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113992242-Dravidian-Settlements-in-Ceylon-and-the-Beginnings-of-the-Kingdom-of-Jaffna-By-Karthigesu-Indrapala-Complete-Phd-Thesis-University-of-London-1965

191 taxation or

191 taxation or inability to pay taxes also forced villagers to abandon their homes and migrate to other places. Under the thoroughly centralised revenue administration of the Cas, people who, for three years, failed to pay taxes due on the lands owned by them forfeited their lands, which were then sold by the village assembly+ Inscriptions of the reign of Ku]Zttithga I furnish instances of assessments not being paid regularly and the lands of tenants who defaulted payment being sold in consequence. Some BrThmaa tenants of Vavai-mtvicaturvdi-magaam, for instance, being unable to pay the assessments, left the village Again, in the forty-ninth year of Ku]Zttuñga I (A.D. 1118), tenants deserted the village of K!ri-rAjapuram as they could not pay the taxes There are several examples of such desertions in the later But it is not possible to say whether there were many such instances during this period. Except for a few scattered examples, there is hardly any evidence regarding migrations. 1. .E.R. for 1897, 2. !'.E.R. for 1910, Inscription No.98 of 1910. 3. Ibid. 1 Inscription No.6 Zf7 of 1909. k. Cf., B.A.Saletore, Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagar Empire, II, pp.l97-198.

192 Even these minor movements of people would have been confined to the Tamil country only. There is, however, a late tradition recorded in the Ca-prva-paftayam which refers to an overseas emigration of a hundred families from Trichinopoly in the time of one Vikramditya But the tradition loses its value by several discrepancies. According to this account, in the time of Vikramditya, 1SlivThana and his Sainaia troops lay siege to Trichinopoly. Thiring the siege a pariah named Ve and hundred others with their families escaped, went to the seashore whence proceeded to some island' It is not clear which Vikramditya is referred to here. It is possible that the ruler was Vikramditya VI (io7, - (Il-c. ) of the Western Ch.lukyas for, of the many Chlukya and Ba rulers of this name, it was Vikramditya VI who made successful inroads into the doniinions of the Cas. SlivThana is a variant of tavhana and its occurrence here is apparently the result of mixing up different legends regarding early invasions. It is hardly possible that this legend preserves any memory of the Stavhana invasions of the period prior to the third century A.D. The Samaa troops, according to Taylor, are in fact Yavana or 'uslim troops 1. C -prva-paayam, No.165 of the Lackenzie Manuscripts in 1.adras, quoted in the Analysis of the }ackenzie Nanu cripta, W.Taylor, p .1i., 60. 2. W.Taylor, . cit., p.5k. 3. ;_4.

  • Page 1 and 2:

    MAP SHOWING SITES c_ ( •M• . N

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    2 ABSTRACT This thesis is a study o

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    4 COTES Page Abstract . . Acknowled

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    6 INIRODUCT ION In this work we hav

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    8 on this subject is Simon Casie Ch

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    10 Unlike the earlier works, Ancien

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    12 begins abruptly with the reign o

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    14 of the survival of earlier inhab

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    16 these were all writtem after the

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    18 based his work on the Vaiypal, K

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    Ndav4a inscription, dated in the th

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    22 determination of the nature of s

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    This is especially so regarding the

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    26 in culture and language, althoug

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    28 to derive the forms Tja and Iam

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    30 His third argument is that 'hund

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    the Tamil poems cannot be identifie

  • Page 35 and 36:

    34 port is named }Iodouttou The pre

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    Our sources undoubtedly indicate th

  • Page 39 and 40:

    38 evidence of the Pli chronicles s

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    first century B.0 Although the Mahv

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    42 It is as unreliable as the many

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    44 concerning any Dravidian settlem

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    form of a bounding circle or dolmen

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    48 though lesser known, ports of Ku

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    vicinity This means that all the ot

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    52 defeated the Sinhalese ruler and

  • Page 55 and 56:

    54 influence of the Pallava school

  • Page 57 and 58:

    56 on the 1fahvasa, states that thi

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    58 1na 'had the Damias expel1ed' Bu

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    to the existence of minor Tamil set

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    asentents These aiva ruins of Anurd

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    64 to have been an institution of t

  • Page 67 and 68:

    66 or citizens who were members of

  • Page 69 and 70:

    68 that lived in this quarter on th

  • Page 71 and 72:

    70 the term Dem4-kblla to mean 'an

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    72 conferred on certain officiala o

  • Page 75 and 76:

    .74 body of indirect evidence, it m

  • Page 77 and 78:

    76 suggest that there were Dravidia

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    7r chronicle. That by the tenth cen

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    80 India did not consider Ceylon as

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    82 b4 with the Xi4igani of the abov

  • Page 85 and 86:

    84 CHAPTER II SL'rTLENTS IN THE PER

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    86 arrive at more than what has bee

  • Page 89 and 90:

    88 struggle that went on between th

  • Page 91 and 92:

    90 That Vijayablhu did not have any

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    92 large number of Tamil inscriptio

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    94 as well as the pariyclrakar, the

  • Page 97 and 98:

    96 peninsula and three are in the K

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    98 of a 6trong civilian population

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    100 at Periyak4am. With this possib

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    of certain taxes for the coat of th

  • Page 105 and 106:

    104 ndra-ca-pi and the cakra-ptyr w

  • Page 107 and 108:

    106 The gifts were made by several

  • Page 109 and 110:

    108 the gift a 1_' by a certain Ara

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    110 of the year 1067, mentions a pe

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    112 a-ma4alam, to the temple of Kut

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    114 set up by officials do not nece

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    About ten Siva Dv1es, five Viu temp

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    at Nalla-t ai-iakkam, Buddhannehe l

  • Page 121 and 122:

    120 of the tenth century was built

  • Page 123 and 124:

    122 supports him by stating that 't

  • Page 125 and 126:

    124 are known from the Ca inscripti

  • Page 127 and 128:

    126 Pli Pulattbinagara), Koiy'rain1

  • Page 129 and 130:

    128 They reveal the presence of Tam

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    130 in provisionally marking those

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    132 to temples for the performance

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Ceylon This period, therefore, sees

  • Page 137 and 138:

    136 to them or to their associate b

  • Page 139 and 140:

    138 therefore, date back to about t

  • Page 141 and 142: 140 on the interpretations of the t
  • Page 143 and 144: 142 There was also a community of B
  • Page 145 and 146: 144 to suggest that there was any k
  • Page 147 and 148: 146 The AifffhIruvar were primarily
  • Page 149 and 150: 145 that all these bodies were orga
  • Page 151 and 152: 150 suggest the nature of the work
  • Page 153 and 154: 152 between the Valafljiyar and the
  • Page 155 and 156: the 1a1r,rattir as one of their lea
  • Page 157 and 158: 153 three lines of this inscription
  • Page 159 and 160: 158 local and a foreign group. But
  • Page 161 and 162: 160 to in the V 1kala and VihirhThn
  • Page 163 and 164: As pointed out earlier, the period
  • Page 165 and 166: 164 e) Tiru-ciila-aikkrar (Taniil t
  • Page 167 and 168: 166 been a aikkra (Pii V.akkr& may
  • Page 169 and 170: 168 Among the other sections of the
  • Page 171 and 172: 170 inscription, an official who ha
  • Page 173 and 174: 172 status and was used for individ
  • Page 175 and 176: the Ker4a and ica4ia mercenaries in
  • Page 177 and 178: 1(0 three wings, we are unable at p
  • Page 179 and 180: 178 army is said to have been 2, 11
  • Page 181 and 182: 180 of the southern Maavars' In Cey
  • Page 183 and 184: 182 general of Parkramabhu I who co
  • Page 185 and 186: 184 year of a ParkramabThu, who is
  • Page 187 and 188: 186 South Indian artisans found emp
  • Page 189 and 190: 188 of South India, especially in t
  • Page 191: 190 have been a Blow and unnoticed
  • Page 195 and 196: 194 evidence of the epigraphs help
  • Page 197 and 198: 196 from ruined Buddhist buildings
  • Page 199 and 200: The evidence relating to this perio
  • Page 201 and 202: 200 inscription we find that the Vi
  • Page 203 and 204: that we get the earliest occurrence
  • Page 205 and 206: 204 where this inscription is found
  • Page 207 and 208: 206 around the twelfth century the
  • Page 209 and 210: 208 consecration name of Ciica..ka-
  • Page 211 and 212: 210 ut from its occurrences in the
  • Page 213 and 214: It is not probable that all these w
  • Page 215 and 216: 214 We also learn that the site of
  • Page 217 and 218: 216 communities were Tamils, for it
  • Page 219 and 220: 218 te pie, have been definitely id
  • Page 221 and 222: in the area which point in the same
  • Page 223 and 224: settlements here in the period of C
  • Page 225 and 226: 224 About a mile away from Kanadarv
  • Page 227 and 228: 22 at Polonnaruva As a result we ar
  • Page 229 and 230: 228 Nakarattr were probably of Kann
  • Page 231 and 232: 23 wars against the Cas and had the
  • Page 233 and 234: 232 were Tamils. Presumably this pa
  • Page 235 and 236: 234 not established in the Battical
  • Page 237 and 238: 23U CHAPTER IV STTLEHENTS IN THE TH
  • Page 239 and 240: The first important feature of this
  • Page 241 and 242: 240 called Sasa vata, composed in t
  • Page 243 and 244:

    242 record, the general Iti repelle

  • Page 245 and 246:

    244 The conquest of northern Ceylon

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    The CUavaida account of the invasio

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    Almost inimediatel after the stroph

  • Page 251 and 252:

    250 when the author of the Clavaisa

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    established himself at Polonnaruva,

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    254 there is no gainsaying the fact

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    importance of the foreign invasions

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    258 and that the majority of the Si

  • Page 261 and 262:

    260 were among the more iportant re

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    262 In Paranavitana's opinion, 'all

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    264 One could suppose that the nume

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    It may be recollected that several

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    268 Jaffna peninsula does not help

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    It is not possible to identify the

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    1 establishment in the region in ea

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    274 anywhere. This poses a serious

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    27 who were responsible for giving

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    worthy of note in this respect: 278

  • Page 281 and 282:

    280 etymology The account of the se

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    and tenth century some villages in

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    materials for the erection of lasti

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    28G much depreciated as a result of

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    288 etymology which attempts to exp

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    290 earlier traditions from the lat

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    9Q9 Those who went to the island in

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    The accounts in the Vaiy!pal and th

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    29 The Naavaryar (variant: Mauvarya

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    29 that all these castes were repre

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    300 These were evidently named afte

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    from Kpakanu and Pu.ya-inakIpla-ppa

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    301 in our sources. In view of such

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    3OGo. Province, the chieftaincies o

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    307 In l9kl Geiger published an int

  • Page 311 and 312:

    309 Arier in bewu ten Gegensatz zu

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    311 include in their enumeration. P

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    313 of warriors or tribesmen who we

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    315 of Ceylon. It is even possible

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    317 In Ceylon, the earliest work in

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    319 C!1avasa. Though at first sight

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    321 of Vannis, namely the }iaha-van

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    The Vaiyars of the nineteenth centu

  • Page 327 and 328:

    32 came into existence independentl

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    In the sources mentioned above Ku.a

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    (c) Co4agai a of the Trincomalee Sa

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    331 and aspired to the kingship of

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    333 enemies had led punitive raids

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    335 alias Co.agafiga whds mention i

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    337 with not only the renovation of

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    33) In the light of the evidence th

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    31 Sinhalese settlements that once

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    343 According to the Kcar-kalveu, K

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    345 Malaiyakam, T4uvai, Toaimatalam

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    347 Ppla Kttiram (Bh' la Gotra) and

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    34J Ukkiraciñka, , as it ap ears i

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    351 as Kantajy, Pakai and Carnpl!r

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    353 in the chronicles of Trincomale

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    35 va (chieftaincies) may be based

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    357 Probably Ki4akkan and possibly

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    35 settle ents of Dravidians that s

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    361 Ceylon by the Dravidians was no

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    1 . structures. A door-jamb from on

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    1 to the Tamil population, as in Ja

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    36/ Chaggxna (Skmam)finda mention i

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    369 The Ker4a origin of this caste

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    meanjn mariners or boatmen As a sea

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    narrated in the Vaiy and the Vaiypa

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    375 presence of Ilukkuva mercenarie

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    37' the rest. Consequently we are n

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    37 xniyam, the Xaliñga ruler (!gha

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    This tradition seems to refer to a

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    383 year 512 (2590 .c.) and underto

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    385 (Mugwiuvaavana), Villattavai (V

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    with Nu&varam in order to give it a

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    egion may have been forced to chang

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    391 The wi e rea occurrence of Tami

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    393 used in the inscription for 'wo

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    From the foregoing analysis it beco

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    Marumakkattyarn laws of Kera.a and

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    399 CHAP!ER VI THE BEGINNINGS OF TH

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    401 part of the ia].and in the four

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    aside these arguments and shown tha

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    405 as well are baaed on the errone

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    the account of Ku!aa in some of the

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    409 resembles in many ways the lion

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    411 bhildren, a son and a daughter.

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    413 and the avvaiapva-ifl!lai. In t

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    and obtained the arid peninsula of

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    derivation of the name and that is

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    ecently, there oceurs the name Subh

  • Page 423 and 424:

    This statement is evidently due to

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    the basis of certain references in

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    d2 Vra-ca1nika, (Ka1ifikar-ma - Kin

  • Page 429 and 430:

    427 the inscription. Similarly, the

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    429 P11 chronicle deals mainly with

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    431 an island off the peninsula of

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    433 been suggested that this may be

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    435 obliged to abandon it ' This wo

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    43? This is not quite convincing. D

  • Page 441 and 442:

    439 and driven away from the Sinhal

  • Page 443 and 444:

    441 is meant for those who were acc

  • Page 445 and 446:

    443 almost always in poetry, for a

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    445 The text of this inscription fr

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    447 1vaka to be accused of having b

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    have been active in Ceylon in the t

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    451 inscriptions regarding the even

  • Page 455 and 456:

    453 Paranavitana takes JAvagama to

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    455 No one would say that the latte

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    457 If, as we have suggested earlie

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    1 the T mi1 chronicles. 459 1. In h

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    ,.&+ra k.'ro Nia-sagrahaya and the

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    a Ca prince named lit'iki riya, wen

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    463 The conclusion that Vicaym 1ci

  • Page 469 and 470:

    467 denote some connection with the

  • Page 471 and 472:

    463 nothing is known about this cit

  • Page 473 and 474:

    471 before 1262. As we know, betwee

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    These invaders could not be ousted

  • Page 477 and 478:

    473 given protection to the new kin

  • Page 479 and 480:

    CHAPTER VII 477 THE BEGINNflGS OP T

  • Page 481 and 482:

    479 The astronomical details in the

  • Page 483 and 484:

    481 Pya I, began his rule in 115 an

  • Page 485 and 486:

    483 Of these six inscriptions, four

  • Page 487 and 488:

    485 Their inscriptions are not foun

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    48? produced in Jaffna, the ancesto

  • Page 491 and 492:

    489 Ramnad who, as the ally of the

  • Page 493 and 494:

    491 Izvaram a sect of Brhm{ns calle

  • Page 495 and 496:

    493 the 7katTya kingdom by the Musl

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    aii2rir.ii pairuvarai varavalaittu)

  • Page 499 and 500:

    497 very early tim.e We see, theref

  • Page 501 and 502:

    "4- found in his workAaeema to b•

  • Page 503 and 504:

    501 rTraAgam All these ryae of the

  • Page 505 and 506:

    503 Te 1c!iRi tluk, in the Tinn.v.1

  • Page 507 and 508:

    505 people from ya-nZu These settle

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    nearly ten years after the date of

  • Page 511 and 512:

    509 attempting to seize power. Do Q

  • Page 513 and 514:

    511 was the case, the invasion of I

  • Page 515 and 516:

    513 to historians as the kingdom of

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    51 and !I.ppam for the kingdoms of

  • Page 519 and 520:

    51? Ma4arial is a compound of two w

  • Page 521 and 522:

    519 also seen that the aa of the in

  • Page 523 and 524:

    521 Dem4a-paaji.ma (Tamil Port) was

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    Jafana-en-putalain as a variant of

  • Page 527 and 528:

    525 the island, it was Na11Lr that

  • Page 529 and 530:

    527 does not state whether he was a

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    529 But till very recently there wa

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    531 that CiA1t2ink,r and flpipafuna

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    533 to the use of the vT4 flag in C

  • Page 537 and 538:

    535 which (lands) end in the River

  • Page 539 and 540:

    537 Mracci-r4a has been identified

  • Page 541 and 542:

    539 be subordinate territories of i

  • Page 543 and 544:

    541 kingdom marks the cul mination

  • Page 545 and 546:

    543 in the island in this period. T

  • Page 547 and 548:

    545 the invasions of )!gba and the

  • Page 549 and 550:

    541 of the thirteenth century favou

  • Page 551 and 552:

    549 A SELT BIBLIOGRAPUT A, Tami]. I

  • Page 553 and 554:

    551 15. PLTva1iya, ed. A.V.Suravira

  • Page 555 and 556:

    553 IV. Modern Works (Articles on e

  • Page 557 and 558:

    555 2k. Indrapa].a, Karthigesu 'The

  • Page 559 and 560:

    557 k8. Paranavitana, Senarat (cont

  • Page 561 and 562:

    559 57. Taylor, William, Catalowue

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