Tamil country inthe Kali year 512 (2590 B.c.) by the Ca 219 prince Kuakk 1a As we shall see inthe next chapter, these traditions may reflect the events of a later period and may not go back to very early times The prince Kua1ka,who is associated with varam inthe other Tamil chronicles, seems to have lived in. the thirteenth century We cannot, therefore, be certain about the originofthe Tamil settlement around Mu&varam. The CUlavaisa contains a reference to the presence .lf of Tainil mercenaries in Dakkhiadesa in this period. According to this reference, there was a Dami3a army stationed inthe district called Raktakra inthe reign of Gajabhu II. flattakara has been identified with Ratkaravva, nearly four miles north-west of Kurunga1a and close to the Ca stronghold of Vpiriagara In addition to the above epigraphic and other material indicating settlements ofthe Tamils inthe northern regions of anciant Dakkhiadesa, there are also some place names 1. Mu svara-mmiyam, . vit., p.8. 2. See infra, p32l - 3. See infra, p. 317 k. Cv., 69:6. C.W.Nicholas, 'istorical Topogr p y of Ancient an Yedieval eylon', J. . . . (C. .), N.S., V1 1 1959, p.90.
inthe area which point inthe same direction. The major 220 difficulty inthe way of using this toponymic evidence for our purposes is one of establishing the date oftheir origin. Unfortunately early records ofthese toponyms are not available to us. However, the presence of a number of Tamil place names or Sinhalese place names indicating Tamil settlement in an area now largely occupied by Sinhalese speakers suggests that the names are not of recent origin. It is by no means justifiable to assign the originof all these names to this period. But it may not be wrong to assume that some ofthem at least originated at this time. any ofthe Sinhalese place names with the element dem4a may have originated in this period for they occur close to the places where Tarn!]. inscriptions have been found or where the C1as had established their strongholds. Dem4a-divullva, for instance, is about three miles east of Jahananneriya and about six miles north-west of Eriyva, places where Tamil inscriptions ofthe elventh and twelfth centuries have been found. Dema.a-srakku.ama is about eight miles west of Mahakirinda and. udumuttva, where, too, Tamil inscriptions were discovered. Similarly, Dema.a-dora is about six miles south-west of Nuhunnaru and about eight miles south-west of Pauvasnuvara. Dema4a-nina is about ten miles south of VihrThinna and Demaussa is about six miles north of Vpinagara,