CPT International 01/2018

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Cost reduction through innovative

breaker core technology






Germany, Nuremberg

14 - 16 January 2020




China, Shanghai

18-20 July 2018



Mexico, Guadalajara

24 - 26 October 2018



India, Greater Noida,

Delhi, NCR

6 - 8 December 2018




Core and mold production

The state-of-the-art of our main topics – core and mold production – is now

considerably higher than it has ever been. The proven organic binder combinations

for producing molds and cores are still widely in use in foundries

around the world. But inorganic binding agents spread in light construction

and will sooner or later also be suitable for casting processes at higher temperatures

– a breakthrough that will change casting production worldwide. For one

thing is evident: environmental standards are steadily rising, as can be seen in

China, for example. In his article (from Page 12), our author Christian Appelt

from the foundry chemicals company ASK Chemicals explains the necessary

material properties and process requirements for inorganic core production.

In an interview, Amine Serghini from competitor Hüttenes Albertus talks about,

among other things, the inorganic market situation and comments on the direction

of development of his company, which is also exploiting organic binders.

Above all, however, Hüttenes Albertus is relying on its superior knowledge,

as the recent opening of both a Research & Development Center and a Competence

Center in northern Germany show (read more from P. 6).

We have also saved no effort regarding the topic of materials for core and mold

production: in our corporate report on the global player Imerys, that now owns

S&B (and thus its IKO Foundry Division), we examine the supplier of special

mineral-based products for the industry and its range for foundries (from P. 48)

The simulation of casting and solidification processes is widespread throughout

the sector. A group of scientists at the Ansbach University of Applied Sciences

in southern Germany has now been able to use a material flow simulator and

a thermodynamic model of the melting furnace to come up with interesting

conclusions to improve energy efficiency and productivity in die-casting foundries

(from P. 42). The project will continue – as will the reports on it in CP+T!

And, last but not least, two articles on zinc and plastic caster Föhl in Rudersberg

near Stuttgart, Germany (from P. 32) and die-casting machine producer Bühler

in Uzwil, Switzerland (from P. 38), offer interesting insights into highly efficient,

innovative and pioneering companies and processes.

Have a good read !

Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 3



Serghini, Amine

“We want to offer foundries innovative

and comprehensive solutions” 6


Appelt, Christian

Material properties and process requirements for

inorganic core production 12


Möldner, Tobias

Burner air preheating by means of a heat exchanger


GTP Schäfer GmbH

Benzstraße 15

D-41515 Grevenbroich

Tel.: +49 2181 23394-0

Fax: +49 2181 23394-55



Dickinson, Brian; Midea, Tony; Adams, Andry


Piterek, Robert

Globalization in Swabian 32

6 32

Amine Serghini is Head of Global Sales and Marketing at

Hüttenes-Albertus. In an interview he speaks about inorganic

binders, e-mobility and 3-D-printing (Photo: HA)

The zinc and plastic caster Föhl, Rudersberg, Germany,

is preparing itself with innovations and productivity for the

future and also counts on China (Photos: A. Bednareck)


1 | 2018




Buob, Adrian

Cell management for greater success 38


Buswell, Andreas; Schlüter, Wolfgang; Henninger, Matthias; Müller, Stefan

Simulation of non-ferrous melting and die-casting plants


Vehreschild, Michael

Imerys - strong potential for synergies 48


Editorial 3

News in brief 52

Brochures 64

Fairs and congresses/Ad index 66

Preview / Imprint 67


A central, optimized cell control creates the basis for productivity gains in die casting. For foundry machine manufacturer

Bühler, Uzwil, Switzerland, the development of the cell management system is an important step towards die casting foundries

becoming part of Industry 4.0 (Photos: Bühler)


”We want to offer foundries innovative

and comprehensive solutions”

Interview with Amine Serghini, member of the management team, Head of Global Sales and

Marketing at Hüttenes-Albertus (HA), Düsseldorf, Germany

Mr Serghini, you have opened a new

Research and Development (R&D)

Center in Hanover and the HA Center

of Competence (CoC) in Baddeckenstedt

(both Germany). What do both of

these investments mean for the company’s

strategic positioning?

Our R&D Center and CoC are two important

building blocks in fully implementing

our strategy. We want to get

even closer to our customers. We not only

want to sell products, but also offer the

foundry industry an innovative and comprehensive

solution, including services.

HA has added a competence centre

with foundry pilot plant to research

and development in Hanover. What

The CoC facilitates cooperation and allows

us to bring solutions to market

quickly and effectively. As a producer of

foundry chemicals, we are the link between

foundries, with their casting requirements,

and machine manufacturers,

with their technical possibilities. In

the past, customers often started by creating

a new production line design for their

new product in close collaboration with

the machine manufacturer. Only once

the new plant was ready did the foundry

approach HA to find the right chemical

products to produce the casting. This

was often too late to provide customers

with solutions tailored to their processes

or castings, which then still had to be

put into commission. As a result, valuable

time was lost. By working together with

the foundry, machine manufacturer and

other partners at an early stage in product

and process development, we aim to

reduce the time required for this phase.

different partners who are working on

the topic at the same time and not sequentially

as before. If necessary, institutes

and universities also team up

with the CoC. In our CoC (see box), we

can cast, shoot cores and build molds.

We can also fully test and optimize

new processes and products before

they are used. This helps us to develop

products for our customers faster and

in a more targeted manner until they

are ready for the market and to successfully

launch them in foundries.

Does this change the relationship between

products and services in your


We still manufacture chemicals, but

services are becoming more and more

important. Let’s take the automotive

industry as an example. When introducing

new products, such as a new

cylinder head or a new engine block,

there is always a bottleneck in the prototype

phase. This is because you have

to use the engine foundry, which is already

operating at full capacity. Our

customers can carry out all of their

prototyping in our CoC. We have

every thing we need to produce cores

and molds, and to cast all metals. This

How does this work in practice?

The customer comes to the CoC with

his request and meets a consortium of

Example of a customer project in the HA Center of Competence: Production of prototypes

in inorganic core production (Photos: Hüttenes-Albertus)

6 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

HA Center of Competence (CoC)

The HA Center of Competence (CoC) has about 8,000 m 2 of pilot and industrial

facilities and replicates almost all of the stages of the foundry process.

Here, new ideas and solutions for nearly all mold and core production

processes can be tested in practice, and without disrupting the processes

of customers.

Moreover, a comprehensive machine park offers the opportunity to optimize

the interaction of foundry chemistry and machine technology.

To this end, HA cooperates with virtually all renowned manufacturers of

foundry plants. The machine park’s facilities include:

means that we are not only able to carry

out prototyping from core production

to casting, but also to provide other

services that can then be outsourced

by the foundry. We want to act as an

extension of the foundry and offer

every thing that a foundry, in the midst

of series production, would have difficulty

implementing internally.

As a chemicals manufacturer, will you

continue to focus on foundries in the


Yes. We are 100 % focused on foundry

chemistry with worldwide distribution,

and in recent years, we have divested

some business areas outside our

core foundry business.

» melting and casting plants

» core shooting machines for Cold Box, inorganics and other core production


» sand mixing plants for Cold Box and inorganic processes

» continuous mixers for the no-bake process

» coating area, including robotic handling

» drying oven with a range of special features

» extensive measuring technology

You are engaged in research and de-


and organic binder systems.

What progress are you making?

The new research centre in Hanover will

significantly increase the degree of innovation

by bringing our researchers together.

In the past, R&D was divided into

two areas. All organic R&D took place in

Düsseldorf, while inorganic binder systems

and coatings were developed in

Hanover. In the future, we intend to significantly

increase the proportion of inorganic

products in our production. We

also aim to further reduce the volume of

organic content in our organic products

thereby increasing the volume of inorganic

content in return. Our aim is for

our researchers in organic and inorganic

chemistry to inspire each other.

Can you give me an example?

Years ago, we began to introduce more

and more inorganic content into organic

chemistry, for example with our

Sipurid Cold Box systems. In the future,

we intend to continue pursuing

this approach. HA’s strategy is to promote

the development of environmentally

friendly organic binders and not

to turn our back on organic products.

What proportion of turnover is accounted

for by inorganics?

Currently, inorganics continue to represent

about 8 % of total sales. Inorganics

are still in their infancy. But this is

the area that is growing fastest. Inorganics

will continue to grow to well

above 20 to 25% of our product portfolio

over the next few years.

When will inorganics for iron casting


We are very close to a solution that we

will present to the market. The first

results for series production are very

promising. We think that we will be

ready to launch a product in 2019.

But you also sell organic binders with

inorganic content?

That’s right. We also integrate inorganic

components into the organic molecular

structure in order to improve environmental

behaviour and gain other

technical advantages.

Do organic binders have a future or

will they one day be substituted by

inorganic products?

Honestly, that is a difficult question to

answer. In principle, organic binders

have many advantages. The disadvantage

lies in their environmental impact.

That is why we are trying, both

now and in the future, to make these

products as environmentally compatible

as possible. We know that we will

never achieve zero emissions from organic

binders, but we can significantly

reduce them. If we manage to do

this, organic binders will continue to

have their place in the future. In addition,

as things stand today, completely

replacing organic materials with

inorganic materials, not only in Germany,

but globally, would be very difficult

given the limited supply of raw

materials alone. There are simply not

enough readily available materials to

completely convert to inorganics. We

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 7


want to maintain the efficiency of the

foundry industry, and need to keep

costs within reasonable bounds. We

can only do so by further developing

organic binders to incorporate more


Gladly. It is well known that the inorganic

binders used by core makers today

require heated tools. This results in

a negative energy balance when compared

to organic Cold Box processes.

If we succeed in making Cold Box systems

more environmentally compatible,

and it looks like we will, the Cold

Box process will be used for many years

to come. The Cold Box process definitely

has its advantages, especially in

the iron casting sector, and has become

well established in the automotive industry.

This is likely to remain the case

in the long term, unless regulations are

dramatically tightened.

Which process represents the greatest

threat to the Cold Box process?

Certainly, inorganics are among the

processes challenging Cold Box. When

I look at our sales figures, inorganics

have gained ground in the aluminium

sector compared to Cold Box. In

the iron sector, Cold Box dominates

and is still growing very strongly – every

year, purchase quantities have increased.

The Cold Box process is even

supplanting other organic core production

processes. For example, Cold

Box is increasingly replacing the shell

molding process. The same applies to

other processes: Even more voluminous

cores are more frequently shot

rather than pressed using the furan

resin method. In this respect, we see a

promising future for Cold Box.

Is e-mobility a relevant topic for you?

What impact will it have on you as a

foundry supplier?

When we talk about e-mobility, we are

talking about purely electric vehicles

and hybrid vehicles. Internal combustion

engines will continue to be used,

including in many Asian countries.

We assume that car sales will continue

to grow and that the share of internal

combustion engines, including hybrid

engines, will also increase until 2025.

Combustion engines will also change

in the future. The casting process is becoming

much more complicated due

to continuing efforts to reduce CO 2

and other pollutants.

An opportunity for casting?

This is both a challenge for foundries

and a great opportunity for the Cold

Box process. In the future, more complex,

filigree cores will be produced

and combined into packages – one of

the major strengths of the Cold Box

process. The way in which certain castings

are made will change and this will

require special binders.

So, Cold Box will remain an important

process for hybrid drives and internal

combustion engines ...

Absolutely. This is because cast iron

will always be an important part of

engines – whether it’s a turbocharger,

an engine block or a cylinder head.

These are all parts that continue to

be produced in sand casting. As the

castings become more complex, they

move from die casting to sand casting.

We see a clear trend here. With higher

complexity, castings are sometimes

easier to produce using the Cold Box

process. But Cold Box binders must fulfil

certain requirements. Both technically

and environmentally, the binders

must achieve a significantly better result

than today’s systems. We are currently

working intensively on both

challenges. In one to two years’ time,

we will offer market solutions that can

also meet these new conditions.

Does e-mobility place special demands

on foundry chemistry?

No, for the production of castings, this

depends solely on the processes used.

But in addition to powertrains, which

may become smaller because of e-mobility,

there are more and more die-cast

parts in car bodies and chassis. HA has

been serving these areas for some years

now, and here, too, we see opportunities

for high-performance, i.e. productivity-enhancing

and environmentally

friendly products.

How is the coating sector developing?

When will we see coating-free


In iron casting, efforts have been made

for years to eliminate the need for coatings.

In some cases, it is already possible

– depending on the metallurgy and

the geometry of the casting – but in

many cases casting is impossible without

coatings. In fact, the field of coating

is actually set to grow over the next

few years.

What are the drivers?

Just take new technologies like 3-D

printing for core production. 3-D

printing allows an enormous freedom

of geometry, but has the disadvantage

8 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

that compression is not of the same

standard as with a shot core. In order

to achieve the required surface quality,

a coating material is needed to smooth

out the unevenness that occurs during

printing. We are in the process of developing

coatings specifically designed

for 3-D printing, because not every

coating is suitable for this process. This

is a market with a future.

And in iron casting?

Coatings are still necessary in iron and

steel casting, even if inorganic material

is introduced. We have also succeeded

in modifying inorganic systems, which

are generally highly sensitive to water,

and coatings in such a way that they

can be applied without causing damage.

We are continuously working to

ensure that the binder systems and

matching coating materials harmonize

in order to prevent certain casting defects

in the iron and steel casting sector.

So, coatings are an important R&D


Yes, in fact we have expanded our resources

and increased the number of

researchers working on coatings. These

are scientists who focus exclusively on

developing coatings for the fields of inorganic

and 3-D printing. We are convinced

that coatings will continue to

represent a growing market in the future.

You have touched on additive production.

An engine plant that casts

more than one million engines a year

needs to produce cores economically.

Will 3-D printing ever be able to replace

core shooters?

Certainly not in the short or medium

term. Printing still takes far too long,

although the technology is advancing

in leaps and bounds. Over the last 5

years, speeds have increased fourfold.

And 3-D printing is getting faster all

the time. We already know that 3-D

printing allows maximum geometrical

freedom. In future, cores that cannot

be shot due to their geometry will

be produced using additive manufacturing

technologies, whereas simpler

cores will still be shot at low cost. We

fully expect both methods to be used

in combination. Core-making shops

will not only have 3-D printers or core

shooters – they will use both.

Are these developments being driven

by industry-led demands?

Certainly. In terms of 3-D printing, we

have also built up resources for the development

of new core printing additives.

After all, new processes require

new products. We also recognize the

pressure to innovate from the customer

side. Even today, it is possible

to print complete core packages with

20 cores, whereby it’s not always possible

to clearly distinguish between cores



in no-bake moulding shops for:

• moulding lines

• continuous mixers

• mechanical and thermal reclamations

• chromite separations

Smooth pneumatic conveying system for:



Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 9

FAT Förder- und Anlagentechnik GmbH www.f-a-t.de


and molds. Our customers are already

asking us how to advance this new

technology. Industry wants to use the

technology, but still sees certain limitations.

And what exactly is HA’s role in all

of this?

In our view, our task is to develop the

right products for the whole range of

metals in order to improve the field of

core printing. It is not only the printing,

it is also about the thermal stability

of printed cores during the complete

casting process, all the way through

to de-coring. It doesn’t help if I have

a beautifully printed core, but I can’t

get it out of the casting. After pouring

even the most delicate component, the

sand has to be removed from the tightest

corner. And this is one of the challenges

we are trying to solve.

Do you work closely with machine

manufacturers and foundries in additive


We collaborate with universities and

other institutes, as well as with foundries

and machine manufacturers. Producers

of 3-D printers, such as Voxeljet

and ExOne, are among our customers.

We supply them with the appropriate

products and we also work together on

developing solutions for the foundry


Hüttenes-Albertus is a global company.

Where is the greatest demand?

HA has a very strong position in Europe

and is also very well established

in the United States. We certainly see

great potential for growth in Asia. China

is our fastest growing market, delivering

double-digit growth rates every

year. We also have a good footprint in

India, Turkey and Russia.

What is driving demand in China?

The automotive industry, together

with mechanical engineering, are

the key drivers of growth in the Chinese

foundry industry. When we talk

about hydraulic casting, we have 5 to

10 new customers in China every year.

Hydraulic casting is generally in steady

decline in Europe, except in certain,

special cases. The business of simple

castings has all moved to China, and

we are seeing more and more foundries

built there to satisfy this demand.

Do inorganic processes play a role in


Inorganic processes play an increasingly

important role in China. Next year,

we will sell more inorganic products in

China than in Europe. China is experiencing

an enormous rate of growth.

It doesn’t take years and years to introduce

new regulations in China – they

are implemented quickly, within one

year. Some of our customers have already

been forced to switch to inorganic

processes to comply with new

environmental standards. In the field

of aluminium casting for the automotive

industry, for instance, more and

more new production lines are being

built – and they are all geared towards

inorganic processes in order to satisfy

more stringent environmental requirements.

However, the Cold Box process

is also gaining ground in China and is

increasingly replacing the shell molding

process that has so far dominated


Do you also manufacture foundry

chemical products for local markets?

Like particularly high-quality offers designed

for the German market or the

automotive industry, and then simpler

products for the Asian market?

In the past, western European foundries

did require higher performance products

than Asian foundries. And I deliberately

say “performance” rather than

“quality”, because the quality of all our

products has to be just right. Nowadays,

we have customers in China who

have higher requirements and demand

even higher performing products than

our European customers, although

there are still customers who only require

lower performance products. Our

strategy is to always offer our customers

exactly the solution that meets their

needs and gives them added value, for

example in terms of increased efficiency.

For that reason, we do not manufacture

the same products everywhere. We

have market-specific products that we

only manufacture in China, for example,

for our customers there.

How will you generate growth in the

future? Organically, or via strategic


HA’s growth over the last few years

has been achieved not only organically,

but also inorganically, via strategic

mergers and acquisitions. HA,

as a family-owned company, has had

a large number of joint ventures with

other family-owned companies worldwide.

Our philosophy has always been

to ultimately secure majority ownership

of these international joint ventures.

And we have succeeded in doing

so. In the last decade, for example,

we have achieved majority ownership

10 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

of joint ventures in Turkey, Spain, Korea

and Italy. The biggest challenge,

however, was to take control of the remaining

50 % of our joint venture in

the United States, which we managed

to do in May 2016. There will certainly

be more M&A projects in the future.

But a major part of our growth will also

be achieved organically.

With new products?

Through the introduction of new processes

and new high-performance

products for specific markets. As I mentioned

previously, we always focus on

the needs of our customers and develop

solutions to help them improve

processes and increase productivity.

We expect significant growth, particularly

in the Chinese market, but also

in the southeast Asian region, which

is also a region with a promising future

for us.

Next year is a GIFA year. Can we expect

anything new from HA at GIFA


Nothing revolutionary, but an evolution

with promising and innovative

solutions. We want to offer not only

individual products, but above all fully

integrated solutions for the foundry

industry. We will present at least two

new solutions that will have a positive

and lasting impact on the foundry industry.

Last question: Where is HA today, and

where will the company be 10 years

from now?

HA is already one of the leading foundry

chemical companies in the European

market. We also have a very strong

market position in North America. In

Asia, we still see enormous growth potential

in a number of foundry markets.

In some markets, the two letters

“HA” are not always as well-known

as we would like them to be. This will

certainly have changed 10 years from


But one thing is certain: We are and

will remain a family-owned company.

Our owners will always stand firmly

behind the business. Our credo – HA

family – is far more than just a slogan.

Our employees and partners in the

global HA world live and experience

this every day. It is the foundation of

their motivation, and they work passionately

every day to help shape the

future and growth of our company.

The interview with Amine Serghini

was conducted by Gerd Krause,



Pneumatic conveying


For dry, free-flowing,

abrasive and abrasion

-sensitive material

Core sand preparation


For organic and inorganic

processes, turn-key systems

including sand, binder

and additive dosing

and core sand distribution



Reclamation systems for

no-bake sand and core sand,

CLUSTREG® for inorganically

bonded core sands

KLEIN Anlagenbau AG

Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 200 · 57572 Niederfischbach

Fon +49 2734 501 301 · Fax +49 2734 501 327

info@klein-ag.de · www.klein-ag.de

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 11


Christian Appelt, ASK-Chemicals GmbH, Hilden

Material properties and process

requirements for inorganic core


The inorganic binder technology Inotec from ASK Chemicals has established itself over the past

10 years as a productive and alternative core manufacturing procedure in serial casting production

processes, especially in the segments of aluminium cylinder heads, crankcases and suspension

parts by low pressure die casting and gravity casting applications

This odourless and emission-free core

production is also characterized by

very low cleaning and maintenance efforts

for machines and tools. These ecological

advantages are strongly linked

to economic and technological benefits

as an increased permanent mold

availability leads to a general increase

in productivity and increased mechanical

component strength as permanent

mold temperatures are reduced. In order

to profitably deploy this technology

and its ecological, economic and

technological advantages, expertise

and specialized knowledge of materials

and processes are required.

“Inotec technology has established

itself as a productive core manufacturing

procedure for the serial production

of lightmetal castings by low-pressure

die casting and gravity casting applications”,

explains Dr. Christian Appelt,

Global Incubator Business Manager

Inorganics at ASK Chemicals, Hilden,


The initial motivation for the introduction

of inorganic binder systems

into the foundry industry was themed

by “emission-free casting processes”

and is based on the absence of harmful

volatile compounds and emissions

during the core production, core storage

and casting processes, which ultimately

results in the elimination

of air treatment systems. The drastically

reduced cleaning and maintenance

effort for the permanent molds

is based on the inorganic nature of

Production of inorganic cores using Inotec technology at ASK Chemicals

the Inotec technology, since the formation

of condensates and pyrolysis

products during the casting processes

is not observed. The absence of these

condensates also allows a faster casting

solidification due to reduced permanent

mold temperatures, which in

turn contributes to the mechanical

strength of the metallurgical structures.

Thus, the ecological advantages

of this technology are in line with

economic and technological factors.

The Inotec technology is described

as a two-component binder system:

Component 1 forms the liquid Inotec

binder, which can be described as

a modified alkali silicate solution and

influences specific sand core properties

during the production (final

strength, flowability); Component

2 is the powdered Inotec promoter,

which is a mixture of synthetic and

natural raw materials based on a completely

inorganic product composition

( Figure 1).

Through the use of the Inotec promoter,

primarily mechanical and thermophysical

parameters of the sand

core are influenced during the production

process (immediate strength,

flowability), but in particular during

the casting processes, resulting in castings

of high dimensional accuracy and

best surface quality.

12 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018



Are you


to leave your

competitors behind?

Champion world-class tailor-made solutions ASK Chemicals

If you want to be on the podium in the future, you need to beat the competition. A reliable and strong partner will

help you in achieving this goal. We are always there for you, offering a comprehensive technical service that looks at

your entire production process. This opens up a whole world of new possibilities – from cost savings to increased


ASK Chemicals experts look forward to hearing from you:

Phone: +49 211 71103-0

E-mail: info@ask-chemicals.com



Inotec binder system

with balanced viscosity

and particulate structure

of the promoter

The Inotec binder contains an active

solids content between 35 and 55 %

on the basis of an aqueous solution.

The macroscopic parameter “viscosity”

is thereby influenced by this active

solid content as well as by its adjusted

reactivity, whereby the viscosity

meets all requirements during the

mixing and core production processes,

e.g. wetting behaviour/coating of

the sand grain surface and flowability

at productive cycle times. The Inotec

promoter contains over 99.8 % solids.

The particulate, i.e. powdery, structure

of the promoter is essential to enable

the incorporation of network-forming

constituents and to act as filler for increasing

the flowability of the molding

mixture and increasing the sand core

packing density.

The core production is characterized

by a physical-chemical curing mechanism.

The introduction and supply

of thermal energy from heated steel

tools and dehumidified, heated compressed

air leads to the evaporation

of the free solvent water and simultaneously

initiates a chemical polycondensation

reaction with the formation

of a three-dimensional silicate

network which characterizes the actual

strength composite in the sand core

(Figure 2). Simultaneously, specific raw

materials of the Inotec promoter are

linked to the free, non-condensed, OH

Figure 1: Typical composition of an Inotec binder system

groups of the three-dimensional silicate

structure via a surface reaction and

can thus specifically influence the mechanical

and thermal properties of the

sand core. The binder bridge formed

after core production has a gel structure

and, depending on the cross-section

and volume of the sand core and

energy input during core manufacture,

contains a defined amount of residual

water. If this residual water is expelled

by further introducing thermal energy,

the binder bridge loses its binding gel

structure and embrittles, resulting in

sandy core surfaces and core fracture.

The material properties of the Inotec

technology thus define the process

windows and the technical prerequisites

for production: robust and

productive process flows can be effectively

ensured by suitable control and

quality assurance measures (Figure 3).

Process requirements: from

the incoming goods to the

deployment of the inorganically-bonded

sand cores in

the casting process

In addition to casting surface roughness

requirements, the silica sand

qualities commonly used for inorganic

core production have to fulfil specific

chemical and physical properties

(Table 1): a high chemical purity of

> 99 % SiO 2

ensures a high binder compatibility,

whereby impurities such as

clay or lime lead to reduced strength

properties of the sand cores; the particle

size and the fine-grain fraction

significantly alter the gas permeability

of the sand cores, so that cycle time

extensions or productivity losses occur

with fine silica sand qualities and

voluminous core geometries. Above

all, acidic silica sands with a pH value

Figure 2: Polycondensation reaction, schematic description of the sol-gel process and incorporation of network-forming components

of the Inotec promoter

14 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Giesserei-Verlag Wörterbuch

Deutsch – Englisch / Englisch – Deutsch

1. Auflage · 1st Edition

ISBN 978-3-87260-186-5

39,00 €




























Gießen | Casting



Verein Deutscher Gießereifachleute e. V. (VDG)

2018 · 616 Seiten · 10,5 x 14,8 cm


Wörterbuch · Dictionary

Deutsch – Englisch

Englisch – Deutsch

German – English

English – German

Das Giesserei-Verlag Wörterbuch ist die umfassend überarbeitete und aktualisierte Fassung

des seit der 1. Auflage 1971 im In- und Ausland bewährten und geschätzten “Giesserei-Wörterbuch“.

Erfasst ist der Fachwortschatz der gesamten Gießereitechnik in Wissenschaft und Praxis von Formstoffen,

Form- und Kernherstellung über Schmelzen und Gießen (einschließlich der Druckgießtechnik)

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E-Mail: gabriele.wald@stahleisen.de · www.giesserei.eu


Figure 3: a) Homogeneous distribution of the Inotec binder system in the molding mixture; b) binder bridge with gel structure;

c) destroyed binder bridge through dehydration and embrittlement

Figure 4: Temperature and moisture content curves of Inotec-bonded sand cores at low


Base mold material: Silica sand (96 – 97 % of the sand core)

Chemical Purity

content (

a cross-section and volume-dependent

strength development and volume-dependent

cycle times.

The storage stability of inorganic-bonded

sand cores is limited due to

the reversibility of the binder bridge formation

in the case of high temperatures

and high absolute humidity, so that

usually climate-controlled core storage

facilities are deployed. The equilibrium

between the temperature and humidity

(moisture content) of the sand core

and the ambient air is the driving force

of the moisture absorption (Figures 4

and 5). Here too, the selection of specific

Inotec binder systems can ensure sufficient

and stable storage stability even

at high absolutely humidity.

The filling of the liquid aluminium

melt during the casting process produces

a thermal energy input and causes an

equilibrium shift in the inorganic-bonded

sand core with the release of free residual

solvent water and chemically

bound water of the free Si-OH groups

of the 3-D silicate network. Therefore,

Figure 5: Temperature and moisture content curves of Inotec-bonded sand cores at

high humidity

the gas permeability of the sand cores

and the geometry and position of the

sand core in the permanent mold and

the orientation of the core prints ensure

a successful core gas venting.

Finally, the breadth of the process

window of inorganic core production

has been significantly reduced compared

to organic core production processes.

Suitable technical measures,

taking into account the Inotec material

properties, and specific control and

quality measures can accompany and

ensure stable and productive processes

of inorganic core production.


Competence in

Shot Blast Technology

We offer a complete service in surface preparation technology,

not just as machine designers and manufacturers.

Our emphasis is on providing reliable service on:

• Wear and Spare Parts

• Repair and (remote) maintenance

• Inspection and process advice

• Machine upgrades and performance


• Upgraded used machines


Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH

Gutenbergstraße 14 · D-48282 Emsdetten

Tel. +49(0)2572 96026-0 · info@agtos.de



Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 17


Tobias Möldner, Munich

Burner air preheating by means

reduces gas consumption

This furnace is the electrical version - without heat exchanger. For cost reasons,

however, the variant with heat exchanger is recommended (Photos: ZPF GmbH).

In 2016, the prototype of an optimized

aluminum smelting system was realized

as cooperative project between the

industrial and business communities,

funded by the German Federal Ministry

of Economics and Technology (BMWi).

The EDUSAL II project makes it possible

to determine the energy-saving potential

of the smelting process while at

the same time minimizing the resulting

smelting loss. In order to further reduce

the consumption values of such

a system and thus to increase both energy

efficiency and resource conservation,

the smelting furnace manufacturer,

ZPF GmbH, Siegelsbach, Germany,

has now extended its concept with additional

components: By incorporating

a so-called burner air preheating,

in which the warm exhaust gas volume

flow is passed through a pipe system to a

heat exchanger, the system operator has

more room for maneuver – with lower

pollutant emissions and lower gas consumption.

This new system can – with

appropriate adjustments – be used as a

retrofit kit for existing ZPF melting systems.

EDUSAL means energy efficiency

enhancement and melting process optimization

through the sensory detection

of melting material and melting range

of aluminum smelting furnaces.

“In last year’s project, numerous sustainable

improvements, that have optimized

the previous furnace system, were

achieved” says Sven-Olaf Sauke, head of

R & D at ZPF. “The main focus was on the

further development of the measurement

technology to a sensory detection of the

melting shaft, which means that in laboratory

operation both the position of the

residual material on the smelting link and

its quantity can be precisely determined.

In addition, a special evaluation algorithm

has been developed that has improved

the process to the point that an

increase in smelting efficiency of up to

15 % can be achieved.”

Another focus of the EDUSAL II system

was the testing of burner air preheating.

The idea of integrating a burner

air preheating, which efficiently uses

the heat flow of the system, has been

around for a long time. However, since

solutions with partly utopian characteristics

and promises are offered on the

market, an electrical preheating was initially

installed. This allows a very precise

energy and thus also profitability

balance of the measure. The characteristic

values obtained were used to design

a burner air preheating from the

exhaust gas stream of the smelting system.

“With this version, the already

18 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

heated exhaust gas flow is directed to a

heat exchanger via a suitable pipe system”,

continues Sauke.

The primary air side (hot gas side),

which is prefixed to the heat exchanger,

requires additional components: for

example, a control unit that directs the

exhaust gas flow to the heat exchanger

according to the requirement, and additional

measuring points that ensure

safe process management. In the event

of failure of the heat exchanger or any

of the components, the control unit

must direct the exhaust flow through a

bypass function, past the heat exchanger,

directly into the secondary system to

protect the heat exchanger and its components.

In the heat exchanger, the energy

is released to the secondary air side

(burner air) – the cooled exhaust gas is

discharged in the other system either

directly into the atmosphere or for preheating

the melting material in a corresponding


The burner air fan conveys cold

burner air from the environment into

the heat exchanger, which is heated

there in the ZPF smelting systems

to about 200 °C. The pipe system after

the heat exchanger is insulated and

equipped with appropriate butterfly

valves, measuring instruments and displays.

An air collector installed directly

after the heat exchanger helps distribute

the heated medium evenly across

the piping to the entire burner system.

Thus, the flame temperature increases

significantly, resulting in a higher energy

input and lower gas consumption.

“In this way, not only are operating

and energy costs reduced, it also

allows for a careful handling of the

valuable resource of gas,” says Sauke.

“The efficiency of the entire system is

increased, and the pollutant emissions

are reduced.” This heat exchanger variant

is suitable for all ZPF gas-fired aluminum

smelting and heating furnaces,

which have a connected load of more

than 300 kW and a high smelting ratio

over the entire operating time of the

furnace. However, the specified limit

temperatures for the refractory lining

of the kilns must be strictly adhered to.

In burner air preheating by means of a heat exchanger, the warm exhaust gas volume

gas consumption

“Burner air preheating not only saves on

operating and energy costs, it also makes

it possible to use the valuable resource of

system will be increased, and pollutant

emissions will decrease,” explains Sven-

Olaf Sauke, head of R & D at ZPF

Burner air preheating by

means of heat exchanger as



The extension of the energy-efficient

burner air preheating with an integrated

heat exchanger can also be carried out

with an existing smelting system, but requires

some changes, according to Sauke:

“When upgrading existing ZPF systems,

in addition to the heat exchanger, a hot

gas withdrawal point, suitable piping

and temperature-resistant control and

butterfly valves must be integrated. The

adjustments with regard to the control

as well as the user interface must also be

observed. “All electrically operated components,

for example the control valves

and the measuring technology, are integrated

in the control and in the control

cabinet in order to simplify the operation

of the system.

All modifications and retrofits of

the system are done by ZPF directly

at the customer’s premises - before

this, a comprehensive inventory, consultative

discussions and an in-depth

conception will take place. In closing,

Sauke explains: “The need for pipes,

routes and insulation material must

be calculated on a project-specific basis.

The advantage of the developed

system lies in the fact that all components

are installed directly at the plant

and thus no further space requirement

arises in the smelting system. “In addition,

ZPF is working intensively on further

measures to improve the efficiency

of the aluminum smelting systems.


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 19


(Photos and graphics: Foseco)

Brian Dickinson, Tony Midea, Andy Adams, Foseco Metallurgical, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio


The analysis uses industry standard filter

print designs as the baseline for the fluid

flow comparisons, and compares these

results to filter print designs that have

been altered for yield improvement. Industry

standard filter prints are defined

as those designed during the initial filter

development for iron castings. Some

of the key requirements for optimal results

were identified during the development,

incl. the following [1-4],[6-11].

» Maximize exposure of the filter inlet

face to ensure maximum total flow

» Maximize (four sided) support to ensure

that the inertial forces on the filter

from the iron flow do not surpass

the strength of the filter

» Minimize the possibility of iron

passing around (not through) the

filter by designing the support ledge

on the filter print outlet to match filter

tolerance dimensions

» Minimize turbulence by designing

the filter print volumes such that

the flow smoothly transitions from

inlet to outlet

These combined characteristics were

used to define the basis for standard filter

print design. Over the past 30 years,

these designs have been continually tested

and have slightly evolved through applications

and foundry evaluations. The

first simulations conducted in this study

were used to evaluate these standard designs.

Yield improvement is a high priority

for all foundries, and gating systems

are analyzed as carefully as all other

aspects of the casting process to reduce

weight. Alterations are sometimes

made to standard filter prints to reduce

weight without careful analysis of the

effect on the fluid flow properties on

the gating system.

20 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Changes that adversely affect molten

metal fluid flow can result in increased

turbulence, non-uniform flow

and a reduction in filtration efficiency.

Several of these situations were also

evaluated in this study.

The results of this work include several

ideas on how to design filter prints

and runner systems that are applicable

to all iron filtration devices in the best


Standard 75 mm x 75 mm x 22 mm

(2.95 x 2.95 x 0.866 inch) thick square

horizontal and vertical filter prints

were chosen as the baseline to begin

the analysis. Several modifications

were made to both types of filter prints

to evaluate the effect of these design

modifications on fluid dynamics.

All fluid flow analyses were conducted

using MAGMA 5 (Version

with Solver 5. The mesh size for all simulations

was approximately 10 million

elements (700,000 metal cells). The

metal dataset represents ASTM A536-84

(80-55-06/GGG-60) grade ductile iron

poured at 1,400 °C (2,552 °F) into a sand

mold. The plate casting is approximately

305 x 610 x 76 mm (12 x 24 x 3 in) in

dimension and approximately 100 kg

(220 lb) in weight. Total pour weight

was approximately 110 kg (242 lb).

The filter was represented using

standard 10 ppi, foam filtration pressure

drop data for a 22 mm (0.866 in)

thick SEDEX filter [5]. In all cases, the

program was run using the “Automatic

Filling Control” feature. Specifically,

the program was forced to maintain

a pouring cup metal height of

70 % for all the simulations, thus ensuring

identical pouring conditions for

all versions simulated. Fill time was approximately

24 s for all configurations,

representing a flow rate of approximately

4.5 kg/s (10 lb/s).

The gating designs evaluated in this

report are representative of those in

use on industry standard, high pressure,

green sand, automated molding


Standard Vertical Filter Print

Standard Horizontal Filter Print

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 21


The choke area was calculated using

Equation 1.

The top of the sprue was calculated

using Equation 2.

The sprue was tapered at a three-degree

angle to allow for mold stripping.

The runner system follows a ratio of

Sprue:Runner:Ingate of 1.0:1.1:1.2.

The baseline vertical filter print configuration

is shown in .

The baseline horizontal filter print

configuration is shown in .

All simulations were conducted on a

Dell Precision 7810 Tower workstation

utilizing 8 cores. CPU time for each

simulation was approximately 10 h.

Velocity at 10 % Filled

All fluid flow results shown are analytical

and based on the Navier-Stokes

flow equations. Flow predictions from

this first principal fluid dynamic approach

have been validated for several

decades in many industries and applications,

including molten metal applications.

The expectation is that the

comparative results shown should be

very meaningful and accurate. However,

foundry trials will be conducted

in future work to further validate the

conclusions presented in this paper.

The flow characteristics for a standard

vertical filter print are shown in .

The colors represent flow velocities. At

10 % filled, the flow is in a steady state

in and around the filter print. The color

scale goes from light blue (low velocity,

near 0.2 m/s (0.66 ft/s) to white (higher

velocity, near 2.0 m/s (6.6 ft/s). Flow

through the filter is approximately 0.3-

0.4 m/s (1-1.3 ft/s), and the flow before

the filter is laminar, and covers the entire

filter. Flow after the filter is uniform

and stable.

A cross section through the middle

of the filter print at this same time step

shows the fluid velocity and flow vectors


This image clearly shows the uniform

flow, and the utilization of the

entire filter face for both flow control

and filtration. This can be considered

a well-designed filter print and gating

system, and will serve as a baseline for

the vertical filter print section of this

study. In application, extreme changes

have sometimes been made to standard

filter prints to save weight, increase

yield and/or fit within pattern

plate restrictions. shows one

actual example.

While this design results in a 35 %

weight reduction to the filter print design

(0.9 kgs, 2 lbs), the flow characteristics

in the filter print and gating system

are adversely affected.

22 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

shows the flow characteristics at

the centerline of the filter print and ga t-

ing system at 6.5 % filled. (Note: The results

for all designs are compared to the

standard filter print design results. The

standard results are shown as the bottom

image in the comparative figures for the

vertical filter print examples.)

Because of the sharp angles of the

modified filter print inlet, the flow accelerates

into the center of the filter inlet

face, and begins to move through

the filter before completely filling up

the filter print inlet area. The flow

characteristics for the standard filter

print design show a more evenly distributed

flow pattern within the filter

print inlet and at the filter inlet face.

The high filter inlet face velocities of

the reduced filter print inlet area design

results in some very high filter exit

face velocities, as shown in .

Ideally, the filter should reduce flow

energy and turbulence by acting as a

flow discontinuity. However, this effect

is mitigated if only a small area of the

filter is being utilized. This is shown

clearly in Fig. 7, with the reduced area

filter print showing flow exiting the

filter at high velocity, while the standard

design shows the entire filter

filled with metal at very low velocity,

and minimal metal flow exiting the filter

itself at this time step.

In , this continues to be the

case even at steady state flow. Even at

steady state, the reduced area filter print

design is not allowing the entire filter

print inlet area to be used, and instead

is pushing the metal through the center

of the filter. This results in non-uniform

flow behind the filter, and the potential

for turbulence. Contrast this with

the uniform flow profile shown for the

standard filter print design, particularly

at the filter outlet face, the filter print

outlet and downstream in the runner.

Also, due to the steep angle of the

filter print outlet, the flow is launched

upward, thus adversely influencing the

stability of the flow downstream. This

can be seen more clearly in .


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 23


Fig. 9 shows a top view of a cross section

taken near the bottom of the runner

bar, just after the filter print. For

the reduced area filter print design,

note that the flow at both sides of the

runner bar are moving very slowly, and

most importantly, in the opposite direction

of the intended flow.

The upward thrust of the metal flow

due to the steep angle has created a

large, adverse eddy current driving the

flow slowly backwards. This situation

24 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

exists for the bottom third of this runner

bar. The standard filter print design

shows an area of slow flow near the bottom

of the runner on one side, but the

primary flow characteristics are much

more uniform in velocity and direction.

shows a side view of the

runner bar at the same time step, and

shows a clear difference between the

two designs, with the standard filter

print providing more uniform, controlled

metal flow to the casting. Reducing

the area of the filter print in this

fashion to slightly increase yield (0.9 kg,

2 lbs saved) has significant adverse effects

on the flow characteristics in the

filter print inlet, the filter inlet face, the

filter outlet face, the filter print outlet,

and in the downstream runner bar. This

type of alteration is not recommended

for best practice filter print design.

shows a configuration

with the area of the filter print outlet

modified to match the standard print

shown in Fig. 1, but the reduced filter

print inlet area is unchanged.

In this case, the issues in the filter

print inlet area and at the filter

inlet face remain the same as discussed

previously, but the flow after

the filter shows clear improvement. In

, note how similar the filter

outlet face and filter print outlet flow

profiles appear when comparing the

reduced filter print inlet area configuration

with the standard filter print.

The main difference between this

configuration and the standard filter

print is the dramatically higher flow

velocities at the filter inlet face for the

reduced area design, and the fact that

only a small portion of the filter is being

used. This is the same situation discussed

in the previous configuration,

but the yield argument is even more

clear this time.

Reducing the area of the filter print

inlet only saves 0.6 kg (1.3 lb), but adversely

affects the flow such that the

entire filter area is not being used to

efficiently filter inclusions from the

metal. Again, this small yield improvement

has a significant adverse effect on

the flow, and is not recommended in


shows a similar design with

the area reduced at the filter print outlet

only. Reducing the area of the filter

print outlet only will save just 0.3 kg

(0.66 lb), and result in very poor flow

exiting the filter print. The flow comparison

is shown in .

In this case, the flow in the filter

print inlet and at the filter inlet face

has the same beneficial characteristics

as that of the standard filter print.

However, the flow at the filter outlet

face, within the filter print outlet and

in the downstream runner bar exhibits

all of the same poor characteristics

shown in Fig. 7-10. A filter print design

that adversely affects the flow characteristics

and delivers minimal yield improvement

should not be considered as


shows the standard configuration

with an addition of a slag trap

before the filter. This change only adds


approximately 0.23 kg (0.5 lbs) to the

filter print design, but results in a positive

impact on the overall flow characteristics

of the filter print itself. The filter

print with a properly designed slag

trap displays all of the high quality

flow characteristics shown in the standard

filter print, with the added benefit

of better filter print inlet flow and

potentially better filtration efficiency.

shows how the trap begins

to work as soon as the metal reaches

the filter. Note that the bottom of the

filter print inlet has filled quickly, and

that the flow is washing the filter inlet

face and moving upwards into the

slag trap area.

At 8.5 % (), the flow is nearly

stabilized, and the slag trap is forcing

the initial metal into a beneficial

counter-clockwise eddy current, thus

potentially allowing inclusions to reverse

direction and slowly float upward

into the trap. The standard filter print

without the slag trap also has a small

area of beneficial eddy currents at the

top of the filter print inlet, but very little

space to trap and retain inclusions.

By 9 % filled ( ), the filter

print is fully flooded, including the

slag trap. There are still some small

beneficial eddy currents in the trap. By

10 % filled (), the filter print is

fully stabilized and any inclusions that

entered the slag trap will remain.

Adding a small area to trap slag in

the filter print inlet improves the flow

characteristics of the runner design

and the ability of the filter print to trap

inclusions. These are significant benefits

for a minimal reduction in yield.

For horizontal filter print designs,

some significant advantages to filtration

efficiency can be gained simply by

placing the filter at an angle relative to

the flow. shows a standard

horizontal filter print compared to an

angled filter print configuration.

The angled filter more readily accepts

the flow and provides a more

uniform flow pattern both within and

above the filter inlet face.

At 8.5 % filled ( ), the angled

filter print flow profile is fully established,

and uniform throughout. A

beneficial eddy current is visible within

the filter print inlet which enhan ces

the effectiveness of the slag trap. The


formation of the eddy current is a direct

result of the angled filter.

At 10 % filled (), both filter

prints are operating at steady state conditions,

and both produce a uniform

flow pattern. The angled design does

a better job of distributing and minimizing

the flow energy at the filter inlet

face and outlet face.

Another advantage of angling the

filter is to direct the flow across the filter

inlet face to potentially dislodge

any inclusions that may have become

trapped on the filter itself. These dislodged

inclusions could then get entrained

into the eddy current and be

mechanically moved into the slag


The velocities at the filter inlet face

are shown in top view in (To

create the image for the angled filter,

the clipping plane was rotated around

the y-axis to match the plane of the filter).

essentially shows a top

view of the flow profile at the filter inlet

face. For both cases the metal flow

is clearly moving across the filter inlet

face from one end to the other, but

more prominently in the angled filter

case, as seen in the right image. For

the angled filter, the flow is also moving

more quickly through the filter, as

shown in .

The images in Fig. 25 represent only

the filter geometry (no filter print or

gating), and the images are rotated for

comparative viewing and as such are

not in their normal orientation. The

left image represents the standard horizontally

oriented configuration while

the right image represents the angled

filter configuration. The filters have

been sectioned along the centerline,

and the scale has been adjusted (reduced)

to show the flow direction and

to delineate more clearly the velocity


From this view, the right image

shows the washing of the angled filter

inlet face, represented by the parallel

vectors on the filter inlet face and even

a few millimeters into the filter thickness

itself. By comparison, only two

small sections of the horizontal filter

(left image) show parallel flow at the

filter inlet face, and even then only on

the surface of the filter itself, not into

the filter thickness.

The benefits of the mechanical action

of moving inclusions from the fil-

28 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Standard vs angled horizontal

ter inlet face to the slag trap are twofold.

This action allows the filter to

operate at maximum flow rate because

there are fewer particles trapped on the

surface of the filter restricting the metal

flow through the filter. In addition,

for metal containing significant slag

levels, this may also allow the filter to

operate at higher capacity than standard

filter print orientations because

of the opportunity to pass more metal

through the filter before ultimately

becoming blocked or caked with slag

or other inclusions.

Overall, placing the filter at an incline

relative to the metal stream is

beneficial to the filter flow rate capability

and filtration efficiency.


30 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Alterations are sometimes made to

standard filter prints to improve yield

without careful analysis of the effect

on the fluid flow properties on the gating

system. This initial study evaluated

the effect of several filter print design

changes on the quality of metal flow in

the filter print, the runner system and

through the filter itself. In general, the

conclusions are as follows:

» Large reductions in filter print inlet

and outlet areas, and sharp angles

within the print itself adversely

alter the flow characteristics

resulting in non-uniform flow and

turbulence.Conclusion: Yield improvement

is minimal, not recommended.

» A slag trap designed prior to the

filter inlet face induces a counter-clockwise

eddy current that

washes the filter face and assists

with the trapping of inclusions.

Conclusion: Recommended

» In horizontal applications, angling

the filter relative to the metal stream

is beneficial to the filter flow rate capability

and filtration efficiency.

Conclusion: Recommended


your profit

with 3D printed

cores & molds.

Our experts

will be pleased

to advise you!

This paper constitutes the initial, theoretical

study of various SEDEX filter

print designs and their effect on flow

characteristics. Future work is planned

to review additional design concepts

and to validate these configurations

with molten metal.


Daimlerstr. 22 • 86368 Gersthofen

+49 (0) 821 650 630

ExOne.com • europe@exone.com


Robert Piterek, German Foundry Association, Düsseldorf

Globalization in Swabian

60 years after Föhl was founded, looking back is much less interesting than looking ahead: the

zinc and plastic caster from Rudersberg near Stuttgart is preparing itself for the future with re-



die-casting foundry”), the consolidation

of important processes, further

work on establishing a corporate culture,

and the professionalization of

further education and training.

Dr. Frank Kirkorowicz, Föhl’s President and CEO, at the Michelau die-casting plant.

(Photos: Andreas Bednareck)

In 1958, Germany’s economic miracle

was driving development, and the

die-casting process was still a comparably

new technology: Adolf Föhl,

then a toolmaker at pressure die-casting

machine producer Oskar Frech,

Schorndorf, Germany, recognized the

potential of this production process

and exploited his professional knowledge

to set up his own company –

Adolf Föhl GmbH + Co KG. An initial

injection molding plant rapidly became

a sizeable machine park in which

zinc die-casting machines soon played

the leading role. The marriage of Adolf

Föhl’s sister to Oskar Frech marked

the creation of a fruitful partnership

between the technology user and the

supplier, that has lasted to the present


60 years after its founding in the late

1950s, Föhl is celebrating a decadal jubilee.

The Swabian foundry is now a

flourishing group of companies with

sales of 107 million euros and almost

700 employees in five works in Germany

and China. It is still a matter of

recognizing and exploiting potentials.

Because the caster from Swabia is currently

developing the company’s future

foundations. The program for the

coming years includes the launch of

newly developed technologies in Germany

and China, expansion of the

works in Michelau (which is already

considered “Europe’s most modern

Creating value by appreciating


As President and CEO, Dr. Frank Kirkorowicz

has been steering corporate

development since the mid-1990s. In

this he is supported by his Executive

Board colleagues Ulrich Schwab (Chief

Operating Officer) and Boris Langer

(Chief Financial Officer). Kirkorowicz,

who studied medicine in Heidelberg

and is the grandson-in-law of the company’s

founder, has led the firm through

highs and lows in recent decades, turning

it into an SME global player with the

construction of a Chinese works in Taicang

near Shanghai. With success: the

workforce has doubled, today’s sales of

more than 100 million euros are now

five times higher than in 1996, the year

he joined the company. “When I started

at Föhl I decided to expand the company

in such a way that it could rapidly

adapt to changing conditions,”

explains the former trauma surgeon

who gained the necessary know-how

for his current tasks at the respected St.

Galler Business School. In his opinion,

Föhl’s adaptability means, on the one

hand, a functioning corporate culture

under the motto ‘Creating value by appreciating

value’. “We see people holistically,

they must feel good and be able

to develop – then they can call up the

performance that we need,” according

to Kirkorowicz. A conviction that derives

from his medical past. On the other

hand, the father of three daughters

wants to maintain the company’s state-

32 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

of-the-art technology, building upon a

future-oriented innovation policy.

Focus on material and process


Föhl is a Tier 2 automotive supplier and

produces, for example, plugs, ball sockets

for gas springs in cars, antennae components,

gear levers, and components

for belt restraints. Föhl also produces

components for the machine construction

and fittings sectors. The product

range – with about 1,100 different components

– is considerable. The weight of

the castings varies from a few grams to

about one-and-a-half kilograms. 90 %

of Föhl’s sales are now made with zinc

and 10 % with plastic. The batch size of

some components is an impressive 100

million units per year.

Kirkorowicz and the Föhl team skillfully

exploit their expertise in the two

material segments for the development

of hybrid components, e.g. zinc

antennae components recast in plastic.

Even though business with hybrid,

zinc and plastic components is

currently going well, the entrepreneur

is not resting on his laurels. Technological

changes such as Industry 4.0,

e-mobility and autonomous driving

push the company to develop further

The Mold Center in Rudersberg. The machine can mill and erode molds on the basis of

CAD data. Mechanical engineer Mirko Jordan (left) is one of eight designers at Föhl

innovations. Whereby Föhl is not developing

randomly, but is capitalizing

on its strengths: material and process

competences. Though the principle of

only developing resource-conserving

and energy-saving technologies also


Sprue-free casting

with hot runner technology

Hot-runner technology has attracted

considerable attention in the non-ferrous

metal sector: the parts are cast

with little or no sprue, as in a similar

process in injection molding. Where-

The Training Workshop: Föhl currently employs 37 trainees. With 430 employees in

Germany this represents almost 10 % of the workforce

A trainee practicing in the workshop

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 33


Ulrich Schwab (left), Dr. Frank Kirkowicz

and CP+T-Editor Robert Piterek (right)

during a works tour

High-tech hybrid component production in Haubersbronn. The casting is recast with

plastic and then closely inspected with the help of cameras and 3-D scanners

by several nozzles are used to inject the

liquid melt into the mold. This process

offers enormous advantages: little

or no sprue, less recycling material,

environmental benefits, less air in

the system and consequently higher-quality

castings, lower energy consumption,

and greater possibilities for

implementing complex geometries. In

economic terms, the increase in productivity

is a considerable advantage

because the lack of sprue creates space

in the mold so that more parts than

before can be poured with one shot.

This gave Kirkorowicz an idea: “This

also opens up the possibility of pouring

more parts in the same time on

existing machines,” he explains with

sweeping gestures, clearly enthusiastic.

Though he admits that the tools

for the process cost 30 - 40 % more.

Nevertheless, taken as a whole, the use

of the new technology could be good

for business – for which Kirkorowicz,

however, does not claim any exclusivity:

“The automotive industry wants

to purchase their products at competitive

prices. This is impossible if only

one supplier is using the technology.”

Fully automated tool


Four of the five Föhl works are located

within ten kilometers of the company’s

Headquarters. Production continues

at Rudersberg itself, though space

Base for a car roof antenna: 1.2 million units are supplied every year

is limited. In addition, the Training

Workshop and the brand new Mold

Center (in which Föhl has invested

almost one million euros) are located

here. Casting tools for die-casting

plants are produced in the futuristic 6

x 6 m² temperature-controlled cell. A

robot uses a CAD data set to work on

the clamped molds with milling and

eroding tools, preparing them for the

manufacture of new products. 27-yearold

mechanical engineer Mirko Jordan

is one of eight designers at Föhl. He is

fascinated by the plant, which processes

graphite, steel and copper with an

accuracy of up to 3 μm. “I was lucky

because, straight after my training, I

got into CAM programming and I feel

really good here now,” says Jordan,

whose uncle also works at Föhl. The

plant, that measures and documents

every step with the help of a measuring

machine from Zeiss, is not just an important

step for Föhl in the direction

of Industry 4.0, but is also a motivation

for young people to start their careers

here. “Having in-house expertise

is crucial”, says Ulrich Schwab, “and

our young employees anyway want to

make the molds themselves”.

34 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Perfect serial production: the zinc die-casting plants

in Michelau are arranged in several rows

The main entrance of the Föhl works in

Michelau: the railings on the bridge are

decorated with a variety of images, including

a galvanized dragon and a snake as a

symbol of molting and renewal

Training with social


The Training Workshop run by Dierk

Göhringer is also located in Rudersberg.

37 trainees work here. Industrial

managers, industrial mechanics, electronics

engineers, process mechanics,

foundry mechanics (in pressure and

gravity die-casting), machine and plant

operators, tool mechanics, and specialists

in warehouse logistics are trained

here for their professional futures, as

well as several students who are doing

their Bachelor’s degrees at Föhl.

“The basic metal training is very similar

for all trainees during the first year

here. Then the trainees go to their various

specialist departments,” Göhringer

explains. Newcomers largely come

from Germany or have Turkish roots,

though recently a young man from Afghanistan

also started training as a machine

and plant operator. “We also had

an employee from Syria who was able

to communicate excellently after just

six months in Germany – we wanted

to keep him on, of course,” stresses Kirkorowicz,

who also feels a high level of

social responsibility towards refugees

and is committed to assisting their integration

in this way.

Connected plants for

large-scale production

Hot-chamber pressure die-casting

machines are used at the foundry in

Rudersberg, as at all the works. The

plants, with locking forces from 20

to 200 tonnes, all originate from machine

producer Oskar Frech, whose

works halls are only a few kilometers

from Föhl’s German works. There are

also highly productive plants in Rudersberg.

A socket, part of a car’s steering

wheel locking system, is being produced

in a fully automatic production

cell – a million of them are produced

every year. Three robots serve the entire

value-creation chain from cooling

and punching, through sprue melting,

to thread forming and blasting. “The

part used to go through three works

and is now finished within an area of

almost 60 m²,” explains Ulrich Schwab

proudly, and Kirkorowicz adds that,

“This is how the future of our foundry

must be, even for small batch numbers.”

This is because such highly automated

production is more economical

than any manual production, however

cheap it may be.

State-of-the-art high-tech is also to be

found in Haubersbronn, where the

plastic production is located. This is

also where the hybrid plant does its

work. Floor panels for several models

of Ford and the popular Mercedes

Sprinter are produced here in a refined

interplay of cameras, robots, 3-D scanners

and the injection molding machine.

The cycle time for four parts is

just 30 s, and 1.2 million floor panels

leave the works every year.

Transparency throughout

the process chain

The lion’s share of the 111 Föhl die-casting

plants worldwide, however, is located

in the Swabian caster’s newest German

die-casting works: the Michelau

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 35

Housings for Kärcher high-pressure cleaners are produced in this integrated casting cell

works that was opened in 1999, and

was visited by the then Federal Chancellor

Gerhard Schröder. The foundry

was constructed in response to a major

order from electronics producer

Philips for housing parts for CD players.

100 specially employed temporary

workers had to be discharged and 30 %

of sales were lost when the IT bubble

burst. “We needed ten years to get over

that crisis,” Kirkorowicz admits.

Business is now booming again in the

works – built on 250 piles for flood protection

and with oversized windows:

the familiar production noises engulf

the large and tidy production halls in

a busy soundscape. Production takes

place in two halls with several rows of

Frech die-casting machines. An automated

casting furnace moves around

between them, regularly filling the

machines with hot zinc melt at about

400 °C. The tool maintenance area is

accommodated in another hall where

the die-casting tools are, among other

things, cleaned in ultrasonic baths

and then dismantled. The great variety

of products is clearly visible in the production

halls: each machine spits out a

different casting and, at the back of the

hall, blasting units provide the necessary

processing. Hot-runner technology

is also already in use here, as is an

integrated production cell in which

the housings for Kärcher high-pressure

cleaners are produced. But capacity

has been exhausted 17 years after

construction of the Michelau foundry.

Expansion of the works is unavoidable.

Looking at the layout plan that has just

come out of the plotter, Ulrich Schwab

indicates the planned production enlargement:

the factory area will be doubled

in size. After the warehouse and

dispatch department has moved in,

more die-casting machines will probably

be installed in future – the expansion,

planned by Föhl personnel themselves,

should be completed by 2019.

Föhl has long been reliant on IT support

to ensure that high stocks do not

build up despite the many different products

and the millions of units – 5 million

per day worldwide. A new Enterprise Resource

Planning/Production Planning

System (ERP/PPS) recently started operation.

“If an excavator ripped up a cable

here, we would have to stop production

within three days because we would no

longer be able to maintain an overview,”

Kirkorowicz points out.

Green anti-corrosion coating

as an export hit?

The Asperglen logistics site accommodates

Föhl’s second large new development

with which the company intends

to establish itself worldwide: the

thin-film passivation or nano-coating

plant. This technology is revolutionary

because it can replace polluting metal-galvanizing

anti-corrosion coating

processes. Harmless silicon oxide dissolved

in liquid is used instead. “The

technology is sustainable; the recyclates

in the machine are vaporized

later. The rest can be sold to bioenergy

plants as cooling material,” explains

Kirkorowicz. Since mid-2017,

Föhl has used this ‘green technology’

for its own castings, such as rooftop antennae

components, to protect them

against corrosion. And in this case too,

Föhl plans to introduce the technology

on an open-market basis. Kirkorowicz

believes that there is enormous potential

for thin-wall passivation in China,

where environmental legislation is becoming

increasingly stringent – and is

also affecting galvanization there.

If one examines the growth figures of

the Föhl works in China (managed, by

the way, by Frank Kirkorowicz’s brother),

such a rollout does indeed appear

promising: the 15,000 m² works in

Tai cang with its 271 employees and

23 die-casting machines has achieved

fantastic growth figures for some years

now: growth rose to more than 30 % in

2017 from 8 % in 2015. Let the future

come – Föhl is prepared!


36 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

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Casting, Plant and Technology International

Please contact us for further information

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Giesserei-Verlag GmbH

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A central, optimized cell control creates the basis for productivity gains in die casting (Photos and graphics: Bühler)

Adrian Buob, Bühler AG, Uzwil

Cell management for greater success

Potential for optimization in die casting

Industry 4.0 – a buzzword currently on

the tip of everyone’s tongue. In some

branches of industry, the factories of

the future are already being tested; others

are more restrained. However, the

subject is being discussed all over – including

within the die-casting industry.

Die casting is in competition with

alternative manufacturing processes

and materials. In order to continue

manufacturing competitive die cast

parts, it is essential to keep working on

making the process more efficient. Cell

management plays an important role

in this regard, since there is still great

potential to be explored:

Having a central, optimized cell management

system makes it possible to

increase productivity in die casting

and to further develop the industry.

Networking is at the forefront of Industry

4.0: machines and products collect,

analyze and evaluate information,

while remaining in constant contact

with each other. This is also where the

exceptional potential for cell management

lies: the goal is that the die-casting

cell is ready for production quickly

after a standstill and that it optimizes

itself in the final expansion stage. This

results in sustained improvement of

uptime. After all, 47 % of the interruptions

in the production process are

currently caused by peripheral devices

(Figure 1). The problem generally lies

Figure 1: Nearly half of the interruptions of production during die casting are caused

by peripheral equipment. The data are subjected to an exemplary evaluation with the

help of the Bühler EventAnalyzer

in the inadequately developed communication

between the individual

subsystems. This is due to a lack of data

needed to inform the operator about

the cause and remedy for the problem.

A higher-level cell management system

would result in a clear improvement

at this point. However, further

development and setting of standards

are still required to create an intelligent,

self-optimizing cell.

Three steps towards an

intelligent die casting cell

For Bühler, Uzwil, Switzerland, the development

of the cell management system

is an important step towards die

casting foundries becoming part of Industry

4.0. The process of developing

an intelligent die casting cell can be divided

into three completed steps. They

build upon each other and can be continuously

expanded ().

The first step includes detecting and

correcting existing vulnerabilities within

the die-casting cell. A key criterion will

be the installation of a central head controller

– i.e. cell management. If an error

happens today, the operator has no other

choice than to walk around the cell

and find out where the problem lies. Frequently,

it becomes necessary to manual-

38 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Bühler approaches the goal of intelligent production in three

development steps with a central cell control system

ly reset every single device within the cell

and to restart the process from the starting

position. The cell management system

relieves the operator by getting all of

the participating devices into home position

and automatically starting again.

This allows the operators to concentrate

on their primary duties.

In the second step, the goal is to attain

optimized production. The central

cell management system recognizes

deviating parameters and provides

tips for improving the process. In addition,

it can also suggest measures to be

taken to ensure that the die-casting cell

does not suddenly stop operating and a

proactive maintenance becomes possible.

A user-friendly visualization helps

the operator with the analysis of the

data and makes finding solutions easier.

Based on the interplay between the

machine, the operator and the process

experts, the die-casting process can be

more easily optimized, whereby the uptime

of the cell increases demonstrably.

The goal of the third step is to implement

intelligent production which

works fully-automatically and is able to

independently counteract errors and

loss of quality in a timely manner. This

is made possible by “Predictive Analytics”

which means that the control system,

based on algorithms, is able to

predict early on which parts have to

be serviced when. This knowledge allows

the control system to implement

targeted counter-measures. For example,

maintenance work is planned and

carried out at the ideal point in time.

Central control system acting

as the “brain of the cell”

“Currently we are working on executing

the first stage”, explained Laszlo

Jud, Head of Automation for Bühler

Die-Casting, Uzwil, Switzerland. During

the first step, the cell control system

is implemented and acts “as the

brain” of the die-casting cell, communicating

directly with the peripheral systems

such as the press and the marker

( Figure 3). It controls and monitors the

entire cell including all participants.

The cell control system is operated from

a central operating unit. The user interface

is web-based ensuring that it can

also be accessed from mobile terminals

through the network. Special attention

is paid to how user-friendly the system

is: instructions are clearly written, error

messages are precisely assigned to a

particular part of the machine and support

is provided for repairs. This ensures

that operating the machine is as easy as

possible. Furthermore, all relevant information

gained from the production

process is saved and the extensive tracing

of components is ensured.

Whenever the production process

is interrupted, the cell management

system provides additional significant

added value: for the first time, error

messages for all of the devices are bundled

centrally. The user not only receives

the information wherever there

is a problem, but also receives concrete

directions as to how to eliminate an error.

This ensures that the die-casting

cell is ready for operation faster after

a malfunction.

Ensuring traceability &


Complete traceability is required particularly

for the automotive industry,

and is often associated with additional

costs. As a result of detailed production

data collection through cell management,

comprehensive documentation

is guaranteed for each manufactured


Standardizing Interfaces

The successful implementation of a

cell management system also requires

standardization of interfaces and specification

of uniform data formatting

and transfer protocols. This is the only

way for components made by a wide

variety of manufacturers to work together

in a coordinated manner. The

interfaces that have been used up to

now can no longer meet current demands.

Just like many other companies,

Bühler relies on the IEC standard

that has been proven effective for communication

between machine control

systems and production management

systems (Figure 4).

Communication within the cell is

more challenging since a deterministic

signal exchange is absolutely essential.

Currently common interfaces

are Profinet and Ethernet/IP. However,

switching to a new communications

protocol takes time. “That is

why those of us participating in the

cell management project will be continuously

integrating all of the interfaces”,

explained Laszlo Jud. “We are

certainly convinced that the IEC standard

will soon have established itself as

the standard for communication within

the cell”.

Targeted data analysis at the

cell level as a factor for success

The tasks of analyzing data and interpreting

the processes must be performed

along the way of establishing a

cell management system. “We are currently

already able to record a great

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 39


amount of data from a die-casting machine.

However, expanding data collection

to all parts of the cell, how we interpret

these data, what conclusions we

draw from them and, finally, what measures

can be derived are all of great significance”,

explained Laszlo Jud. The information

gained has to be used in such

a way as to create the greatest possible

benefit for die casting foundries. One

possible use of the data is the predictive

maintenance of the cell that is made

possible by having reliable information

about the condition of the equipment.

This is a significant step on the way to a

digital future for die casting foundries:

errors that occur can be analyzed more

precisely and production can be optimized

accordingly. “Such a comprehensive

database combined with our experience

leads to highly promising results

for the benefit of our customers” according

to Mr. Jud. For one thing is clear: if

the production data are used correctly,

the uptime of a die casting cell will increase


Cell management already

Already in 2018, the first cell control systems

from Bühler will be operating at

customers’ sites. “Starting with this first

step, we will be working together consistently

with our customers and partners

to continue developing and optimizing

the cell management system”, reports

Laszlo Jud. “In order for our customers

to benefit from cell management, we

all have to pull together.” Everything

is centered around the quality of the

manufactured parts, as well as around

productivity and uptime of the plant.

“This is where our years of experience

Figure 3: Die casting is currently hard at work creating a cell control system that monitors

and controls all of the machines and processes within a die-casting cell. It functions

as the “brain” of the cell

Figure 4: In cell management, the die-casting machine and the required peripheral devices

work together as equal partners and form a completed process step within the

entire value-added chain

with the die casting industry come into

play”, said Laszlo Jud with conviction.


40 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 41


Andreas Buswell, Wolfgang Schlüter, Matthias Henninger and Stefan Müller, University of Ansbach

Simulation of non-ferrous melting

and die-casting plants for energy

In order to stay competitive on the

world market a high level of automation

and energy efficiency is essential

for energy-intensive industries. The

impact of energy efficiency has increased

in Germany in particular as a

result of the energy transition and the

strengthening competition based on

globalization. In the non-ferrous melting

and die-casting industry for example

the energy consumption per ton of

good casting usually ranges between

2000 and 6000 kWh. Consequently,

the amount of energy costs generally

exceeds 25 % of gross value added.

Up to 60 % of this energy is needed

for the factory-internal melting process

of the aluminum, which usually

takes place in gas-fired secondary

aluminum melting furnaces. Thereby

problems are generally determined

by the lack of information on the production

fluctuations in the foundry

which are caused by the complex requirements

for liquid aluminum. Consequently

the furnaces are frequently

driven outside the ideal operating

range and energy is wasted. Obviously

the production process needs to be

optimized by appropriate intralogistic

control measures which lower the energy

consumption without impairing

productivity. Control strategies can be

evaluated with the help of a material

flow simulator which includes an ad-

Figure 1: Schematic structure of a melting and die-casting plant

Figure 2: Example of a melting furnace

with the four process stages

42 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

ditional function for the energy consumption

of the melting process.

Schematic structure of a melting

and die-casting plant

Constructing a simulation model requires

an understanding of the process

flow inside a typical melting and

die-casting plant (Figure 1). The delivery

of aluminum to the plant is carried

out in a liquid and a solid state. Whereas

the delivered liquid aluminum can

be processed directly, the solid aluminum

needs to be melted by using inhouse

melting furnaces. The melting

process is based on a 50 to 50 mixture

of solid aluminum shipments and recycled

process material, e.g. rejected

products or sprue material from the

die-casting process. Forklifts are used

for transporting liquid and solid aluminum

inside the plant.

Inside the die-casting machines the

liquid aluminum is pressed into the

desired shapes (products). Since the

die-casting machines act as the only

sinks for liquid aluminum, they determine

the demand for melted material

(pull system). The amount of produced

parts and the consumption of liquid

aluminum depend on the cycle time

as well as the shot weight of the current

product. Due to production fluctuations

and complex thermodynamic

processes within the melting furnaces,

it is almost impossible for the operation

manager in charge to optimize

the in-house melting process. Consequently,

the furnaces are usually operated

in a very unsteady way and this

leads to great fluctuations in the filling

levels. As a result the number of heating

and cooling processes increases.

These factors have a negative impact

on the specific energy consumption

(kWh/t) of the furnaces and therefore

the economic efficiency of the overall


The process within the previously

examined melting furnaces can be divided

into four basic stages (Figure 2).

The solid aluminum is delivered to the

melting shaft by the charging system

(stage 1). Inside the shaft the aluminum

is heated up and melted by natural

gas-powered burners (stage 2).

Thereby hot flue gas is produced which

Figure 3:

Figure 4: Flue gas temperatures inside the melting furnace

flows around the aluminum and passes

on its own heat energy to the material.

The efficiency of the process

is determined by the amount of absorbed

heat energy of the aluminum.

The flue gas and the molten aluminum

leave the melting shaft and reach the

furnace’s holding area (furnace tub)

where the liquid metal is kept at a specified

temperature with the help of additional

burners (stage 3). In order to

withdraw molten aluminum at the discharge

socket, the whole furnace is tilted

to enable the material to flow into

the forklift’s container (stage 4).

Process analysis

An energy efficient functioning of

a melting furnace requires a steady

mode of operation at a high filling level

of the melting shaft. However, measurements

in reference plants have

shown that the filling levels inside

melting shafts are usually significantly

lower than the shaft’s maximum capacity

(Figure 3).

Low aluminum filling levels inside

the shaft reduce the heat exchange

which depends on the surface area as

well as the driving temperature gradient.

As a result, the thermodynamic

efficiency decreases whereas the furnace’s

specific energy consumption increases.

Therefore, a fluctuating operation

mode causes a negative effect on

the furnace’s performance. For example,

the specific energy consumption

of the examined furnace exceeds the

nominal value of the furnace manufacturer’s

specifications by 25 %. Additionally,

the measured melting rate of

3.68 t/h only reaches the lower end

of the specifications (3.5 – 4.5 t/h). Depending

on the operating point, the

thermodynamic efficiency ranges between

25 and 50 %.

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 43


The flue gas’ outlet temperature is a

suitable parameter for rating the furnace’s

energy efficiency, since it represents

the result of the combined heat

transfer processes inside the furnace.

As a general rule, a higher efficiency is

obtained at a lower flue gas temperature.

Figure 4 depicts the chronological

course of flue gas temperatures at

the melting shaft’s exit (position A in

figure 2) as well as the furnace’s outlet

(position B).

The effect of the fluctuating filling

level on the flue gas temperature can

be seen at measurement position A.

Charging procedures lead to significant

drops of the measured temperature,

which are then followed by a steady

increase. However, the temperature of

the flue gas at the furnace’s outlet (position

B) which ranges between 850 °C

and 1,000 °C shows a more consistent

trend. Furthermore this illustrates that

the flue gas still contains a lot of heat

energy when leaving the furnace.



Figure 5:perature

inside the melting shaft

Figure 6: Aluminum mass inside a melting shaft with optimized charging strategy

Simulation model

In order to analyze different process

parameters, such as the die casting machine’s

demand for aluminum and its

effect on the melting furnaces, a simulation

model following the depiction

in figure 1 has been created. The

simulation is qualified for developing

new strategies for the in-plant aluminum

distribution or suitable operation

modes for the die-casting machines

and furnaces. Furthermore the simulation

tool offers the derivation of suitable

reactions for different problems,

such as an unexpected breakdown of a

melting furnace or delays in the delivery

of external melted aluminum. The

simulation allows in a risk-free and

cost-efficient virtual environment to

analyze procedures which would otherwise

have major impact on the operation,

e.g. the changing of charging

intervals of the melting furnaces or the

preheating of the raw materials.

The simulation consists of a material

flow model and an energy model,

representing the thermodynamic processes

inside the furnaces. The material

flow section comprises the transport

and processing of aluminum (see figure

1). In addition to the various components,

such as die-casting machines,

furnaces and forklifts, the model also

includes the control measures for the

entire process. In this context strategies

for distribution of liquid aluminum

to the die-casting machines as

well as the order of charging the melting

furnaces with solid material are implemented.

The link between the material flow

model and the energy model of the

furnace is realized by the processes af-

44 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

fecting the furnace, namely charging

and withdrawal of aluminum. The energy

model includes the combustion

of natural gas inside the burners, the

heat and mass transfer processes (conduction,

convection, radiation) and

the phase transition of aluminum.

The model allows analyzing different

demand situations and charging strategies

and their impact on the thermodynamic

processes. A precise calculation

would require flow simulations of

the furnace’s interior using a CFD tool.

However, this approach would lead to

extremely complex models and would

demand huge computational power,

especially for extended time periods.

Additionally, CFD simulations provide

low flexibility considering changing

boundary conditions. Therefore,

the developed simulation is based on

a simplified mathematical model consisting

of several ordinary differential

equations. The current model has been

refined by analyzing CFD simulations

of various steady cases. Because of the

conducted drastic simplifications the

validation of the model by using measured

data is crucial for the development

of a reliable simulation.


The results of the simulation can be

validated using a model that is specifically

configured to represent the

real-life plant. Parameters include the

implemented charging strategy for the

melting furnaces and the productions

schedule of the die-casting machines.

The validation data is based on measurements

inside the plant conducted

over the time period of a standard

working week which includes 17 shifts.

In terms of the analyzed week, the material

flow model shows a deviation of

1.4 % concerning the amount of produced

proper aluminum parts and a

deviation of 0.9 % regarding the overall

mass of aluminum used inside the

plant. These divergences can mainly be

traced back to unexpected breakdowns

of die-casting machines, which can be

statistically approximated, but not precisely

predicted. The accuracy of the

energy model can be proved by comparing

the chronological course of simulated

and measured data (Figure 5).

Figure 7: CFD simulation of the preheating of an aluminum package in a chamber

The charts show a high compliance

between the simulated and the measured

data within the analyzed time

frame. The flue gas temperature represents

an overall result of the thermodynamic

processes inside the furnaces.

The comparison of the simulated

and measured data of this parameter

shows the reliability of the simulation.

The remaining deviations might arise

from incomplete approximation of the

control algorithm governing the furnace’s

burners. During the simulated

week, the mass of melted aluminum

and the gas consumption deviated by

1.5 % respectively 0.5 % from the measured



The validation results illustrate that

the simulation model allows a precise

representation of the actual plant.

Based on the real-life configuration

various operational parameters can be

modified within the simulation model,

which determines the resulting effects

on the material flow and the thermodynamic

processes. The different

scenarios can be evaluated regarding

the key figures representing productivity,

production reliability and energy

efficiency. In the following, two measures

will be analyzed:

» Optimized aluminum charging

» Preheating of solid aluminum

(300 °C)

Optimized aluminum charging

Establishing a continuous operation of

the melting furnace at a constant high

aluminum filling level inside the melting

shaft is the aim of an optimized

charging strategy. Then the burners

are able to operate at their nominal

power which reduces the specific energy

consumption while maintaining a

high quality of the melted aluminum.

An adjusted charging strategy ensures

a filling level of 60 – 90 % of the melting

shaft’s capacity (Figure 6).

The high filling level leads to a large

heat transfer surface which enhances

the heat exchange and lowers the flue

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 45


gas temperature at the shaft’s exit. In

combination with a constant burner

operation, these effects lead to an improvement

of the melting rate and the

specific energy consumption.


The preheating of the solid material

inside heating chambers is a common

measure in industrial plants. The flue

gas’ waste heat is used to heat up the

air inside a chamber where raw aluminum

is stored.

Using CFD simulations the preheating

process inside the chamber can be

analyzed (Figure 7). The influence of

the inflow speed, the flue gas temperature

and the package geometry on the

required preheating time is displayed.

The CFD simulations demonstrate that

the warm-up period inside the chamber

can be reduced up to 22 % by improving

the arrangement of the mass package.

The integration of a preheating

chamber into the process sequence, in

particular during the charging of the

melting furnaces, is a problem not to

be underestimated.

However, the required time and the

energy consumption to melt the preheated

solid materials in the furnaces

decrease as a result of the preheating.

Figure 8:

Simulation results

The measurements inside the reference

plant reveal planned and unexpected

downtimes of 30 % of the die-casting

machines’ overall runtime. Under these

circumstances, the plant’s productivity

is solely limited by the die-casting machines.

Thus, the demand for aluminum

is constantly surpassed by the available

supply. In order to be able to analyze

the effects of the optimized aluminum

charging and the preheating of solid material,

downtimes have been reduced to

3 % in the simulation. This could be realized

by an improved maintenance concept

in the real plant. As a result, the supply

and demand for melted aluminum

are almost equally balanced.

The die-casting machines’ Overall

Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a suitable

key figure to describe a plant’s productivity.

On the other hand, downtimes

due to a lack of melted aluminum

Figure 9:

energy consumption

have impacts on the plant’s production


Preheating of the solid aluminum

as well as an optimized charging strategy

increases the production reliability

(Figure 8). While the accumulated

downtimes due to aluminum shortage

initially make up 1.7 % of the analyzed

timeframe, they decrease to 0.3 % by

preheating, respectively 0 % due to an

optimized charging strategy. Additionally,

reducing these downtimes leads to

noticeable improvements of the plant’s

productivity. Optimized charging in

particular delivers OEE-values of over

90 %. Both measures do not only stabilize

the production, they also enable a

more energy efficient operation mode

of the melting furnaces (Figure 9).

Both measures show a positive effect

on the energy consumption.

While the energy consumption in

the initial configuration averages 910

kWh/t, preheating leads to a decrease

of 9 % (specific energy consumption:

825 kWh/t). The optimized charging

strategy even exceeds this improvement,

up to 20 % (specific energy consumption:

720 kWh/t).

The results illustrate that the previously

described measures are able to

optimize the plant’s operation itself,

as well as its energy efficiency. The improvements

in a real-life plant are likely

to be lowered by company standards

or thermal losses. However, the simulation

indicates that a purely intralogistical

measure (optimized charging)

46 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

can help to enhance productivity, production

reliability and energy efficiency

more effectively than any measures

taken at a cost-intensive preheating


The described measures only reach

their full potential when combined

with a drastic reduction of die-casting

machine downtimes (3 %) or other

means of preventing an oversupply of

melted aluminum. This could include

reducing the amount of melted aluminum

deliveries or setting an furnace on

stand-by. Simulation results show that

the specific energy consumption can

be lowered by 10 % (reduced delivery)

respectively 12 % (furnace on standby)

without impairing production reliability.

Next steps

In the next phase of the project the previous

investigations will be carried out

within a further partner company. Subsequently,

the simulation model will

be adapted to this operation. Comparing

both simulations will enable to

determine the factors which have the

greatest influence on the simulated operating

sequence and the parameters

which can be neglected in the future.

The aim here is to realize a flexible simulation,

which can provide meaningful

results for a wide range of companies.

The provision of up-to-date process

data and key figures is a major challenge

in representing real operations

within a simulation. The state of automation

within the die casting industry

is still at a very low level compared

to other branches of industry, for example

the automotive industry. Therefore,

the acquisition and processing of

the relevant parameters are important

components in the project’s next

phase. However, the current results

have already proved that a step-by-step

introduction of Industry 4.0 measures

can contribute to an increase in productivity

in the melting and die casting




Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 47


Customer proximity was essential for Imerys during the acquisition of IKO, as shown at the Imerys’ GIFA booth (Photo: Imerys)

Michael Vehreschild, Kleve

Imerys – strong potential for synergies

The IKO brand, representing the green molding sand additives producer based in Germany, was

well known throughout the foundry industry. However, three years ago, IKO became “Imerys

Metalcasting Solutions”. The French group of companies Imerys, a world leader in mineralbased

specialty solutions for industry, acquired the Greek S&B Industrial Minerals S.A. in 2015

“The fast brand change was initially a

challenge, but quickly became a success,”

emphasizes Didier Legrand, the

Technical & Commercial Director for

Foundry Europe of Imerys Metalcasting.

A major benefit of the acquisition is

“the strong potential for synergies and

new investments”.

Some things have changed and, above

all, improved – which is instantly noticeable

upon entering the former IKO

plant in Marl, Germany. While walking

over the company area, red flags indicate

the loading of a truck. Securely

fixed storage shelves and the employees’

bright helmets should contribute to the

prevention of accidents. Furthermore, a

well-marked assembly point for emergencies

at the entrance sends immediately

a clear signal to the visitor: Safety

is very important here. This does not

mean that safety had not been of great

value before the acquisition. However,

the French company has “gone one step

further and transferred its corporate

safety concept to IKO/ S&B,” explains

Dr. Oleg Podobed, Application Technology

Manager – Foundry Germany.

IKO/S&B and Imerys complement

each other

However, safety is not the only subject

for added value. Another positive

effect of the acquisition is the greater

variety of potential solutions, because

“IKO/ S&B and Imerys complement

each other,” emphasizes Didier Legrand.

This is beneficial because, in addition

to the best possible performance

of Imerys’ products, “foundries must

speed up production and reduce costs,

while castings become increasingly

complex.” Customized blends of green

48 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Imerys Metalcasting – a company with a long tradition

S&B Industrial Minerals was founded in 1934 and has a long tradition as a

supplier of foundry bentonites, using minerals from the renowned reserves

on the Greek island of Milos as well as from other mines worldwide. The

origin of IKO Industriekohle dates back to 1964. IKO Industriekohle and

Erbslöh Geisenheim merged in 1994 – S&B bought 50 % of the new company

with plants in Germany and France. S&B also acquired the remaining

50 % of IKO in 2001 and moved closer to the foundry customers in Europe,

supplying them with bentonites, lustrous carbon formers and other

selected raw materials, as well as customized technical services. The foundry

business expanded first into the Americas, Turkey and then to China,

India and Italy, by incorporating the expertise, technology and assets of

local foundry suppliers.

S&B/IKO has been part of Imerys, one of the world’s leading supplier of

mineral-based specialty solutions for industry, since 2015. Imerys, founded

in 1880, looks back at a long, successful and sustained history. The French

company, with headquarters in Paris, has about 18,500 employees worldwide

and generated more than 4 billion euros in sales in 2016. Imerys meets

ambitious criteria for responsible development, regarding social, environmental

or Corporate Governance.

Imerys Metallurgy Division, which emerged from S&B, encompasses the

world’s leading bentonite, perlite, bauxite and moler businesses with its

own high-quality deposits. Besides there is the Steel Casting Fluxes business

unit, serving continuous steel casting production. The Metallurgy Division

is mainly focussed on the foundry industry and its business segments. The

former IKO has been renamed into Imerys Metalcasting.

Imerys Metalcasting offers customized blends of green molding sand

additives as well as the technical expertise to the foundry industry. Having

a global focus, the company also serves international customer groups

through the extensive network of 14 metalcasting sites in Europe, North

America and Asia, according to the slogan: Think Global, Act Local. The

main customer group are foundries with automated molding plants. Another

application area for the Imerys products is the core shop using the

cold box process, where Imerys provides core sand additives, which are

needed to avoid veining and other core sand related casting defects.

Dr. Oleg Podobed, Application Technology

Manager – Foundry Germany. Safety plays

concept (Photo: MV)

molding sand additives based on bentonites,

lustrous carbon formers and

other selected high-quality raw materials

from Imerys Metalcasting contribute

to meet these challenges. Through

the combination with Imerys, S&B

gained access to the Imerys world of

minerals. S&B, which hold previously

only five industrial minerals, has over

30 Imerys industrial minerals at its disposal

now. “We use the larger portfolio

for the development of new, high-performing

products and blends,” explains

Didier Legrand. This is a boost

for further innovations. In 2016 more

than 90 new products were launched

within the Imerys Group worldwide,

whereas 110 new products have been

developed in 2017.

Supply reliability is ensured

Imerys Metalcasting benefits now

from a much larger network, because

the group is present on five continents

with 270 industrial facilities in more

than 50 countries. These include 14

production sites worldwide operating

for foundries in Europe, North America

and Asia. “This allows us today to

provide the right products at relatively

short notice. Furthermore, the delivery

security is increased,” according

to Didier Legrand. “In addition, market

fluctuations can be better absorbed because

we have our own mines.”

Focus on innovation

The trend towards weight reduction

in modern castings and increasing en-

Marl (Photo: Imerys)

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 49


Bentonite deposit on Milos (Photo: Imerys)

Milling installation (above) and modern

equipment in the laboratory (right) at

the Imerys plant in Marl (Photo: Imerys)

vironmental requirements request innovative

solutions. Market demands

shall not only be met due to the higher

number of minerals used. The Imerys

Metalcasting team has access to the research

and development centers, testing

facilities and expertise of the entire

Imerys Group. The development of innovative

solutions is supported by the

newly founded Business Development

Department. This young department

not only promotes traditional research

and development, but also focuses specifically

on upcoming market trends

and market processing. Imerys Metallurgy

has enhanced its team with additional

scientists since 2015, pushing

R&D projects in the foundry applications.

Cooperation with universities

and institutes has also been intensified,

and investments in new equipment

were made. On top of that, Imerys

Metallurgy strengthened the sales

team with young foundry experts.

10 years ago, Envibond, the first environmentally

friendly green molding

sand binder, was launched into

the foundry industry. The Envibond

technology reduces the amount of organic

components in the cycle system

and allows the foundry to reduce significantly

the emissions during pouring

and thus to improve the working

conditions. Thanks to the above-mentioned

measures, Envibond is continuously

and intensively developed further

in order to provide the market

with new solutions.

Customer proximity remains


Among all the advantages, continuity

is of high priority for Imerys. All products

and services previously provided

by IKO continue to be offered and are

retained unchanged. Customer proximity

is preserved. “Thus the background

remains unchanged,” Didier

Legrand underlines.

Nevertheless, during the transition

period Imerys relied on unavoidable

and comprehensive information campaigns

to manage it best. Through intense

public relations efforts during

the acquisition process, customers were

continuously informed about the latest

developments, and the previous contacts

remained unchanged. This new

combination was promoted visually at

GIFA 2015 in Düsseldorf: the IKO logo

merged with the Imerys logo at the Imerys

Metalcasting booth. This strategy

was overall effective because in this way

the acquisition “didn’t become a shock

for the industry,” says Didier Legrand,

and he concludes that the transition

phase was successful despite the usual

challenges such a change may cause.

A matter of heart

New solutions were found for the customers’

challenges and for new applications.

And it just fits because IKO/S&B

and Imerys complement each other.

They have the same background. Both

companies offer mineral-based solutions

for the industry. Therefore, it is all

about a common successful future, and

not a speculative transaction. “When

Imerys acquires companies they look

only for targets that complement or expand

existing business segments, and

that fit to the growth strategy and the

markets of the Imerys Group,” emphasizes

Dr. Oleg Podobed.

Didier Legrand, as Technical & Commercial

Director, is a good example representing

continuity. His family has a

long history in casting of metals. His father

worked in the foundry industry for

47 years. Didier Legrand joined the sector

at the age of just 16 and started initially

in the laboratory. And the fascination

remained the same. He has now spent

42 years in the same sector, of which 28

years were at IKO and then at Imerys.

The company is close to Didier Legrand’s

heart. No wonder that he is so enthusiastic

about the successful development of

Imerys Metalcasting’s prospects.

Keeping an eye on the sector

As Sales Director in Europe, Didier Legrand

rushes from customer to customer.

It is important to him “because we

have to keep an eye on the development

of the industry.” Imerys Metalcasting

considers itself a strategic partner of

the automotive industry. Therefore,

the company cares about the mobility

of the future. Legrand regularly meets

automotive foundry suppliers in order

to know the expectations of the industry

– so that Imerys Metalcasting can

also continue to gain momentum.

50 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

“Great potential for



and the related challenges

What was the situation of IKO/ S&B

before the acquisition?

IKO/ S&B was and continues to be a

leading supplier of green molding sand

additives for the foundry industry.

During the last five years, however,

the bentonite producer landscape

has changed due to the acquisition

of other bentonite players by larger

companies. Therefore, this move was

probably inevitable. But, unlike the

competitors, S&B was taken over by a

minerals specialist with the vision to

develop this new segment for Imerys.

What were the reasons for the acquisition

of S&B by Imerys?

Both companies have major high-quality

assets and leadership positions in

most markets. S&B is a healthy and

well-managed company. Furthermore,

its business model largely corresponds

with the Imerys model. We can also see

a strong potential for synergies: some

end-markets complement each other

and the geographical positioning is

complementary. The potential for development

is high, as e.g. for geographical

expansion, innovation, product development

and optimizations.

What was the S&B employees’ reaction

to the new ownership?

People are always afraid about change,

but in this case, the change was very

positive thanks to the excellent preparation,

the fast integration and the offering

of new opportunities for personnel

development. Overall, most people

welcomed the acquisition by a large industrial

group of companies.

What are the challenges of the future?

To accelerate innovation and to provide

a fast response to the demanding

market. There are always new technical

requirements and growing challenges,

for example regarding the environment,

in the foundry industry. For this

purpose, we are constantly innovating

our products. Weight reduction is also

an important topic for the automotive

industry. In addition, the mobility of

tomorrow is a fundamental issue for

Didier Legrand (Photo: MV)

us. However, it is impossible to provide

a precise picture of the mobility in ten

years’ time. Therefore, we want to continue

to keep our eyes and ears open to

what is happening in the market.


Wear Protection Technology

and Industrial Products

The Tungsten

Carbide Manufactory

Wear Protection Technology • Industrial Products

Rehhagenhof 32, D-33619 Bielefeld

Phone +49 (0) 521 / 14 13 13


If you are hard to please,

our hardness will please you

Further information: www.gerhard-warning.de

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 51



Investment of 7.5 million euros in Gurten plant

New Fill-production facility in Gurten, Austria (Photo: Fill)

The high-tech company Fill Machine

Engineering, Gurten, Austria, continues

on its course of expansion. 5,000 m 2 of

new production space is being created.

Fill remains on course for growth. In

order to ensure the proven quality of

the internationally successful machine

engineering company for the

long term, the production facility is

being expanded. In the upcoming

months, 5,000 m 2 of additional production

space for assembling machines

and systems will be created.

The electrical workshop area will also

be doubled in size. A total of 7.5 million

euros is being invested in the

company’s headquarters. All construction

work is being carried out by companies

from the region or elsewhere in

Upper Austria. Completion of the entire

project is scheduled for late March


“With the enlargement of our production

facility, we are creating sufficient

space for optimum assembly conditions

in light of increasing demands

on capacity,” explains proprietor and

CEO Andreas Fill. All three hall sections

will be completed successively by

the end of March 2018.

The stilt-based construction style in

which the new halls are being built has

allowed attractive, covered parking

spaces to be created for employees underneath

the assembly area. In order to

be prepared for e-mobility and completely

in line with the successful company’s

innovative spirit, ten electric

charging stations will also be provided

in this area. These will be made available

to employees free of charge for charging

their electric vehicles. Furthermore,

erection of a large photovoltaic system

is planned, which will supply environmentally-friendly

energy to the production

facility and to the electric charging

stations in future.


New plant in China

On 12 December 2017, Elkem, Oslo,

Norway, celebrated the opening of

a new plant for foundry products in

Shizuishan city in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous

Region in China.

The evening before the ceremony,

Elkem China hosted a dinner for the

customers. Roland Hennigfeld, VP of

Sales & Marketing in Elkem Foundry

Products, welcomed the guests by explaining

the Foundry products business

model in a new way: He compared the

business model to a fine dining restaurant,

where Elkem’s customers are the

professional chefs who need high quality

ingredients to best serve their dinner

guests. Elkem Foundry Products represents

the condiments needed for taking

the meal to another level, and in this

particular restaurant, the spices are Mg-

The brandnew Elkem-plant for foundry products in Shizuishan city, China

FeSi and Inoculants. With several years

of experience from cooking in high

quality castings, the experts from Elkem

can advise on how to best use the condiments.

The amount added is important,

as well as which spice is used for

52 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

which dish. It is also key that the dish

does not become too expensive, and

Hennigfeld added that Elkem’s “kitchen

assistance” will assist in both keeping

costs down and ensuring high quality.

On the day of the ceremony, Elkem

staff and managers, customers, government

officials from Shizuishan and

Vice President of the China Foundry

Association where gathered for the celebration.

Jean Villeneuve, SVP of Elkem

Foundry Products, told the story of the

journey that led to the opening of the

plant. In 2013, Elkem Foundry Products

decided to “become a true global leader

in metal treatment solutions to the iron

industry”. At that time, the division

had a strong footprint in North America

and Europe and had identified a need

for local production in Asia. Shortly after,

the construction of the new plant

in China began. This new plant will

help Elkem in delivering tailor made

solutions to customers that will reduce

costs and increase efficiency.

The General Manager of Elkem Foundry

Products, Mr. Liu He, spoke of Elkem’s

long history as a technology provider

and the Vice President of the China

Foundry Association wished Elkem the

best of luck with the new plant.

After the ceremony, the attendees

visited the new plant, which has advanced

technology, high EHS standards

and follows the Elkem Business System.

Making sure that all plants have the

same standards and company culture is

an important strategy for Elkem in China,

and when promoting Elkem Foundry

Products new business there.

In the meantime, all employees have

moved to the new plant. After a very

short commissioning period, the new

plant started the production. The furnace

is running well and safely with the

advanced safe way system. The new

crushing, screening and packing system

relieved strong labor work from operators

and operators understand more

about the new process and new equipment

gradually, and are more confident

to operate. “We can see our employees

working in full swing now, for a safe, efficient

and competitive plant”, according

to Elkem.

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Permanent-magnet synchronous motors,

which are also known as torque

or high-torque motors, are rapidly becoming

established as the standard

solution for more and more applications

– and now also in mixing technology.

Combined with a compact and

space-saving design that only requires

very little installation space, the high

torque output of these drives enables

energy-efficient solutions for challenging

mixing tasks – for customers of

Eirich, Hardheim, Germany.

Mixing drives with asynchronous

motors, which have been commonly

used for many years, come with restrictions.

Usually, the rotational speed of

the motor is not the same as that of the

mixing tool. In order to obtain the

most suitable mixing speed for the

mixing task, gearing ratios are normally

realized with the aid of V-belt drives,

or gearboxes are used for applications

with a high torque demand to translate

high motor speeds into low tool speeds.

Mechanical transmission elements

such as V-belts and gearboxes are subject

to wear, so regular inspections and

maintenance are essential. When

torque motors are used, these transmission

elements are no longer required.

The mixing tool is then connected

directly via a flange to the

motor shaft of the torque motor, and

the power transmission is direct and


In terms of its basic layout, a torque

motor is the same as a conventional

asynchronous motor. The key difference

is in the design of the rotor. Instead of

the armature found in an asynchronous

motor, which is subject to slip, rotors

loaded with permanent magnets are

used in torque motors. This technology

enables an increase in the size of the

magnetic field by around 20 %. The design

of the rotor with permanent magnets

and the resulting geo metry that

this enables lead to an increase in drive

torque, which in turn allows the motor

to be used as a direct drive.

The use of torque motors offers many

advantages: less weight, more power

Eirich intensive mixer with high torque drive (Photo: Eirich)

and minimized losses improve efficiency

and dynamic performance. Thanks

to the omission of a number of mechanical

elements, torque motors are

low-noise and low-maintenance. Due

to the increased stiffness of the drivetrain,

e.g. in comparison to V-belt

drives, vibrations are reduced and the

motor runs more smoothly. There is

virtually no wear at all in the motor,

partly also because there are no radial

belt forces.

Further advantages of the torque

drive result from the way in which the

torque motor works and from the fact

that it is operated with a frequency inverter

as standard. Thanks to the high

torque, which remains constant

throughout the entire operating range

of the motor, the torque drive with frequency

inverter makes it possible to optimally

adjust the rotating speed of the

mixing tool to the requirements within

a mixing process. Together with a

high overload torque, the torque drive

also enables the tool to start up under

high loads. This makes the drive absolutely

predestined for challenging mixing

tasks where high levels of torque are

required. For this type of application,

asynchronous motors often need to be

designed with a rated power output

that is not called upon during the bulk

of the processing time, but instead is

just needed occasionally to cope with

peak loads and during start-up.

By comparing the cost of the torque

motors and asynchronous motors,

torque drives can initially appear more

expensive due to the higher purchase

cost of the motor including the frequency

inverter. However, if the costs

54 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

of the components for the belt drive

and the gearbox that are required for

drives with asynchronous motors are

included in the cost assessment, the

additional costs are relativized. Depending

on the particular application,

a torque drive can be fitted to a new

machine with almost no additional

cost in comparison to conventional

drive systems.

Since there are no friction losses due

to mechanical components like belt

drives, gear drives or transmission elements,

the efficiency of the drivetrain

is higher than that of conventional

drive systems. As a result, the power requirements

are lower, and this means

that it is often possible to use drives

with a lower power output. With a

torque drive there is also no need for

maintenance of belt drives and gearboxes,

which are both subject to wear,

or for ongoing checks of belt tension

and/or oil fill levels.

Today, Eirich already uses torque

motors as standard on mixers for the

preparation of lead paste mixes, which

are used to manufacture rechargeable

lead batteries. Eirich conducted a comparative

study at a customer that

looked at a mixer with an asynchronous

motor and a V-belt drive and a

mixer with a torque drive; energy savings

of up to 25% were achieved during

the preparation of identical formulas.

For over ten years now, torque motors

have also been the standard technology

for large-scale mixers, which

are used for the processing of ores and

in sinter plants. The excellent energy

efficiency, low maintenance requirements

and long service life of the mixing

tool drives have already inspired

customers to convert older mixers to

the new drive system.

By equipping new machines with

this drive technology, Eirich offers its

customers the opportunity to significantly

reduce the operating costs of a

mixer. Costed over the entire lifecycle,

which is often several decades, the investment

in state-of-the-art drive technology

will always pay for itself.

Eirich will also be happy to examine

the conversion of older machines that

are already part of the existing inventory.

Customers will then know the time

frame within which an investment in

torque technology will be viable. The

aim is to enable operators to run their

systems with high economic efficiency,

productivity and production reliability.



160 °C.

Winner of

2017 Export Award.


Norican Group, Herlev, Denmark, and Suzhou

Mingzhi Technology Co Ltd., Jiangsu

Sheng, China, have announced the signing

of a binding agreement whereby Suzhou

Mingzhi Technology Co Ltd. has purchased

the assets of the DISA Core product

business, based in Leipzig, Germany.

The sale is the result of close dialogue

between the parties, exploring potential

cooperation within complementary

business areas, to better serve customers.

DISA has been offering core

solutions to the foundry industry for

20+ years from its facility in Leipzig,


The agreement with Mingzhi Technology

offers an excellent opportunity

to expand and secure the continuation

of the quality products offered by the

Leipzig team, combining it with the

strength and experience of the Mingzhi

Technology organization.

All employees working with the Core

equipment offering in Leipzig have

been transferred upon closing to the

newly established Mingzhi Technology

Leipzig GmbH entity and will continue

their work as part of the Mingzhi

Technology organization. Any current

DISA core product contracts will be fulfilled

by the Norican Group in collaboration

with Mingzhi Technology


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 55



Full speed ahead

Easy comparison: the burners on the left

and right have been adjusted near-stoi-

short and cold – the energy requirements

rise (Photo: StrikoWestofen)

An optimum air-to-fuel ratio means

optimum results: this is true for all

combustion processes. It’s also the reason

why, as of today, StrikoWestofen,

Gummersbach, Germany, is offering

foundry customers the option of

near-stoichiometric burner adjustment.

The setting has to be made only

once, when the “StrikoMelter” melting

furnace is commissioned, and will

then ensure the correct ratio of air and

fuel at all times. This not only minimizes

energy consumption, it also reduces

metal oxidation. As a result, the

investment quickly pays for itself.

In everyday foundry operations, excess

air is often the culprit behind increased

energy use of melting furnaces.

“If you don’t keep an eye on air-fuel ratios,

you are literally burning money,”

says Rudolf Hillen, burner expert at StrikoWestofen.

That’s why they now offer

an economical method of near-stoichiometric

burner adjustment.

At a combustion air ratio () of 1, the

oxygen in the air reacts completely with

the fuel gas. While gas flow is easily measured

via a meter, measuring the amount

of air requires more complex equipment

and can cause a steady loss of pressure in

the combustion air system.

“This is why we are now offering our customers

a solution for which we only have

to measure air flow once, during the commissioning

of the furnace,” Rudolf Hillen

explains. “To do this, we install a measuring

section in front of the combustion air

fan. The pressure drop at the standardized

metering orifice is an exact measure of the

air flow.” With the help of special software,

the air vent of the burner can then be positioned

precisely to produce an optimum

combustion air ratio ()of near 1.

The thus minimized excess air in the

combustion process also reduces oxidation

during the melting process in

the furnace. Suitably adjusted burners

ensure a high flame temperature and

optimum heat transfer to the metal to

be melted, saving energy and costs.

“We are talking about approximately

7 kWh less energy per tonne of metal, i.e.

annual savings of around 2,500 euros. In

other words, at a melting rate of 2 t/h, the

additional one-off investment pays for itself

within two years,” Hillen adds.

From 2018, near-stoichiometric burner

adjustment will be included in the

scope of delivery for the standard version

of StrikoMelter models PurEfficiency

and BigStruc. It is available as an option

for all other StrikoMelters.



Trade fair sets new records - structural casting wins Aluminium Die-casting Award

Trade visitors take a close look at an exhibit

at Euroguss 2018 (Photo: NürnbergMesse)

The latest EUROGUSS came to an end

on 18 January 2018 after three successful

days that set a new record for visitor

numbers. Snow, rain, squalls and the

associated traffic chaos in many parts

of Germany and across Europe were

not enough to deter around 15,000

trade visitors (2016: 12,032) from coming

to Nuremberg to attend the diecasting

trade fair. This year’s event saw

the proportion of international trade

visitors increase still further. A total

of 641 exhibitors gave them the opportunity

to learn about innovations

and trends in the industry. E-mobility,

structural components, application-specific

alloys and additive manufacturing

were discussed at many of

the stands. The International German

Die Casting Congress, held in NCC Ost

for the first time, enjoyed the greatest


As part of the EUROGUSS in Nuremberg,

Germany, the German Aluminium

Association(GDA) awarded the

winners of the International Aluminium

Die-Casting Competition 2018.

Prizes were awarded by a jury of experts

from research and practice to

three castings from renowned manufacturers

with a further three castings

receiving special commendations. The

8th International Aluminum Die-Casting

Competition is organized by the

GDA. It was partnered by the German

Foundry Association (BDG). The Aus-

56 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

trian Non-Ferrous Metals Federation of

the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber

and the Swiss Aluminium Association

“alu.ch” also supported the competition.

For many years, the Aluminium

Die-casting Award has proven to be a

successful platform for demonstrating

the high quality standards of aluminium

die-castings. The aim of the competition

is to boost interest in aluminium,

a versatile material, still further

and to demonstrate further fields of application.

Criteria for evaluating the

castings, submitted to the Aluminum

Die-Casting Competition 2018, were

the die-cast conform and resource efficient


A jury of experts from research and

practice awarded six submissions:

three cast pieces received prizes, three

more “Special Commendations”.

The winners were:

1st Prize: Connection part CD

» DGS Druckguss Systeme AG, St. Gallen

» Alloy: AISi10MnMgZnZr

» Weight: 3,043 g

» Dimensions: L: 797 mm, W: 437 mm,

H: 304 mm

» Weight upper part: 7 270 g

» Weight lower part: 14,120 g

» Dimensions: L: 1,120 mm,W:

540 mm, H: 260 mm

The prize was awarded to a housing for

high-voltage batteries for a plug-in hybrid

vehicle that needs to satisfy the

highest possible crash requirements.

The geometry is achieved by using a very

slider-intensive tooling concept and

keeping the sealing surfaces free from

ejectors. Particular mention should be

given to the long flow length and the

T7 heat treatment which results in relatively

low distortion for a component

of this size. An added benefit is that the

part can be used without machining.

3rd Prize: Tank housing

» Georg Fischer Druckguss GmbH,


» Alloy: EN AC-AISi10MnMg-T7

» Weight: 10,900 g

» Dimensions: L: 980 mm, W: 626 mm,

H: 236 mm

The third prize goes to a crash-relevant

component that opens up a new area

of application for die-castings in hybrid

vehicles. Aluminium die-casting offers

cost savings while reducing weight at

the same time. The award-winning

component incorporates an extremely

wide range of different functions and

replaces a possible fabricated sheet

structure. The component is subjected

to a T7 heat treatment to reduce

the risk of distortion of the intricate

parts. This entry also scored points for

the high depth of value added right

through to CIL coating in the foundry.



The first prize is being awarded for the

holistic approach adopted in obtaining

a highly competitive cast structural

component. It is a part that has established

itself thanks to a weight saving

of 19 % compared with a sheet-metal

shell construction, the result of

the part’s complex, load-path-optimized

wall-thickness distribution and

rib configuration. The need for higher

specific strength was achieved by

choosing a high-strength alloy with

very good flow characteristics combined

with a T6 temper. Very efficient

temperature control together with a

runner that is ideal from a flow technology

point of view enables component

wall thicknesses of 1.8-2 mm to

be achieved.

2nd Prize: Housing for high-voltage

batteries, upper and lower part

» Magna BDW technologies GmbH,

Markt Schwaben

» Alloy: EN AC-AISi10MnMg(Fe) - T7



Innovative 3D printing solutions for sand &

investment casting using common casting

materials, where all light and heavy metals that

are castable and of series-production quality

can be processed. Complex geometric shapes

can be created with speed and precision.

voxeljet AG

Paul-Lenz-Straße 1a 86316 Friedberg Germany info@voxeljet.com

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 57



Non-contact temperature measurement for steel castings

CellaCast measurement with monitor

(Photo: Keller HCW)

The temperature of the melt is one of

the most important, quality-relevant

process parameters in the production

of cast steel products.

In many cases, the temperature of

the liquid steel is controlled in the

melting kiln, holding kiln or casting ladle

by means of immersion measuring

lances. After heating, however, the

melt loses up to 10 °C per min. Depending

on the time between the last

measurement and the casting, the temperature

may have dropped considerably.

And especially the temperature of

the melt during the mold filling is of

crucial importance. The desired quality

can only be achieved by exact control

and compliance with the casting


In the meantime, infrared measuring

systems have established themselves

for measuring the temperature

of liquid metal, which automatically

record the temperature values in milliseconds

without contact and from a

safe distance.

In order to eliminate problems

caused by slag and oxidation on the

metal surface, the CellaCast measuring

system has a CSD (Clean Surface Detection)

function. A special algorithm filters

out the true measured values at the

clean spots when pouring the melt.

In numerous plants with grey cast

iron and nodular cast iron, the Cella-

Cast system is for several years successfully

in use. Now, the system has been

extended for higher temperatures with

the device version CellaCast PA 83 AF

14. This means that it can also be used

in the production of cast steel. With a

measuring range of up to 750 - 2,400 °C,

the pyrometer completely covers the

relevant temperature range.

Thanks to the two-colour (ratio) measuring

technique, the CellaCast system

delivers stable measured values despite

the extremely strong smoke and steam

generation during steel casting. Disturbing

flames are filtered out by the

ATD (Automatic Temperature Detection)


Customer statements such as “The

system has paid for itself very quickly

thanks to the quality increase and the

acquisition of new information” confirm

the customer’s benefit, e. g. in the

production of turbocharger housings

and exhaust manifolds.



Sintokogio Corp. buys foundry plant manufacturer

The Japanese Sintokogio Corporation

headquartered in Nagoya has taken

over the majority of foundry machine

manufacturer Omega Foundry

Machinery Ltd., Peterborough, United

Kingdom. Omega and Sinto have

been involved in a strategic partnership

since 2006.

The acquisition by Sintokogio gives

both companies the opportunity to

benefit from the broad portfolio in the

Sinto and Omega Managers signing the contract

in Peterborough, UK (Photo: Omega).


Vibration machines and conveying technology

Project planning – Manufacturing - Service

www.convitec.net · 069 / 84 84 89 7- 0

field of chemically bound sand combined

with the power of a global enterprise.

Among other things the company

offers technical solutions for

molding sand mixing, handling of

molds, sand regeneration as well as

core production.

The name of the company will be

changed to “Omega-Sinto” with immediate

effect, and the company’s leadership

will continue to manage the business

of the company and its subsidiaries.

“Being part of the world’s largest manufacturer

of foundry machines presents

significant opportunities for the company

and our customers,” according to

the Omega management.


58 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018


Components from first-tier auto-industry

supplier Rheinmetall Automotive,

Neckarsulm, Germany, are

increasingly finding their way into

newly engineered electric vehicles.

The auto-equipment specialist, a member

of the technology group Rheinmetall

AG, was recently awarded

through its subsidiary Pierburg, an order

from the Southern California vehicle

maker, Karma Automotive, to

supply coolant pumps for its plug-in

electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV). Karma

Automotive will install the pumps into

its luxury vehicle, the Revero, which

will be sold in the U.S. and Canada.

In terms of output, the pumps,

which will recirculate the coolant in

these luxury vehicles, are to be delivered

in a smaller version (CWA 50, 50

watts) and a larger one (CWA 100, 100

watts). The delivery period for the

pumps is scheduled for production in

2017, will continue into 2018 and the

total contract has a value in the range

of 6-digit euros.

The CWAs are being manufactured

at Pierburg’s German location in Hartha,

Saxony, which for 25 years has belonged

to Pierburg and has comprehensive

experience in the engineering

and production of electric drives for

pumps and for other applications.

The CWA series among the pumps

manufactured in Hartha are used for a

variety of functions: from cooling the

charge air on turbochargers to the main

coolant circuit on I.C. engines. The most

recent model is available in a 48-volt version

with an output of 950 watts. In today’s

newly engineered hybrid and electric

vehicles, the pumps can also handle

such functions as cooling or temperature-control

of electric drivelines, batteries,

DC-DC converters, power electronics,

and a whole range of additional jobs.

22. International Fair

of Technologies for Foundry




Kielce, Poland

The 73rd World Foundry




Krakow, Poland

Global Media Partner:

The luxury brand Karma Automotive will in future be supplied with coolant pumps

from Rheinmetall Automotive subsidiary Pierburg


Piotr Odziemek

+48 41 365 13 34


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 59


Foseco’s new Acticote CG coating (Photo: Foseco)


Foseco, Tamworth, UK, announced

the launch of the Acticote CG coating

range for the improved production of

compacted graphite iron (CGI) castings.

These coatings have been especially

developed to minimize the degradation

of the graphite structure in the

rim-zone of CGI castings. Without

such preventative measures, there is

the risk of the formation of a flake

graphite containing skin that can have

a thickness of typically up to 1 mm, or

in some more, which will affect both

the mechanical properties and the machinability

of the casting.

During the casting process a depletion

of magnesium within the solidifying

skin of the casting can occur due to reactions

of the magnesium with sulphur

and oxygen present in the molding materials

and/or in the mold atmosphere.

This combined with the undercooling

effects at the metal/mold interface

can lead to a reduction in compacted

graphite formation in favour of flake

graphite. Acticote CG coatings act to

provide a barrier to core gases and reduce

undercooling, reducing the affected

reversion layer to a minimum.

Additionally, the coatings have high

performance benefits including:

» The refractory filler is highly resistant

to the high temperature of the

liquid iron and has good insulation


» The coating is formulated with excellent

rheological properties making

it ideal for the dipping of cores,

building the required layer thickness

without runs or drips

» The water-based coating has optimal

drying properties without any spalling

or the formation of craters or blisters,

ensuring the cast surface is free from

pin-holes, blemishes or scabs.


Three specialist associations of the German

Mechanical Engineering Industry

Association VDMA have merged.

At their joint general meeting held

on Thursday, November 16, 2017 in

Frankfurt, Germany, the VDMA spe-

60 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Board of VDMA specialist association Metallurgy. From left.: Prof. Dr. Johann Rinnhofer,

SMS Elotherm; Dr. Joachim G. Wünning, WS Wärmeprozesstechnik; Axel E. Barten,

Achenbach Buschhütten; Dr. Ioannis Ioannidis, Oskar Frech; Dr. Christian Bartels-von Varnbüler,

Küttner; not present: Rudolf Wintgens, Laempe Mössner Sinto (Picture: VDMA)

cialist associations Foundry Machinery,

Metallurgical Plants and Rolling

Mills, and Thermo Process Technology

announced the formation of a new

joint association, the VDMA Metallurgy

specialist association. The previous

specialist associations are to be specialist

sections of the new body.

The overall board of VDMA Metallurgy

will comprize the chairmen and deputy

chairmen of the previous specialist

associations. The designated chairman

of the board is Dr. Ioannis Ioannidis,

President & CEO Oskar Frech GmbH +

Co. KG. Designated deputy chairmen

are Dr. Christian Bartels-von Varnbüler,

President Küttner Group, and Dr. Joachim

G. Wünning, Managing Director

WS Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH.

“The newly created platform expresses

the joint commitment of companies

in the metallurgical plant and equipment

sectors to the further development

of technologies for the metal production

and processing value streams,”

said Dr. Timo Würz, managing director

of VDMA Metallurgy, at the inaugural


VDMA Metallurgy represents 180

member companies. The total sales of

the metallurgical plant and equipment

sectors amount to more than 4.6 billion

euros (2016), with a total workforce

of about 24,000 (2016). The sectors represented

by the specialist association

sold equipment with a total value of 2.3

billion euros throughout the world,

also in 2016. The share of exports is

more than 70 % on average.





Expert for precise optical

temperature measurement for

process analysis and control

Carl-Keller-Str. 2-10 · 49479 Ibbenbüren-Laggenbeck

Tel. +49 (0) 5451 850 · its@keller.de · www.keller.de/its

Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 61



Casting solution for e-engine housings

Nemak, Monterrey, Mexico, has successfully

designed the housing of an

e-engine unit for an innovative powershift

three-way solution in cooperation

with IAV, one of the leading engineering

firms in the area of propulsion.

Working together with IAV, the specific

e-engine requirements were analyzed

and the housing design was optimized

in terms of functional integration,

cooling, structural stiffness and NVH as

well as ensuring a cost-effective, largescale

and robust manufacturability.

Due to the growing demand among

automakers for attributes such as complex

design, lightweight construction

and integration of components into

e-engine housings, aluminum casting

processes are gaining momentum for

electric engines. The weight advantage

of aluminum as well as its favorable

properties and easy castability makes it

the material of choice for automotive

powertrains and for e-engine applications.

Nemak manufactures e-engine

housings applying all of its casting technologies,

including High Pressure Die

Casting (HPDC), Low Pressure Die Casting

(LPDC) and Gravity Die Casting

(GSPM) and Core Package System (CPS).

In view of a growing demand for

functional integration and geometric

complexity in e-engine housings, the

Low Pressure Die Casting and the Core

Package Sand (CPS) processes are increasingly

coming into focus.

The HPDC process is ideal whenever

high productivity is needed. This casting

process offers the possibility to cast

very thin-walled components with

some flexibility in design. LPDC is

characterized by high flexibility in design,

the use of different alloys, and

The graphic shows the components of the newly developed casting solution for

eengine housings (Graphic: Nemak)

high mechanical properties supporting

outstanding casting quality. CPS, a

proprietary precision sand casting process,

is the best option when highest

flexibility in design and integration of

components, best mechanical properties

and lowest possible weights are required.

CPS offers a high process efficiency

together with a high level of

production automation. To achieve

sustainable progress in the field of electro-mobility,

Nemak offers its wide experience

in development and manufacturing

of complex cast components

– including the use of casting and

property simulation – to develop forward-looking

solutions that tap into

the emerging electrification market.

Nemak presented the newly developed

casting solution for e-engine housings

together with other innovations at the

EUROGUSS trade fair in January 2018.



Inauguration of new Spanish plant

On November 30, 2017, on of the leading

foundry consumable suppliers,

ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, celebrated

the official opening of its new

Spanish plant. The company invited

customers, suppliers, workers, and local

authorities to join an interesting

one-day program in the Port of Bilbao


62 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

ly in the segments of aluminum cylinder

heads, crankcases, and suspension

parts by low-pressure die casting and

gravity casting applications. The odorless

and emission-free core production

with Inotec is characterized by very low

cleaning and maintenance efforts for

machines and tools. Ecological advantages

are strongly linked to economic

and technological benefits as increased

permanent mold availability leads to a

general growth in productivity and improved

mechanical component

strength as permanent mold temperatures

are reduced. In order to profitably

deploy this technology and its ecological,

economic, and technological advantages,

expertise and specialized

knowledge of materials and processes

are required. The lecture to the Spanish

audience focused specifically on those

material and process requirements that

are key to leveraging the full potential

of Inotec.

A joint speech by José Manuel

Hernández, Technical Director at PYR-

SA, and Julián Izaga, Director of Technology

and Innovation at IK4-Azterlan,

shared the interesting showcase of large

steel castings. During the development

of the gear wheel of an excavator, ASK

Chemicals provided its foundry expertise

and know-how to develop a specific

In addition to this, Christian Koch introduced

ASK Chemicals’ latest coatings

developments for the segment of

large casting applications. Here, besides

fast-drying, water-based coatings that

effectively prevent casting defects,

highly productive full mold coatings

were presented to the audience. An outlook

on future requirements of coatings

rounded off the lecture and demonstrated

the contribution of coatings to

reducing emissions. ASK Chemicals’

patented Celantop coating technology

absorbs emissions in large casting applications

and avoids the need of any further

investments in air treatment.

The riser cap, developed by

ASK Chemicals for the project,

combines both insulating and

exothermic characteristics. Especially

size and geometry of

the cast part required a tailored

feeding solution

(Photo: ASK-Chemicals)

In keeping with the motto “Innovative

solutions for the foundry industry

– a new plant for new challenges”, the

company presented its new, modern

facilities to its guests and hosted interesting

speeches on the latest ASK

Chemicals technologies.

Certainly one highlight at the event

was Sales Manager Spain Jesús Reina’s

speech on “Material properties and

process requirements for inorganic core

production”. The Inotec technology

has established itself over the past ten

years as a productive and alternative

core manufacturing procedure in serial

casting production processes, especial-

mini-riser solution for the highest demands

in safety, material, technological,

and economical requirements.

Christian Koch shared with the audience

ASK Chemicals’ experience with its

Miratec TS technology. The guideline

VDA 19 (ISO 16232) formulates a very

clear requirement for automotive series

castings. The residuals in the components

are limited by the guideline in order

to prolong the maintenance intervals

for the engines. Thanks to its

self-detaching character, and with good

anti-veining and anti-penetration properties,

Miratec TS is giving the answer to

these challenges by reducing the coating

residue after pouring to a minimum.

The inauguration event was topped

off with a guided tour through the new

facilities, where guests got a vivid idea

of the new site. “Our new location is designed

to fulfill the demanding requirements

of the foundry industry. The machinery

and testing equipment helps

us to ensure the high-quality requirements

of our customers – now and in

the future,” states Iñigo Zarauz, Managing

Director of ASK Chemicals Spain.

The new Spanish site of ASK Chemicals

accommodates the mini-riser operations

as well as coatings production.


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 63


Quality assurance

16 pages, English

A company brochure featuring quality assurance systems for the metals industry offered

by EMG Automation. The systems enable operators to continuously optimize their

production processes, thus enhancing the quality of their products to comply with the

growing demands of their customers.


Determination of diffusible hydrogen

4 pages, English

A brochure featuring the G4 PHOENIX analyzer offered by Bruker for the determination

of diffusible hydrogen. It describes the functional principle, technical data, hardware

components and software features of the analyzer, which is also available for the analysis

of nitrogen and oxygen.


High-performance hearth and bath melting furnace

2 pages, English

A fact sheet about the EcoMelter, type HSO, offered by Jasper. This hearth and melting

aluminium treatment system. The entire bath serves as the melting zone. A dry hearth

is integrated for pre-heating.


Auxiliary materials

28 pages, English

A comprehensive brochure outlining the range of auxiliary materials offered by SQ

Group. Materials offered include release agents, cleaning agents, mould and core adhesives,

inorganic adhesives, mould sealing paste, surface enhancers for green sand and


64 Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018

Cold ice cleaning and production

20 pages, English

A brochure explaining the dry ice production process and presenting dry ice cleaning

solutions offered by Cold Jet. The Foundry Edition comprises a wide range of cold ice

equipment, including a micro-particle system, for dry non-abrasive cleaning of machines,

core boxes etc.


Non-contact temperature sensors

8 pages, English

This brochure provides detailed descriptions of temperature measurement solutions

offered by LumaSense Technologies for the metals processing industries. These include

MIKRON thermal imagers and IMPAC pyrometers, temperature switches, etc.


Core making plant

4 pages, English

The brochure sets out the key components of complete core making shops installed by

JML. Apart from core machines, sand storage facilities, sand and binder dosing units,

handling equipment, etc.


Power plants and incinerators

4 pages, English

This comprehensive brochure describes the range of services provided by Seven Refrac-


bed combustion chambers, all kinds of furnace chambers, cyclones, rotary kilns, etc.

The brochure includes a list of the refractory products with their key performance data.


Casting Plant & Technology 1 / 2018 65


Fairs and Congresses



AFS Metalcasting Congress 2018


Litmetexpo 2018

Hannover Messe


Metal + Metallurgy China 2018

Metallurgy/Litmash 2018





Advertisers´ Index

Admar Group 53

AGTOS Ges. für technische

Gerhard Warning Verschleißtechnik


Jasper Ges. für Energiewirtschaft

Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich

Regloplas AG 55


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: June 2018

Selection of topics:

The production of Aluminium castings globally is dominated by the automotive industry. To ensure that the casting

quality is achieved, a more effective and technically sound melt treatment and a controlled pouring practice is essential.

virtual ESI production solution for castings with ESI ProCAST. The simulation software enables foundries to optimize the

methods and process conditions also in die casting.

By using a ladle casting machine, the Italian foundry Fonderie Palmieri benefits from significantly less rejects and improved




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