13 to the rise ofthe Tamil kingdom ofJaffna, in northern Ceylon, which forms the subject ofthe last two chapters. The term Dravidian is used in this work to mean the different communities of South India speaking the Draviian family of languages, chiefly Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Nalayalam. Although the only Dravidian-speakixig community to be found inthe island now are the Tamils, there were settlers from the Kannada, Kerala and Telugu countries, who were ultimately assimilated into the major Dravidian group or into the Sinhalese population. The kingdom ofJaffnain this work refers to the Tamil kingdom of northern Ceylon which was founded inthe middle ofthe thirteenth century and ceased to exist in 1620. A historical study ofthe early Dravidian settlements inCeylon, like that of early settlements in any country, presents a number of problems that cannot be s4ved pirely with the help of such materials as chronicles andinscriptions. Other branches of studies such as archaeology, physical anthropology, historical geography and historical linguistics have an impoitant part to play inthe solution ofthese problems. These problems would include among others the determining ofthe original home ofthe settlers, the causes oftheir migration, the routes of migration, the areas of settlement andthe extent
14 ofthe survival of earlier inhabitants. The evidence of archaeology is very helpful in tracing the routes of migration and locating the areas of settlement. The historical linguist has an important contribution to make by his analysis ofthe place-name evidence, which helpd a good deal inthe understanding ofthe social conditions under which the settlements took place andtheinstitutional ties which first bound the settlers together as well as inthe location of early habitation sites Place-names also help to an extent intheinquiry into the survival of earlier inhabitants. The historical geographer could help inthe understanding oftheinfluence of such factors as physique and defence on the location, and sometimes on the form, ofthe settlements. Sometimes the contribution of physical anthropologists is also valuable. In Britain attempts have been made, though not with much success, to use the evidence derived from cephalic indices and tables of nigrescence inthe study ofthe Anglo-Saxon settlements. In this study oftheDravidian settlements, the use of evidence from sources other than inscriptions and literary 1. In this respect the place-name evidence in Britain has been of immense help to the historians of(Anglo-Saxon settlement. See A.wer and F.M.Stenton, An Introduction to the Study of English Place-names, pt.l, (Camb. Englaiid), 1929.