and natural/extensive areas.

RP1- Territorial zoning and

consolidation of agricultural land

The municipalities of the region, based on

the General Local Plans (GLPs), should

take into account the different development

opportunities over the territories of rural

areas. This approach requires different

responses, regarding rural spatial contexts, to

the economization of use of the agricultural

land, housing space and services provided.

The plan targets the development orientation

according to the following spatial typologies:

a) rural areas under strong urban influence,

peri-urban areas;

b) rural areas under strong rural influence,

agricultural areas;

c) marginal rural areas, agricultural - natural

areas;

d) free natural areas and protected natural

areas.

a) Rural areas under strong urban influence,

peri-urban areas (including formal and

informal urbanization) are peripheral areas

under high influence of urbanization, where

urban development and urban pressures have

a strong impact on land use.

The development of peri-urban areas should

be directed towards their use as buffer zones

to prevent the spread of urbanization through

such instruments as:

• the green line, limiting urbanized areas;

• the economic and legal incentives, which

should be used to prioritize these areas

in the development of rural services like:

regional markets, urban agriculture, agrotourism,

recreation and services in support

of sustainable development, etc., in order to

stimulate interaction among urban and rural

areas.

b) Areas under strong rural influence,

agricultural areas 23 , are the areas focused

on the development of agriculture, where the

Peri-urban areas

Peri-urban areas Tirana

Peri-urban areas Durres

Peri-urban areas Kamez

Peri-urban areas Vore,

Marqinet

Peri-urban areas Sukth, Sukth i

ri, Shijak, Xhafzotaj

Linze, Farke, Petrele, Vaqarr, Kashar, Berxulle

Durres, Porto Romano, Spitalle, Shkozet, Rrashbull, Arapaj, Shkallnur

Paskuqan, Bathore, Cerkeze, Morine, Dritas, Tapize, Qereke, Valias,

Berxulle

Kashar, Berxulle, Fushe Preze, Bubq, Gjecaj, Gerdec, Marikaj, Vlashaj,

Karpen, Metalle, Shahinaj, Shetel

Katund i ri, Kulle, Guzaj, Borake, Gjepalaj, Rreth, Pjeze, Maliq Muço,

Fllake, Qerret, Jube, Rrushkull

Table 4.13 Peri-urban areas

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main revenues are derived from agriculture.

The use of land in these territories should

be oriented away from the pressure of urban

activities. The municipalities of the region,

through the General Local Plans (GLPs),

should prioritize agricultural activity in these

territories, avoiding the birth and sprawl of

urbanization.

Agriculture areas

Agricultural area Tirana

Agricultural area Durres

Agricultural area Kamez

Agricultural area Vore, Marqinet

Agricultural area Sukth, Sukth i

ri, Shijak, Xhafzotaj

Farke, Petrele, Vishaj, Arbane, Pezë Helmes, Peze e vogel, Ndroq,

Zhurje, Kashar, Domje, Laknas, Valias

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Durres, Porto Romano, Qerret, Shen Avlash, Fllake, Rrashbull, Pjeze,

Dedej (agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Cerkeze, Morine, Dritas, Tapize, Qereke, Valias, Domje

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Kashar, Berxulle, Fushe Preze, Bubq, Gjecaj, Gerdec, Marikaj, Vlashaj,

Karpen, Metalle, Shahinaj, Shetel, Maminas, Rade, Manez, Armath

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Katund i ri, Kulle, Guzaj, Borake, Gjepalaj, Rreth, Pjeze, Maliq Muço,

Fllake, Qerret, Jube, Rrushkull

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Table 4.14 Agricultural areas

Marginal rural areas

Marginal rural areas Tirana

Marginal rural areas Durres

Marginal rural areas Kamez

Marginal rural areas Vore,

Marqinet

Marginal rural areas Sukth,

Sukth i ri, Shijak, Xhafzotaj

Dajt, Priske e madhe, Gurre, Fikas, Dobrosh, Petrele, Vishaj, Stermas,

Picalle, Sultaf, Peze e vogel, Pinet, Sauqet, Shesh, Gjokaj, Kuc (agricultural

fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Hamallaj, Rrotull, Perlat, Dedaj, Kryemadh, Romanat

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Kallmet, Pinar, Qinam, Menge Zeze, Larushk, Rinas

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Murrqine, Gramez, Dukagjin i ri, Adriatik, Likmetaj

Kus, Shesh, Kuc, Gjokaj, Liknesh

Gerdec, Kuraten, Rrotull, Fushe Drac, Drac, Shetaj

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Katund i ri, Kulle, Guzaj, Borake, Gjepalaj, Rreth, Pjeze, Maliq Muco,

Fllake, Qerret, Jube, Rrushkull

(agricultural fields, agriculture nearby these units)

Table 4.15 Marginal rural areas

23

Zonat e agrikulturës janë të shprehura mbi konceptin hapësinor (jo mbi ndarjet administrative lokale territoriale).

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c) Marginal rural, agricultural-natural

areas, which have a weak development

structure or dispersed urbanization

development (development of formal or

informal urbanization) should be developed

focused on opportunities to support

agriculture, as agricultural and natural

reserve areas. Benefits will be achieved

through the use of large areas of land mainly

in nature-focused functions, such as natural

reserves or areas in service of nature, areas

in service of cultivated forests, orchards,

areas in support of future agriculture and

spaces for cultivated species requiring large

territories.

be kept protected and preserved from urban

and rural developments.

The interconnection of these areas with urban

areas should be focused on natural tourism

and recreational functions. The infrastructure

of these areas must be accompanied by

information boards and temporary services to

the benefit of natural tourism.

The minimal use of these ecosystem

protection areas is suggested, with the main

focus being: river deltas, wetland areas,

water system and resources, coastal forests,

mountain ranges and peripheral hills.

d) Free natural areas and protected natural

areas are the peripheral part of the impact of

urban and rural pressure. These areas should

Free natural areas and protected natural areas

Free natural areas and protected

natural areas Tirana

Free natural areas and protected

natural areas Durres

Free natural areas and protected

natural areas Kamez

Free natural areas and protected

natural areas Vore, Marqinet

Free natural areas and protected

natural areas Sukth, Sukth i

ri, Shijak, Xhafzotaj

Mountain range of Kruja, Park of Dajti, Hills of Ibe, Kus, Kuc, Durisht,

Shalqize, Shpat (Baldushk), Peze;

Natural system and geo-monuments;

The water system and the nearby peripheral protected areas

(buffer zone).

Hills of Currila Durres, Erzen river delta, Cape of Rodon, Shetaj, Drac,

Lake of Tarini, Manskuri, Krymedhenj, Gjuze, Bozaxije, Kercukje;

Natural system and geo-monuments;

The water system and the nearby peripheral protected areas

(buffer zone).

Lake of Paskuqan, Zall Herr, Pinar, Virjon, Kallmet reservoirs, Qinam,

Tapize;

Natural system and geo-monuments;

The water system and the nearby peripheral protected areas

(buffer zone).

Cape of Rodon, Adriatik, Patoku Lagoon, Safetaj, Preze, Hills of

Kashari, Kuç, Shesh Ndroq, Kerçukje (regional natural park); Natural

system and geo-monuments;

The water system and the nearby peripheral protected areas

(buffer zone.

Porto Romano, Erzen river delta, Bay of Lalzi, Shkallnur, Manskuri,

Muharremaj, Gjuze; Natural system and geo-monuments;

The water system and the nearby peripheral protected areas

(buffer zone).

Table 4.16 Free natural areas and protected natural areas

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RP1.1- Consolidation and use of

agricultural land

The agricultural system is formed by the

entirety of lands and territories with similar

categories of use in agriculture (B). The

result of the interaction between the use of

territorial values and human activities for

cultivation and construction of an agricultural

character forms the agricultural system and

the chain of food industry.

The agricultural system has been used

as a basic element to develop territorial

development scenarios in rural areas,

focusing on:

• Reducing the fragmentation of agricultural

land, to ensure increased efficiency in

farmers’ productivity.

• Densification, concentration and access to

services in function of agriculture, to increase

the use of agricultural network by farmers’

groups, and to increase farm size and

seasonal / annual product;

• Creating a climate for the development of

supportive policies to plant land with suitable

autochthonous plants for high-yielding areas

that are related or contribute to other areas

of agriculture such as livestock, poultry,

apiculture etc.

The instruments that will mostly affect the

return or use of land as agricultural land are:

support and promotion based on the product

yeild quantity, financial and legal incentives

to use local inputs, incentives based on some

selective criteria (surface area, number of

cattle, income etc).

These factors will enable to increase welfare

in rural areas and to develop productivity on

agricultural land. Meanwhile, incentives and

development instruments that are not based

on type or the amount of product produced

have a wider impact on peri-urban areas

where the territory and services are linked to

auxiliary urban functions.

Land consolidation and enlargement of

farms could mark the turning point of

the development of agriculture and rural

economy, as well as the limitation of

agricultural land degradation.

The consolidation of agricultural land is an

effective instrument for a more competitive

agrarian sector, focused on the development

and growth of areas of fragmented land plots

for agricultural use in rural areas.

The line ministry and the municipalities of the

region should develop policies based on this

instrument, in order to create opportunities

for a unification of agricultural farms,

promoting agglomerations with similar

services, aiming to create 5 to 7 hectares of

plots with the same product.

Initially, it is recommended to carry out

pilot projects in order to further develop the

regional strategy on land consolidation and

management.

It is recommended to build and develop

offices in each municipality for the

management of agricultural land,

establishment of the digital cadastre,

contracting of companies for the

implementation of the consolidation strategy,

and companies to supervise its process.

This proccess should be based on:

• Clarifying the ownership status in the digital

cadastre;

• Classifying the price of agricultural land for

purchase, sale or rent;

• Classifying the crediting categories for

purchasing or renting agricultural land.

The approach for consolidation and

management of agricultural land:

The most effective way of building this rural

development instrument is the full and

comprehensive consolidation, but there are

other opportunities as well, such as simplified

consolidation or consolidation of voluntary

groups. The municipalities are encouraged

to develop pilot projects in advance, and then

apply large-scale consolidation.

The objectives of the consolidation of

agricultural land are:

• grouping dispersed agricultural plots

to minimize the negative effects of the

fragmentation of agricultural land;

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• increasing revenues from agriculture, thanks

to the reduction of production costs (using

instruments such as the economy of scale) and

improvement of the irrigation network;

• encouraging large-scale effective projects,

with direct impact on the territory and

agriculture, based on the growth of the

regional food chain.

RP2- Consolidation of rural centres

Regeneration and densification, are the basic

conditions for the consolidation of urban and

rural centres. Regeneration of rural centres

should be developed according to a chronology

where investment maximizes the benefits for

local communities.

First, it is suggested to regenerate those

centres of local administrative units, which

have cultural-historical heritage and

landscape values given that the return on

investment will be faster, due to the high

number of services provided to the residents

and tourists. The community and business

should become part of the development fund in

the regeneration areas, through public-private

partnership schemes.

The densification of centres should be based

on the further development of the regenerated

poles, as well as on the reuse of unused

territorial values such as: second homes,

depreciated objects, unfinished buildings etc.

Densification should prevent the development

of linear urban centres along the road axes.

Housing and rural development strategies and

policies should be tailored in accordance to

the specific spatial requirements. A particular

focus should be given to responding to high

development demand in specific areas, mainly

along the coast, based on:

• The strategy on consolidation and

management of agricultural land;

• The consolidation of urban-rural centres;

• The creation of restrictive lines of urban

development, based on the law on the planning

and development of the territory, not allowing

the expansion of the ecological footprint of

urban and rural centres.

In this context it is important to make a

differentiation between the development of

urban housing and rural housing, based on 3

territorial spatial typologies:

a) rural areas under strong urban influence,

peri-urban areas;

b) rural areas under agro-rural influence,

agricultural areas;

c) marginal rural areas, agricultural-natural.

RP2.1- Rural services and community

development

Meeting the demand for services of the

rural communities is an obligation to

ensure the longevity and well-being of rural

communities. To ensure the continuation of

rural communities in a sustainable manner the

following should be taken into consideration by

the municipalities:

• Improving services in the residential areas,

such as: the post office and online services,

banking system, police station, community

centres, child care centres, education centres,

religious spaces, urban parks, sports areas,

all accessible within distances no longer than

20-30 minutes walking distance.

• Covering the demand for drinking water and

efficient energy grid in the urban and rural

centres. Providing treatment of solid waste,

in regional schemes, as well as more efficient

approaches in waste recycling schemes (RRR).

• Support structures and services for

marginalized groups, the elderly, people with

disabilities and those with special needs.

• Efficient public transport and links to

settlements of the highest hierarchy, both rural

and urban.

RP3- Rural economic development and

regional agricultural poles

Agriculture has traditionally been a pillar

of the rural economy. This sector should be

encouraged to operate under a closed cycle

by empowering poles, areas, corridors and

agricultural networks in conjuction with the

development of human capital.

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The financial support of local administrative

units for rural areas and the development

of urban-rural cooperative potentials are

required to promote a variety of rural-based

activities.

Agricultural farms are the main actors in

promoting economic activities in the rural

areas. They are operational structures that

temporarily move due to the change in the

market demands.

Handling their dimensions and locations

should allow farmers to be able to change

production activities according to their needs.

Therefore, rural development policies of the

LGUs should be flexible and create conditions

for the farms and farmers to adapt to the

needs of change, respond to the market

demands, and integrate into the cycle of the

added value of the global food chain.

Employment in rural areas is no longer

an intensive work on agricultural lands. It

includes a variety of actors that are part of

the same cycle, but which operate in different

territorial areas and poles, such as:

Peripheral (peri-urban) areas should be

used for specialized activities, rural-urban

agri-tourism or urban agricultural services,

such as markets or services that can assist

in linking urban areas to rural areas. The

development of these various activities with a

focus on cooperation will bring improvements

and benefits to the lifestyle in both urban and

rural areas.

and management of agricultural land,

creation and development of agricultural land

board and fund, public-private partnership,

cooperatives, development of food chain

innovation and regionalization of product

production.

In rural centres that lie in the western

lowland areas, where agricultural activity

is more developed, municipalities are

encouraged to promote:

• joining small farms to better cope with

competition and improve the quality of

agricultural products;

• specializing small agricultural farms in

‘bio’ products to preserve the varieties of the

area’s tradition;

• improving modern centralized irrigation

and drainage systems, developing drainage

systems to protect agricultural lands and the

community from unforeseen natural disasters

(mainly floods).

The plan aims to prioritize the use of the

territory based on the functions illustrated in

the following table:

These spaces, territorial areas, should

be supported by the municipalities with

differentiated, fiscal or legal development

policies for uses that focus on creating

conditions for public-private partnerships.

The aim is to develop the aforementioned

services, based on new innovative

enterprises.

Rural areas should be developed based on a

clear vision of interaction in the agricultural

industry network to create a successful

climate between all stakeholders. It is

suggested to use and interconnect such

development instruments as: consolidation

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Muncipalities

Tirana

Durres

Kamez

Dajt

Peze

Rural areas

Zall Herr

Vaqarr

Shengjergj

Zallbastar

Farke

Katund i Ri, Durres,

Ishem, Sukth,

Maminas, Katund i

Ri, Xhafzotaj

Manëz

Agricultural functions

The agricultural areas of Tirana are concentrated in a large-scale on

the livestock farming and dairy products, as well as on agro-tourism.

The hilly areas around Tirana also have a tradition in the cultivation of

olive and fruit trees. Apiculture is considered a development potential.

livestock farming, fruit trees and apiculture

livestock farming, fruit trees and apiculture

agriculture and livestock farming

livestock farming, fruit trees and apiculture

livestock farming

livestock farming

livestock farming, fruit trees and apiculture

poultry, fishing and aquaculture

agriculture, livestock farming and apiculture

Kamza has a surface area of 2,364 hectares of arable land, an

insignificant figure compared to the population, while the main bulk

of the agricultural land is occupied by the informal constructions. In

the area of Kamza the agricultural land consists of 1,300 ha for mixed

cultivation, 289 ha vineyards, 103 ha of fruit trees and no olive groves.

Vore

Shijak

Paskuqan

Preze

Berxulle

Maminas

Xhafzotaj

Gjepalaj

vineyards, fruit trees and apiculture

agriculture, livestock farming and apiculture

agriculture and livestock farming

poultry, vineyards, olive groves and apiculture

poultry, agriculture and livestock farming

poultry, agriculture and livestock farming, vineyards

Kruje Bubq agriculture and livestock farming

Nikel

Thumane

Agriculture is concentrated on a few products with high added value

such as flowers. In the municipality of Vora over 800 large businesses

are registered. In Vora there are few vineyards, only 85 ha, 1,205 ha of

olive groves, 2,091 ha of mixed cultivation and 35 ha of fruit trees.

Agriculture is oriented towards products with high added value such

as the cultivation of vegetables and forage, livestock breeding and

orchardry. A characteristic of this community is the cultivation of

vegetables, forage and the increasing exansion of the vineyards

surfaces, orchardry and olive groves, and cultivation of early green

beans and melons in the hilly areas. In the area of Shijak 2,800 ha of

land are used for mixed cultivation, 1,227 ha are olive groves, 108 ha

vineyards and 6 ha fruit trees.

fruit trees, agriculture and livestock farming

agriculture and livestock farming

134

Table 4.17 Agriculture functions in rural areas


Axes of rural-urban regional development

Katund i Ri - Sukth - Sukth i ri - Shijak - Xhafzotaj - Rrashbull

Ndroq - Peze - Preze - Vaqarr - Arbane

Vore - Maminas - Berxulle - Preze - Bubq - Domje - Laknas

Kamez - Nikel - Fushe Kruje

Maminas - Manez - Hamallaj

Fushe Preze - Berxulle - Bubq - Thumane

Petrele - Vishaj - Mullet - Fikas - Ibe - Priske e madhe

Table 4.18 Axes of rural-urban regional development

RP3.1- Support activities for agricultural

economic development

• Establishing regional information and

training offices on market needs for farmers.

The line ministry, the Regional Development

Agency, and the municipalities of the region

should define the hierarchy of development

of information centres as well as the regional

operational and monitoring structures.

The aim is to improve the information and

specialized employment conditions for the

creation of a more efficient economy for farm

households.

• Promoting free entrepreunership in the

region should be strengthened through

supportive policies for new businesses,

focusing on urban-rural interaction, promoting

innovation in agriculture, the food chain, agroindustry

and agro-tourism.

• Stimulating soft loans should be directed

towards farmers who build cooperations,

creating the conditions to unify the range of

products. Lending schemes should take into

account the support of farmers who become

part of the project to consolidate agricultural

land by helping to develop economies of scale.

• Facilitated crediting to agricultural

entrepreneurship, prioritizing certain groups,

such as girls, women and young people, who

should become part of these schemes by

providing the conditions to promote the urbanrural

agricultural economy on farms under

3 ha. The Regional Development Agency and

other regional or local government institutions

should participate in the creation of financial

schemes in support of soft loans, serving as

the guarantor of the lending value, in order to

strengthen and enhance the wellfare of these

clusters.

• Public-private partnership schemes should

serve as an added value in cases where

LGUs can become support partners thanks

to the provision of low-cost territorial assets,

generating economic benefits to be used in

community services.

Support schemes for other sectors such

as aquaculture and apiculture may be an

additional aid that serves as a catalyst

for success in supporting other schemes,

contributing to the quality of interaction

between agricultural products.

• Developing fiscal and legal instruments for

the creation of cooperatives. Encouraging

cooperation between scientific research

institutions, different farms and donors

should be developed to operate on platforms

and schemes with clear legal and fiscal

frameworks.

Harmonization of investments for the creation

of cooperatives should be closely linked with

the creation of an appropriate environment

for regionalization of production, land

consolidation and the development of the

necessary regional knowledge.

135


• Creating the network and chain of food

products distribution infrastructure.

The municipalities should promote the

development of collection, processing,

packaging, storage and distribution points of

food products in the urban centres’ markets,

as neuralgic points for connecting the

consumer to the network and the food chain

infrastructure.

• Establishing the recycling infrastructure.

The municipalities of the region should

establish a network of composting, recycling

and reusing natural waste to promote the

creation of a closed-cycle rural economy at

local and regional level.

• Regenerating the irrigation infrastructure

of agricultural land. The metropolitan region

is equipped with many water resources

in support of agriculture, such as rivers,

reservoirs, irrigation channels and water

management systems.

The regional municipalities need to develop

joint projects to implement integrated

irrigation systems. These systems should be

protected with buffer zones and monitored for

above and underground pollution, as well as

for urban constructions in their vicinity.

RP3.2- Product regionalization

The regionalization of agricultural production

will serve as an opportunity to increase the

yield of local production. This instrument will

contribute to the consolidation of agricultural

land and to the specialization of operational

and production structures of the local

agricultural product. The line ministry should

guide capital investments towards those

municipalities and local activities that have a

development priority, towards the construction

of the regional agricultural product network,

having as the ultimate goal:

• increasing the surface area of arable land in

parcels larger than 5-7 ha;

• facilitating and promoting the innovation

processes in the agricultural sector;

• protecting the agricultural land in marginalnatural

areas (agro-farming areas);

• increasing and expanding agricultural farms

specialized in specific regional products;

• a better organization of work and

employment in the agricultural sector support

structures;

• creating connective/intermediary links

among farmers, producers and other local

operators (connection to the food chain).

For the purposes of regionalizing production,

as an opportunity contributing to the increase

of the regional welfare level, the municipalities

and line ministries are suggested to promote:

• fiscal support for predetermined agricultural

inputs prices as a priority for regional

agriculture;

• support through soft loan schemes for

agricultural mechanics;

• policies / strategies for the protection and

management of agricultural land, as well as

the establishment of operational schemes for

the unification of regional products based on

priority agricultural sectors and areas of each

municipality;

• legal and fiscal incentives for the cultivation

of non-cultivated agricultural land in marginal

areas;

• differentiated taxation to encourage the

use of agricultural land with a surface area

of 5-7 ha, in unifying schemes of agricultural

varieties that support each other;

• structural policies that contribute to the

consolidation and management of agricultural

farms interacting with global market networks.

Financial support should have a differentiated

focus on the groups of producers, processors

and production distributors.

Risk management and aid fund in agriculture

Risk management is the process of identifying,

evaluating, controlling and monitoring the

potentially harmful natural events or situations

that negatively impact in achieving the

objectives in agriculture.

Given that agricultural products are delicate

and highly sensitive to weather conditions,

temperature, humidity, drought and other

natural disasters, their insurance at the

respective institutes is highly indispensable.

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It is recommended to build regional insurance

and product management schemes through

the regional agricultural development fund.

This fund should also serve as an additional

aid in cases when regionalized production

becomes non-tradable, as the result of a

sudden shift in the global market demand.

State aid can be granted by using certain

instruments, such as:

• subsidies and grants allocated to help in

various agricultural processes or to overcome

difficult weather situations etc.;

• tax exemptions, tax deferrals, tax rate cuts

and reduction in the private social insurance

contribution;

• public participation in the capital as a coowner

with the farmer;

• soft loans from the banking system and

especially by the institutions of micro-finance,

which have a lower interest rate and can be

used by the farmer.

RP3.3- Innovation in agro-industry and

agro-environment

Creating a spirit of interaction between young

entrepreneurs in the agro-industry and agroenvironment

innovation sectors emerges as

a need to cope with the demand of the global

value network, as well as to make efficient the

regional food chain.

It is suggested that the municipalities and

line ministries promote the development

of innovation, research and technological

development centres with a focus on linking

projects to agricultural and business

undergraduate programs in order to build the

agricultural cluster habitat.

The development of these activities should be

supported by:

• The development and strengthening of

human skills for sectoral profiling, through

specific trainings by regional offices for the

purposes of developing new professions in

rural areas.

• The development of advisory, certification and

promotional structures for entrepreneurship

activities in rural areas, where regional

agro-incubators play an important role. It is

suggested to build the latter in cooperation

with the agricultural university, economic

university and business associations.

• The establishment of mobile laboratories

in infrastructureless areas to carry out

experiments on the elements of soil

composition, water, seed quality, plants,

flowers, biochemical analysis of animals,

etc., which will bring a good and lacking

coordination of the work among research

institutions, farmers and local government.

• The development of research and innovation

networks, based on inter-sectorial partnership

and global networking. It is suggested that

these developments be combined with the

agro-incubators development strategies in

cooperation with the Agricultural University

and regional SMEs.

• The education and training of farmers from

research institutions, supported by parttime

programs that help to build the spirit of

promoting successful local rural business

cases at the same time.

Training packages should create links between

the use of agricultural inputs, the efficiency

of the regional product, the logistics and

distribution system and the product demand

network in the global markets.

They should encourage the promotion and use

of innovative technologies in agriculture and

sustainable management of agricultural land,

forests, pastures and water.

The local government should create the

conditions for a rapid development of

infrastructure for innovation in the region,

promoting the efficiency of using new

technologies, promoting and informing interest

groups through NGOs and regional offices. It is

suggested to support platforms or other forms

of electronic innovation that help to manage

land and ways of cooperation for farmers to

promote high yields.

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RP4- Economic development of private

farms and cooperatives

Restructuring and modernization of farms

will be carried out first and foremost through

community awareness on “bio” products and

avoiding the treatment of products with nonorganic

methods. The somewhat primitive

methods of working processes in agriculture,

in the selection of seeds, cultivars and the

appropriate breeds should be replaced with

modern methods of work that will lead to more

accurate orientation and growth in markets

based on the diversification of agricultural

products.

An essential step in this development is

cooperation between private and public

structures: making local government

territorial spaces available for frequent

meetings among local farmers, trainers,

researchers, entrepreneurs, etc., with a

view to building a communication network,

thus creating the possibility of establishing a

climate of trust on partnerships.

RP4.1- Restructuring of agricultural farms

The restructuring of agricultural farms will

change the nature of the production operation

system at local level. The line ministry,

the Regional Development Agency and the

municipalities of the region should develop

structural policies based on land reform

(consolidation of agricultural land) and its

privatization.

Consolidation of agricultural land is the

process of uniting land plots to form larger

farms. The purpose of farm consolidation is to

better organize work and increase productivity

in the markets. The aim is to develop and

solidify the operational units that used to be

scattered, in order to work together with the

intention of forming larger areas with the

same character of agricultural development.

For farm consolidation it is suggested to:

• Encourage the interaction of family farms,

such as “bio” farms, to increase the likelihood

of certified “bio” products on a regional scale.

Establishing pilot projects based on the land

fund and consolidation schemes will stimulate

a broad participation of farmers in these

schemes. Legal and fiscal incentives should

be directed towards projects that support

the cooperation of small and medium-sized

stakeholders.

• Strengthen the interaction dynamics

of small farms through qualification and

training of young farmers to cooperate under

a product profiling. Unification according to

quality, product diversity and agricultural

standardization will increase the possibilities

for survival in the free competition.

• Restructuring should be simultaneously

targeted at the creation of collection and

storage farms, focused on the processing and

marketing of the product as a final “Brand”,

in order to specialize the work processes and

to ensure the desired quality. The introduction

and development of the region’s traditional

product brand would create the conditions

for an added value in product marketing on

international networks and would create a

stimulating spirit for “Slow-food” tourism.

RP4.2- Opportunities for cooperation – the

establishment of private cooperatives

The construction of private cooperatives will

boost agricultural production at macro level,

and will create new financing opportunities

for small and medium-sized farms to become

part of these schemes, creating a sustainable

economic system for major agricultural

activities.

The consolidation of agricultural farms and

cooperatives will serve as a basic instrument

to return marginalized lands into productive

lands, increase income in rural areas and open

new education branches for young people in

rural areas.

Encouraging cooperation among farmers will

affect the development of the rural community,

allowing the transfer of knowledge and

technology in rural areas.

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The primary step to establish the system

of private cooperatives is the integration of

farms with complementary functions and

their organization under a board-led and

regional or local agricultural fund.

The aim is to determine the directions of

development of cooperative farms depending

on local processes and products. The

interaction of stakeholders can be stimulated

by creating fiscal and legal incentives.

Economic benefits from cooperation

- More opportunities for secure markets to

sell products, to ensure inputs, financing, etc.,

for the farm.

- Increasing and concentrating the agricultural

supply to the benefit of agro-industry.

- More opportunities to increase production

for the market.

- More market power.

- More power and control on the value chain. -

Coordination and cooperative behavior among

stakeholders.

- Reduced production costs.

- Better prices for producers and consumers,

etc.

The municipalities and public institutions

should promote the transfer of knowledge

from research institutes to these structures

through the development of agricultural

innovation schemes and platforms. The link

between public and private researchers and

the rural community business will affect the

reduction of product costs.

Local and central governance should

formulate and implement agricultural

development projects and programs focused

on cooperation of new generation farmers.

Political benefits

- Higher lobbying power.

- Less opportunistic behavior among stakeholders.

- More cooperation among stakeholders.

- More convenience for the government.

RP5- Development of the food chain

The food chain consists of a series of

activities that start from the production to the

sale of food products. The food chain includes

all actors from whom it develops, farmers and

companies from production to sale.

The aim is to promote the primary conditions

for the development of this chain, such as:

• providing certified “Bio” raw products and

maintaining the local characteristics for the

development of food products;

• enhancing environmental quality in the

region;

• increasing the quality of agricultural

land, water network, air quality and other

environmental-based factors;

Table 4.19 Cooperation benefits

• using natural fertilizers, and banning the

use of antibiotics in living by-products.

Encouraging public policies with a broad

spectrum of action is a necessity in

facilitating the interconnected activities of the

private sector through:

• The creation of a complete marketing

network of agricultural and livestock

products, based on two typologies:

- the “farm to plate” food system focused on

the development of regional and international

marketing network;

- the “slow-food” network in support of the

regional tourism economy, focused on ‘Bio’

products.

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• The expansion of the network of

partnerships and collaborative alliances in

services and branded products, based on

innovation and knowledge.

• The development of human capacities in

local public institutions through incubators,

vocational schools and specific courses

directed at industrial processes of products,

logistics and global sales network.

• The establishment of platforms and support

structures to supply the chain with regional

quality raw products that contribute to the

creation of authentic agricultural brands.

Additional opportunities for the agroindustry

sector will be carried out by:

• Establishing storage structures, collection,

processing and trading centres at regional

and local level. The Regional Development

Agency, the municipalities of the region and

the line ministry should define the hierarchy

and priority areas to build these structures

that will be created by private entrepreneurs.

• Creating supportive conditions to diversify

the range of products, which are developed

through the promotion of cooperation

schemes among new entrepreneurs in urban

areas and local farmers. These activities,

aimed at promoting cooperation between

urban and rural centres, are suggested to be

developed in peri-urban areas.

• Establishing laboratory and certification

structures to increase product standards will

enable product access at an international

level. The establishment of municipal

structures for the management and

monitoring of these standards will create the

conditions to establish a full chain in regional

agro-industry products.

• Agro-incubators are very much needed

to help young entrepreneurs to establish

not only the survival conditions in the early

years, but also the networking opportunities

in the global network. Agro-incubators

should create the conditions to promote

free entrepreneurship with a focus on “Bio”

agriculture, by supporting stakeholders

with the necessary knowledge and soft loan

schemes.

The plan proposes to establish 2

agro-incubators in Kamza and Shijak

municipalities.

Achieving the quality of ‘bio’ products in the

regional food chain should be supported by:

• Prohibiting discharges of untreated urban

waters into rivers (Erzen and Ishem) and

irrigation channels. The municipalities of

the region should complete the construction

of the respective infrastructure for urbanrural

centres and create the conditions,

norms and standards for the construction of

managed septic tanks, for grouped or isolated

dwellings far from urban areas. (Local

monitoring structures should develop cyclical

system controls to analyze the quality of the

regional environment, the latter being one of

the key factors affecting product certification

oriented toward exports).

• Developing integrated and protected

irrigation and drainage systems starting

from: the reservoir pumping system, cleaning

of remaining active reservoirs, cleaning

of discharge outlets, irrigation / drainage

channels and their centralized control

systems, construction of controlled and

certified water wells.

• Developing networks and hubs in regional

municipalities for the recycling and

composting of natural waste as well as their

reuse for a sustainable circular economy. The

strategic poles to develop these structures

are:

Shijak-Sukth; Qerret-Hamallaj;

Ndroq-Peze;

Vore-Berxulle-Bubq;

Farke-Petrele-Mullet-Arbane;

Valias-Nikel.

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Poles of centres to be covered by transport services for the well-progress of the

rural-urban food chain system.

Regional markets

Tirana

(peri - urban areas);

Regional markets

Durres (peri - urban

areas, the area of

Shkozet or Spitalle).

Collection and

processing points

Shijak-Sukth-

Katund i ri;

Vore-Maminas-

Manëz-Bubq-

Thumane;

Ndroq-Peze;

Farke-Mullet-Arbane.

Rural market centre

Shkozet-Xhafzotaj-

Shijak-Sukth i ri-

Sukth-Katund i ri;

Pjeze-Ndroq-Peze-

Vaqarr;

Jube-Rrushkull-

Hamallaj;

Manez-Maminas;

Bubq-Berxulle-

Domje-Laknas;

Thumane-Nikel.

Urban markets

Tirana;

Durres;

Shijak;

Sukth;

Vore;

Kamez;

Ndroq.

Table 4.20 Poles of regional market centres to be covered by transport services

RP6- Rural regional tourism

The regional tourism policies discussed above

in the economic development policies section

should relate to the rural tourism potentials

of the region. The regional values in this kind

of tourism are not scarce, the short distances

to access these potentials make it possible

to diversify the product of the regional

tourism package. These potentials link the

tourist areas of urban centres to rural areas,

providing enhanced functions for agrotourism.

The development of the regional mobility

network will create the conditions to increase

the absent diversification for the development

of natural rural tourism.

The LGUs of the region should take

measures to accommodate tourist

flows calculated at the peak of tourism,

managing and monitoring the structures

operating in tourism, public transport

networks (including massive parking sites

and relevant infrastructure above and

underground), healthcare centres and

natural areas equipped with the basic

services for mass tourism.

The development of areas with a rural

tourism potential should be based on the

‘eco-tourism’ package based on bio-food

services and on enjoying the naturalhistorical-cultural

values of the region. The

rural tourism poles and areas should not

create ‘closed communities’ of permanent

or temporary settlements. These coastal

or mountainous areas should be developed

in harmony with the environment, without

creating urban development in free or

protected natural areas.

The development of operational structures in

function of tourism, hotels or other massive

service functions, both temporary and

permanent, should not undermine the rural

character of the development.

This development should be based on the

principles of protecting the five territorial

systems, while maintaining the distances

provided by law and the regulation on the

conditions and criteria for exercising the

activity in a beach station.

The potentials of the region in agrotourism,

sea-sun tourism and natural tourism are:

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Type of tourism

Natural tourism

Agrotourism

Sea-sun tourism

Potential axes

• Bisht Palle-Porto Romano-Hills of Currila

(Urban park with mixed functions);

• Patoku Lagoon;

• Cape of Rodon, Preze, Vore, Ndroq (regional park);

• Dajti Park-Hills of Farke-Petrele-Arbane-Peze-Preze.

Tirana-Peze Helmes-Ndroq-Pjeze-Xhafzotaj;

• Qerret-Rrushkull-Hamallaj;

• Rubjeke-Rade-Manez.

• Bay of Lalzi, Cape of Rodon, Patoku Lagoon;

• Golem-Qerret-Karpen.

Table 4.21 Potentials of the region in tourism

RP7- Branding and marketing of rural

areas

Branding and marketing are key elements

in creating a brand strategy and creating the

“Bio-Food” region.

The aim is to create a brand of regional

products and regional identity through

the promotion of ‘bio’ products and ruralnatural

tourism in the region. As above, it is

suggested:

To create a permanent climate of

cooperation between the municipalities

of the region for the promotion of festivals,

events, tours, and build a sustainable calendar

throughout the year in order to promote the

culture of degustation of products in certain

successive localities as well as in clear

comprehensive regional tourism itineraries for

the tourism of degustation. (Refer to table 4.21

showing the axes of agro-tourism, sea-sun

tourism and natural tourism).

To create a climate of entrepreunership and

promotion of successful cases in the agrotourism

and natural / cultural tourism sector

through visual and electronic media.

To develop a website with all stakeholders

contributing to the development of tourism

and rural products, in order to promote a

better information dissemination to the public

and regional and global investors.

To create a regional farmers board with clear

roles on the functions they perform in this

program to enable a promotion and lobbying

for the weak segments in the rural production

chain, based on the development strategy

“farm to plate” as well as of “Slow-food”

tourism.

To create a clear action plan on the

management of human and natural

resources, with clearly defined roles in

functions and interactions between them,

ensuring an efficient, measurable and

practical way of implementing the branding

and marketing strategy.

RP8- Transport in rural areas

The municipalities should give priority to

sustainable mobility forms in rural areas, to

ensure the connection of rural settlements

with urban centres and the connection

of rural tourism poles to those of natural

regional tourism. Measures to be taken by the

municipalities include:

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• Supporting local rural centres with public

transport and bicycle lanes. It is suggested to

develop a system of public transport based on

ring systems linking agricultural areas with

rural tourism areas. The development of public

transport infrastructure should be in harmony

with seasonal use flows by residents and

tourists.

• Developing innovative information

technologies on public transport and ways of

exchanging them in multimodal networks.

secondary roads, and then connect to the

primary axes in order to avoid the exit of

agricultural vehicles in the national axes and

to avoid accidents.

• Road axes connecting the tourist areas

should be supported by appropriate public

transport, interconnecting the stop points with

the stations of rural centres and aiming to link

tourist itineraries to increase the possibility

of interaction between tourists and local

communities.

• The interconnection of rural road axes

with the primary regional axes should follow

the hierarchy of entries and exits from the

Poles of rural centres,

to be covered with

transport services

Shkozet, Shijak, Pjeze, Ndroq, Peze, Vaqarr

Shijak, Sukth, Katund i ri, Jube, Rrushkull, Hamallaj

Shkalle, Manez, Maminas

Bubq, Berxulle, Vore, Domje, Laknas

Thumane, Nikel, Kamez

Table 4.22 The poles of rural centres in the tourist axes to be covered by transport services

RP9- Environment and renweable

energy

RP9.1- The environment

Biological diversity and the quality of

ecosystems, such as forests, lakes and

rivers, are the primary factors for a

sustainable rural and natural development.

Research work and construction of rural

farms should be in coordination and in

interaction with all measures and laws for

sustainable development of agriculture.

Municipalities should manage development

in these areas with a focus on environmental

protection, based on: permanent monitoring

of agricultural production procedures and

licensing of producers: ways of using land,

water, forests and pastures, flora and fauna

, rural areas and protected environmental

areas.

RP9.2- Renewable energy

In rural areas, the use of agricultural and

livestock production waste can serve as

a source of energy especially for farms.

Concurrently, utilization of wind to generate

power can be seen as a source for farms not

connected to the grid. Moreover, the use or

installation of solar panels can bring more

efficiency to the productivity of these farms.

The use of technology in these sectors will

further stimulate the regional interaction of

young entrepreneurs from urban centres to

rural ones.

It is important that the local community be

encouraged to participate in such schemes

to understand the goods and benefits from

innovative rural development activities. The

municipalities of the region are encouraged

to use differentiated taxation schemes for

entities that join these projects.

143


Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Synej

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

Agricultural land with

complex cultivation

Olive grooves

Main centre/Farmers market

Secondary centre/Farmers market

Secondary centre

Road infrastructure

Vineyards

University of Agriculture in Tirana

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

Railway infrastructure

Logistic centre

Airport

Port/Anchor point

Fruit trees

Forests

Water surface

Agricultural production

Peri-urban area

Marginal rural area

(agricultural, natural)

Free natural area/

environmental protected area

144

Map 4.5 Territorial use in rural areas


4.4 Transport and infrastructure development policies

TRANSPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Regional strategic

road networks

Infrastructure,

energy and

telecommunication

Multimodal system and

interurban public transport

Bicycle mobility

regional itineraries

Railway mobility

Freight

mobility

Traffic

management

Figure 4.16 Transport and infrastructure development policies

Transport territorial policies

The implementation of transport policies

and the accomplishment of investments in

infrastructure are essential aspects in the

development of the Tirana-Durres region, in

terms of international interconnection, in the

efficient linkage of markets, as well as in the

movement of the population and goods in the

Balkans.

For the purposes of developing a combined

and sustainable transport, the Integrated

Cross-Sectorial Plan for the region aims

at combining land management policies in

urban and rural areas with spatial planning in

transport.

To achieve this goal in mobility, the aim is to

relate integrated transport modes, regional

strategic poles and urban centres, stimulating

the use of public transport means as well as

alternative modes of movement that do not

generate environmental pollution.

TP1- Strategic regional road networks

Strategic road networks will be strengthened

to promote the efficiency of connecting the

region to national and international axes,

enabling rapid and efficient access.

These axes will enable the mobility necessary

to avoid seasonal traffic, interurban traffic

transiting through the region, and to create

rapid access to urban centres links to regional

employment areas.

Entry gates and transport development

corridors that require efficient connection to

the network are:

Port of Durres - “North - South” highway

(GNP);

Port of Durres - Arbri road;

Port of Durres - Corridor VIII;

Port of Durres - Rruga e ‘Kombit”;

“Mother Teresa” airport - efficient air, sea and

land interconnection of freight and passengers.

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The region will provide fast and secure connections via:

Main road axis

National North-South axis

Thumane-Vore-Kashar-Ndroq-Peze-1)Kavaje;2)Rrogozhine

Expansion of the actual interurban road segment Tirana-Durres and

its conversion into a highway in the segments: Berxulle - Shkozet

and Thumane - Airport - Vore

Ring network "Greater Tirana": Kamez - Arbri Road (phase I)

Bypass Kamez - Vaqarr - Arbane - Petrele (interconnection with

Corridor VIII) (phase II)

Ring network Durres: Currila - Spitalle - Shkozet

Spitalle - Porto Romano axis;

Spitalle - Katund i Ri - Manez - Bay of Lalez axis

Regeneration of the landscape road Tirana - Ndroq - Shijak - Durres

Focused on recreation and agricultural services.

Establishment of the footprint and protection of the territory for the

construction of the coastal landscape road.

Category

Highway

Highway

Primary urban axis

Primary urban axis

Local road

Tertiary interurban

axis

Table 4.23 Main road axis in the region

TP2- Multimodal system and

interurban public transport

The development of regional mobility and

optimization of public transport aims

at improving and making more efficient

the movement of individuals within this

geographic and socio-economic space.

The Integrated Corss-sectorial Plan of the

Economic Area Tirana-Durres aims to provide

quick access to the main regional hubs and

poles to facilitate the movement of residents

and tourists and to create the necessary

conditions for mobility efficiency in day-to-day

commuting.

The development of interurban public

transport and the multimodal system will

create the necessary conditions for reducing

traffic density and environmental pollution.

The rapid mobility system to and from the

regional urban centres is based on the

creation of efficient transport lines, with

clear urban and interurban stations that

enable exchanges between different means of

transport through multimodal “hubs”.

The interconnection of urban centres will

be strengthened through the integration of

different modes of public transport, based on

railway mobility supported by bus lines and

multimodal stations. To achieve this goal, the

municipalities of the region should encourage:

• The development of compact and efficient

urban centres served by public transport

systems, with high connection capacities

between urban poles and entry gates,

supported by parking areas to cope with

extraurban flows.

• The integration of all systems and services

in the transport network, and support

with public transport the areas of tourism,

employment, education and services.

• The improvement of options and

diversification of mobility choices in order

to reduce the use of private vehicles for

commuting.

146


• The promotion of high densities in public

transport hubs in urban centres.

• The protection/conservation of the areas

identified for future development of public

transport corridors:

- Municipalities should take measures to

identify the territorial footprint and prohibit

urban development in these strategic axes.

- Equipment with buffer zones, prior supply

with underground infrastructure at key

hubs of the exchange flows, to precede the

development of networks.

• The planning and definition in the general

local planning documents of increased

densities in housing and services in the

territories surrounding the strategic mobility

hubs, to enable a controlled development of

these areas in the future.

TP2.1- Regional multimodal mobility

Regional multimodal mobility with the

primary focus on public transport outside and

within the city should support the creation of

conditions for a more efficient transport and

serve to cope with:

• suburban daily mobility flows for

employment purposes;

• increased population in urban poles by 2030;

• seasonal tourist flows in the regional traffic

entry-exit gates;

• poles of educational and healthcare

institutions as well as daily trips to them;

• economic development poles in the region.

Multimodal hubs should be planned and

mapped by each municipality in collaboration

with the line ministries, near the main axes,

interconnected with high density residential

areas, previously equipped with infrastructure.

In these proposed areas, the uncontrolled

development and construction should be

strictly prohibited, to reduce the costs of

expropriation in the future.

been completed. It is recommended that in

the territories surrounding these poles, the

GLPs should introduce land management

instruments such as conditional development.

The combination of these areas with incity

public transport networks emerges as an

obligation of the general local plans for each

municipality.

The multimodal mobility system should

ensure:

• mobility specified in time limits, thanks to

dedicated lines of public transport;

• online timetable management system

thanks to the GPS satellite technologies

within and outside urban hubs, promoting the

economy of scale for the provided service;

• use of internet infrastructure, for increased

safety through monitoring (24-hour);

• use of integrated, comprehensive ticketing

systems in multimodal mobility based on the

use of ‘e-ticket’ system;

• design of electronic signaling in public

transport intersections;

• an information system for passengers on

exchange schedules between different modes

of public transport.

The identification of new areas for the

movement of bus lines, based on:

• the traffic flows of road segments, according

to the polycentric poles;

• the traffic flows in hubs / road intersections;

• the potential space of dedicated road

sections;

• the identification of flows and density of

residents in the area, based on the GLP;

• the definition of station distances as per

the population density and primary areas of

services and employment.

The general local plans should define these

hubs in advance as high density areas, where

development is permitted only after their

construction (transport infrastructure) has

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Spatial poles and strategic corridors for interconnection within the multimodal system:

• metropole, primary centres, secondary centres, tertiary centres: Tirana, Durres, Vore, Kamez,

Shijak-Xhafzotaj, Sukth i Ri

• port of Durres, “Mother Teresa” airport

• economic development technological area Port of Durres, Shkozet;

• economic development technological area Spitalle, Shkozet;

• economic development technological area Rashbull.

• economic corridor Kashar-Vore

• economic corridor Kamez-Nikel

Multimodal stations

Tirana central station (non-multimodal centres, railway line and bus station)

Tirana station (primary multimodal centre)

Tirana station (economic area, the highway Kashar - Vore/2-3 stations)

• "Mother Teresa" airport multimodal station

(economic development technological area and business cluster, fair centre)

• multimodal station Vore (alternative residential area Vore - Berxulle)

• multimodal station Shijak - Sukth (alternative residential area)

• multimodal station Durres (port - economic development technological area 2 stations)

Table 4.24 Strategic corridors and multimodal stations

TP3- Railway mobility

Railway mobility should be developed in

compliance with the movement of individual

vehicles for interurban travels, taking into

account certain conditions, as follows:

• Multi-modal stations should be located in

the primary access axes of urban centres,

becoming accessible to all social strata, and to

perform a full flow management. Each urban

/ rural centre should create the multimodal

movement poles, based on the combination

of strategic axes of the regional movement,

urbanized areas, tourist areas, economic

development technological areas and

recreational areas.

• The hierarchy of multimodal stations should

respond to the hierarchy and functions of

urban centres: Metropole, primary centres,

secondary centres, tertiary centres, local

centres.

• Railway stations should offer opportunities

for the exchange of transport modes such as

parking for individual vehicles, cabs, rental

cars, bicycles etc.

• The line ministry and municipalities of the

metropolitan region should develop incentive

policies for the application of the regional

integrated ‘e-ticket’, as well as instruments for

facilitating the use of rapid rail transport

• The development of physical infrastructure

should ensure fast movement, bordering

spaces, such as physical barriers and

148


acoustic barriers. It is suggested to construct

green belts along these axes, and it is also

recommended to avoid the legalization

process for facilities and buildings located

within the action radius of the railway

movement.

• Railway mobility should enable the

exchange of travel routes both for freight and

passengers.

It is recommended that for the freight

transport lines, the development should be

carried out in phases, initially preserving and

protecting the territories where these lines

can be developed with buffer zones, and then

establishing links with the port areas as well

as the economic ones.

Necessary railway transport stations:

Railway stations

Tirana centre (terminal station)

Tirana, Fushe Mezez multimodal centre

(primary and multimodal railway station)

Economic developement technological area,

highway Kashar-Vore (2 stations)

The pole of Maminas, Vore (secondary station)

“Mother Teresa” airport

(multimodal terminal station)

The pole of Sukth, Shijak (secondary station)

The pole of Porto Romano, Spitalle

(terminal freight station)

Durres (primary multimodal station)

Table 4.25 Railway stations

TP4- Traffic management

Using smart infrastructure

The region should establish a network of

“smart” technologies to measure and manage

urban and inter-city traffic flows for user

information and network handling efficiency.

The smart transport system is based on:

• Developing electronic traffic measurement

stations in the region for incoming and

outgoing traffic flows.

• Establishing the regional office to monitor

and manage traffic in the urban centre of

Vora, which should also cover services such

as data storage and analysis. Creating a data

system that collects, analyzes and informs on

due time comes as a priority for the region, as

well as for the management of traffic in case

of natural disasters or accidents. The regional

traffic monitoring office may be accompanied

by supportive facilities on site, to provide

assistance in case of accidents or defects of

vehicles.

• Policies that promote flexible utilization

of the public transport fleet to increase or

decrease transport vehicles in the network

according to the maximum and minimum flow

hours. Consequently, also the management of

the movement of goods in favorable hours.

The use of measurement equipment should

be based on GPS systems, the application of

a camera system connected in a network and

on the public transport fleet, as well as on

nodes affected by traffic jams. Efficiency and

coordination of traffic light systems, electronic

information boards and integrated network

connectivity should form the basis of this

operatinal platform.

It should also be emphasized that the use

of the information database in an integrated

GIS system of various agencies or other

institutions will serve as an added value for the

well operation of the system.

The use of platforms and applications

for mobile phones with GPS features

interconnected with the network, agencies,

stations, police stations and healthcare

centres would increase the efficiency of the

movement in regional networks.

149


Measures to improve road safety

Local and central authorities should develop

policies to improve the information, protection

and bordering infrastructure along the

axis of the movement, giving priority to the

main axes, to create mobility standards

and mobility efficiency, and to minimize the

potential for accidents in hotspot areas,

pursuant to the map of road accidents.

TP5- Freight mobility

The metropolitan region as the entry gate to

Corridor VIII, the cross-cutting point of the

‘North-South’ axis and the entry gate to the

Arbri road, should manage the national and

international freight flows based on the flows

of land, sea and air traffic. Strengthening

interactive hubs and national axes is a priority

for the interconnection and processing of

goods.

Prioritization of freight mobility policies in the

region should be based on:

• developing the transport strategy for

regional freight mobility (MTI);

Combining the latter with the strategy of

developing the logistics cluster, with the

primary focus on the development of the

economic pole Durres - Shkozet - Spitalle -

Porto Romano;

• new storage and processing poles, hubs

should be above all at the attention of Local

Government Units, due to the impact they

have on the mobility;

• logistics hubs should have direct links to

the multimodal, physical and electronic hubs,

the region’s primary strategic axes, economic

poles, networks of telecommunications

and energy, as well as of the underground

infrastructure system;

• improving the fleet of freight transport and

logistic infrastructure, to reduce the level of

air and noise pollution in the region, creating

favorable lending conditions.

Priority regional logistics poles:

The freight transport system should be

interconnected with the regional traffic

management office. Monitoring of movement

fluxes and safety of movement should pay

particular attention to the efficiency of the

movement of goods.

Logistics poles

Durres Port - Shkozet pole

Energy port Porto-Romano - Spitalle

Marikaj - Vore pole

Nikel - Fushe Kruje pole

Tirana Greater Ring pole (rruga e Arbrit)

Tirana Greater Ring pole (Farke)

Tirana Greater Ring pole (Vaqarr)

Tabela 4.26 Logistic poles

TP6- Bicycle mobility regional

itineraries

In order to minimize urban traffic problems,

it is necessary for cities to support alternative

modes of transport such as cycling.

Bicycle mobility itineraries outside urban

areas should be adapted with specialized

lanes, away from vehicle mobility, in order

to make bicycle mobility safer and more

pleasant.

It is suggested to create ring itineraries of

bicycle mobility along waterways, rivers,

lakes, the coast and protected areas

interconnecting important natural, urban and

cultural elements as well as enabling their

interconnection with the natural regional

parks.

150


Crossings nearby road infrastructure must

be designed in such a way as to guarantee a

high level of safety for bicycle users, creating

dividing barriers.

Urban centre bicycle stations should be

attached to the service stations and other

transport modes.

Bicycle stations for long distances can cover

an action radius not larger than 6-8 km.

They should provide opportunities for the

exchange of transport modes without having

to return to the initial point of travel for the

vehicle handover.

Bicycle axes

Axis: Tirana centre, Vaqarr, Peze, Ndroq, Pjeze, Xhafzotaj, Shijak, Sukth, Jube, Rrushkull

Axis: Tirana, Farke, Lunder, Gurre, Percellesh, Pellumbasi Cave, Petrele, Arbane, Vaqarr

Axis: Tirana, Paskuqan-Kamez,River of Tirana, Laknas, Valias, Berxulle, Preze

Axis: Ndroq, Gjokaj, Vore, Preze, Cape of Rodon

Axis: Durres, Currila, Urban Park, Bisht Palle

Table 4.27 Bicycle axes

TP7- Infrastructure, energy and

telecommunication

The development of water and sewerage

systems, energy and telecommunications

infrastructure should be oriented towards

the development of integrated utilities,

coordination of civil works and co-usage with

an approach towards environmental friendly

development, based on sector strategy and the

“dig-once” principle to minimize the costs.

TP7.1- Underground infrastructure

Determining priority areas in the general

local plans, such as: urban centres, economic

areas, centres of multimodal stations,

logistics centres, primary tourist structues in

accordance with ICSP Tirana-Durres and GNP

will enable the efficiency of investments in this

region.

Underground infrastructure should cover

the needs of the communities based on the

projections of population growth and tourism

flows.

Defining and preserving groundwater, which

will serve as an additional future potential to

supply urban areas, should be a priority of the

regional municipalities to be protected from

urban development consequences.

The underground infrastructure system

should be based on strategic investments,

on the hierarchy of centres, on their new

developments, on all typologies and regional

poles defined as primary ones. Coverage with

these types of services should be developed

prior to urban development, prioritizing the

densification and concentration of investments

and reduction of maintenance costs.

Urban development in low-density ruralnatural

areas, such as those with residential

buildings not connected to urban centres,

should be supported to create common areas

of water supply and alternative drainage/

sewerage not connected to the network, such

as certified water wells and drainage system

with periodically controlled and certified /

ecological controlled discharge septic tanks.

151


E762

Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

E762

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

E853

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

E852

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

E852

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

E853

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

E853

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

Logistic centre

Airport

Port/Anchor point

Harbour

Transit European network road

Primary road

Primary road under

construction/proposed

Secondary road

Secondary road under

construction/proposed

Tertiary road

Tertiary road under

construction/proposed

Local road

Local road under

construction/proposed

Rail infrastructure

Proposed rail infrastructure

Connecting landscape itinerary

Coastal landscape itinerary

Hub multimodal

Secondary multimodal hub

Terciary station

152

Map 4.6 Road infrastructure


TP7.2- Energy infrastructure

To achieve the national and regional goals to

reduce emissions affecting climate change,

the new development should be defined

and designed so as to improve its carbon

performance. In this context, municipalities

should:

• Encourage provision of energy from

decentralized, renewable and low carbon

sources and set ambitious standards,

yet feasible, in meeting this goal through

the general local plans. These standards

should be part of the regulations and

must also designate portions of renewable

energies, which should be applied by the

new developments. It is suggested that the

minimum value for any new development to

be 10% of the portion of the energy and for it

to be provided by renewable and decentralized

sources.

• Promote key development areas for the

application of renewable energy sources

through the General Local Plans, the Local

Sectorial Plans and Local Detailed Plans.

Beyond the requirements for renewable

energy, municipalities should include high

standards for energy efficiency in their

own regulations. All new buildings must

meet high standards of energy efficiency.

Moreover, structures and policies encouraging

and promoting energy efficiency, reducing

maintenance costs in structures with public or

private functions should be established in the

planning documents.

• The municipalities, in cooperation with the

Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of

Energy and Industry, should set up platforms

to increase energy efficiency in the existing

stock of buildings in the region. This can

be achieved by establishing public-private

partnerships, creating special regional budgets

on energy efficiency and/or announcing

special areas for improving efficiency in energy

consumption. The areas may be determined

based on their historical, cultural, institutional

characteristics, etc.

regional development based on energy

distribution grids, growth of the population

by 6% and increased energy demand from

regional businesses.

• The line ministries and regional

municipalities should establish industrial

areas in the general local plans, along with

alternative energy options based on the

system of the gasification network (TAP)

-IAP. Clustering of functions will increase the

efficiency of investments and will affect in

reducing costs of the regional industry during

their lifespan.

TP7.3- Electronic communication

infrastructure / ICT

• Telecommunication network services

must support economic areas and urban

centres with quick access to the internet to

develop the possibilities for a digital economy.

Urban centres should be covered with rapid

connecting telecommunication infrastructure,

while the integration of networks in mutual

corridors must be coordinated between the

regional municipalities and line ministries.

• Integration and connection of secondary and

tertiary urban centres to the national network

of optical fibers should be at the attention of

central and local authorities.

• Regional municipalities should cover

with ICT infrastructure and services all the

subordinate institutions with public functions,

to enable the establishment of integrated

services in electronic networks.

• The line ministry and regional municipalities

should prioritize potential areas of future

153


Ishëm

Thumanë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

IAP gas pipeline

Proposed gas pipeline

Gas field

Stone coal deposit

Secondary centre

Road infrastructure

110 kV transmision line

Non-metal deposit

Tertiary centre

Rail infrastructure

220 kV transmision line

Industrial point

Specialized local centre

Logistic centre

400 kV transmision line

Local centre

Airport

Electric substation

Urbanized area

Port/Anchor point

Small hydropower plant

154

Map 4.7 Energy and industry


4.5 Environmental development policies

ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

Conservation of natural

landscape (natural and

environmental heritage)

Monitoring

environmental quality

Protection and

management of

surface and ground

water resources

Green infrastructure

Climate change

Regional waste

management

Risk management

from natural disasters

Figure 4.17 Environmental development policies

The natural environment and habitat are

closely related to the geoclimatic conditions of

the region as well as to the human interaction

on it.

The metropolitan region is developed between

the two valleys of Ishem and Erzen rivers.

They extend through the hills that outline the

region and outflow respectively in the Cape of

Rodon and the bay of Lalzi in the Adriatic sea.

The level of pollution of these rivers is several

times higher than the normal levels. The water

that flows in them carries substantial amount

of untreated urban, liquid and solid, waste.

This makes it impossible to use the water of

these rivers for irrigation of agricultural lands

in the region.

Excavation of the riverbeds to extract inerts

has caused the diversion of their estuaries

and the progression of sea towards land in the

coastal areas.

After 1990s, a degradation of agricultural land

which should have been protected from the

uncontrolled urban development has been

observed. This uncontrolled development was

accompanied by huge losses of green areas,

and therefore the life of living creatures and

habitat of flora and fauna was endangered.

For several years, the region has been

facing natural disasters due to spontaneous

urbanization.

At the same time, it should be noted that the

territories designated for the treatment of

urban waste of the two largest urban centres

in the region, Durres and Tirana, are already

on the verge of completing the functional time

period and reaching their holding capacity.

These are signals that should set in motion

the local and regional authorities in taking

measures.

Below the plan presents certain policies

for the environmental development of the

region, which are basically the solution of the

problems caused and improve the conditions in

the environment we live in.

155


EP1- Conservation of natural

landscape (natural and environmental

heritage)

Conservation and improvement of the regional

natural ecosystem should be based on the

creation and the natural interconnection of

parks and protected natural areas. Namely,

by connecting, through green corridors, the

protected natural areas at an urban, regional

and national level to the new proposed areas.

In the region, there are a number of parks,

which are isolated and disconnected from

each other, thus it is important to create a

regional network of parks, which by being

connected will essentially enhance the

quality of the natural environment and add a

value to the landscape of the Tirana-Durres

metropolitan region.

The network of parks will also serve as a

catalyst to revitalize the characteristics and

state of the natural habitat, but also the living

conditions of the residents in the metropolitan

region.

Linking the parks into a nature network

should be based on the geographic

characteristics of the terrain, where water

and hilly areas together with forested areas

will be linked to create interconnected natural

systems.

Regional, urban and managed natural

parks should be connected to the regional

water system to create a network of natural

elements.

The water system and river network must be

protected with buffers zones.

This will enable the generation of the

necessary spaces that will serve to create

green corridors along the rivers. These

green protective belts will not only serve as a

support element for the ecosystem, but at the

same time will create opportunities for the

movement of the species living in the region.

The natural areas and regional and urban

parks to be interconnected are given in the

table below:

Natural protected areas with defined legal status (including geomonuments)

• National parks Kruje-Tirana (determined by law)

• The green wreath of Tirana (determined by CDM)

Natural park/ Managed Nature Reserve (proposed)

• Vaqarr Hills-Ndroq-Vore-Cape of Rodon

• Porto Romano-Bisht Palle

Urban parks (proposed)

• urban park Farke

• urban park Paskuqan

• urban park Kashar

• urban park Kamez (Zall-Herr) attached to the national park of “Dajt”

• urban park Gjokaj-Vore-Marqinet

• urban park Durres, Currila Hills-Porto Romano

• urban park Golem

• urban park Plazh-Arapaj

• urban park Shijak-Pjeze

Table 4.28 Natural protected areas and regional and urban parks

156


Rezervati

Patok - Fushë

Kuqe

Kepi i

Rodonit

Ishëm

Thumanë

Parku

Kombëtar

Qafë Shtamë

Cudhi

KRUJË

Bubq

Fushë Krujë

Rezervati

Rrushkull

Manëz

Nikël

Katund i Ri

Prezë

Zall Bastar

Sukth

Maminas

VORË

Bërxullë

KAMËZ

Zall Herr

Dajt

Parku

Kombëtar

i Dajtit

Kodra e

Durrësit

DURRËS

Xhafzotaj

Rrashbull

SHIJAK

Gjepalaj

Kashar

Paskuqan

TIRANË

Shëngjergj

Vaqarr

Kurora e

Gjelbër

e Tiranës

Farkë

Ndroq

Golem

Petrelë

Bërzhitë

Pezë

Kërrabë

Synej

KAVAJË

Baldushk

Luz i Vogël

ELBASAN

0 5

km

RROGOZHINË

LEGEND

Metropolis

Primary centre

Secondary centre

Tertiary centre

Specialized local centre

Local centre

Urbanized area

Planning region border of

ICSP Tirana-Durres

Administrative border of the

Local Government Units

Road infrastructure

Rail infrastructure

Airport

Port/Anchor point

Green area

Water surface area

Protected environmental area

Green wreath (Decision No. 4 of the NTC, dated 29/12/2014)

Proposed protected area

Recreational water area

Urban park

Reservoir/lake

Map 4.8 Use of natural territories

157


EP2- Protection and management of

surface and groundwater resources

The plan dictates and supports the protection

of the environment from the liquid and

solid waste of the urban system as well as

industrial manufacturing structures, both

within and outside the urban areas.

The development of urbanization should be

accompanied by a controlled and planned use

of the territory, surface and groundwaters,

and a controlled use of the water catchment

basins for each territory administered by the

municipalities of the region. Water utilization

and processing should be based on annual

reports on their pollution monitoring, by the

regional municipalities and line ministries.

Water system

The water catchment basins that are

located in the metropolitan region need to

be regenerated by restoring the supporting

infrastructure, such as: irrigation drainage

channels, water pumping systems and water

supply systems.

In the absence of the opportunity to use these

territorial assets to the benefit of agriculture,

they should be transformed into recreational

areas serving to the public interest,

accompanied by buffer zones to protect them

from urban development. The line ministry

should enable the use of these assets in

function of LGUs services.

The transformation of the two rivers, Erzen

and Ishem, into environmental potentials

coated by green corridors, interconnected

with the parks of the region, requires the

fulfillment of the following conditions: 24

1. Constructing waste management plants

and necessary infrastructure facilities in each

of the pollutant urban centres. Regarding

the management of liquid and solid regional

waste, a 6% increase in population in the

urban centres should be considered by 2030.

2. Interrupting the discharge of all untreated

urban and industrial waters into the Ishem

and Erzen rivers and channeling them to the

respective infrastructure.

3. Constructing the embankments for the

rivers Ishem and Erzen and revitalizing their

beds.

4. Reconstructing the green belts that

function as buffer zones along the river

banks, which will enable protection from

water corrosion. Buffer green belts will help

to recreate and approach wildlife as well as

enable their unhindered movement in the

region’s natural habitat.

5. Constructing the paths serving to

recreation. Developing bicycle movement

axes along the banks and green belts.

Accompanying with relaxation areas in

support of ecotourism within these territories.

6. Creating protected and managed territories

for the areas of the regional river deltas and

estuaries.

Drinking water

The drinking water supply system covers

almost the entire area of Tirana and Durres.

There is room to increase capacities and

improve the quality of sector services,

especially for the fact that, for a sustainable

development of the region, the necessary

investments must be made in advance to

cope with the population growth envisaged

by 2030. It is necessary to improve the

administrative and managerial direction of

the sector, to orient the services towards the

principles of control and full cost recovery,

and the recognition, protection and use of

groundwaters.

The regional municipalities must not only

protect existing water resources but also

those territories that represent a potential

as water supply areas for the future. Limiting

urban development in the territories

overlapping with these resources should be a

priority for the LGUs.

24

Taken from the material of the Albanian Geological Survey (AGS), preamble of the study on “Monitoring the dynamics of the

riverbeds in the rivers of Albania in the mid- and lower stream, and measures proposed to stabilize the situation”, February 2016

158


Waterways, water surfaces and underground

waters should be protected within a range not

lesser than 100 m (buffer zone).

The local centres should be served with

drinking water, through a managed supply

system for the treatment of drinking water

quality. Residential facilities away from

urban-rural centres should be equipped

with certified collective or individual wells, to

ensure protection against pollution and natural

hazards.

EP3- Green infrastructure

Green infrastructure is a general term that

involves the protection, management and

enhancement of environmental resources in

urban, peri-urban and rural-natural areas. The

plan aims to identify and provide functional

green spaces for the residents and ecosystem.

They should be interconnected among them in

such a way that they can promote the creation

of a regional green network, thus creating new

opportunities for managing and using these

spaces.

Green infrastructure includes natural areas

and green spaces in both urban and ruralnatural

environments. It is presented as