a place of that name ia mentioned in some South Indian epigraphs It is stated in our inscription that the money for the purpose of burning a street lamp was deposited with the cakara-piy'r, the ri1ai-viyar andthe aikkf-viyar, all of )ttam. Cakara-ptiyr is a term that occurs inthe contemporary South Indian inscriptions as well An examination ofthese occurrences shows that the cafkara-p tiy r were a group of people who had 'duties connected with the maintenance of lamps andin prticular the supply of oil' in a temple Two records imply, moreover, that they were a corporation of oil-niongers! It appears that sometimes families of cakara-piyir were settled in special quarters close to the temples in order to maintainthe burning ofthe temple lamps. For instance, an inacriptio4 ofthe second year of Ku]Zttuiiga I (1071) from Tiruvlafigu, refers to the settlement of twenty-five families of cañkara-piyr on land belonging to the TiruvIlagu temple The settlement was named 103 1. LE.R. for 1912, Nos. 160 and 236 of 1912. The South Indian village was in Poyyi-kLam, in Te-karai-nu in Camaalam. 2. M.E.R. for 1897, No.80 of 1897 ; M.E.R. for 1898, No.78 of 1898; )LE.L for 1921/22, No. 5k7 of 1920; M.E.R. for 1925, No. 395 of 1925 ; K.LNilakanta Lastri, The pp. k89, 516. 3. K.A.Nilakanta Sastri, The Cas, p. 516, tn. 12. 4. Ibid. 5. S.I.I., III, p. 136.
104 ndra-ca-pi andthe cakra-ptyr were asked to supply the oil required for fifteen perpetual lamps and to be in charge of lighting them inthe temple of I4ahãdeva at TiruvIañgu It seems clear, therefäre, that the cafkara-piyr of )t?am, referred to in our inscription, were there to perform a similar function in respect ofthe temple of Tiru-irmvaram and were probably settled there by the temple trustees. The i- viyar were a community of people who sold betel leaves, as their name implies. The term ilai-viiyar (leaf-sellers), a variant form of ilai-viyar, occurs commonly in South Indian inscriptions, especially ofthe Vijayanagara period. The 1ikky-viiyar, as their name implies, were sellers of plantains (bananas). Probably these two communities were expected to supply the betel leaves andthe plantains required for the daily offerings inthe temple. It is not possible to say whether they, like the cazkara-piyr, were settled near temples for this purpose. Probably they set up their business on their own accord near temples. The fact that the money for the maintenance ofthe street lamp at Nahtittha was deposited with these communities shows that they were organized as guilds or corporations rather than as loose groups. 1. S.I.I., III, p. 136.