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113992242-Dravidian-Settlements-in-Ceylon-and-the-Beginnings-of-the-Kingdom-of-Jaffna-By-Karthigesu-Indrapala-Complete-Phd-Thesis-University-of-London-1965

291 in

291 in the town called Pajai; the confident Cvakar (Jvks) lived in their Cri (i.e. Cvaka-cri), the AkampaiyI!, Kucavar, Kollar, Otiyar and }lukkiyar (Mukkuvas) lived in Pnakari' 'Natuvra-mauvarya and the (other) Mauvarya, who governs the beautiful land, lived in Yppam (Jaffna) along with the king' 'Villavaryar lived in Nallr; the Maapp4is, who are held in high esteem by the great, lived in ippy; the Kavarar, KThnaiyr and the Tillai-mThryirattr lived in Varai-uu' This account of the Vaiyptal is slightly altered in the extended VaiyL In the latter it is stated that the Vaiyar sent messengers to laturai, Toaimaçalam, ruñkt!r, Tiruccirppa.].i, KUta1r and Kra{1ckl in order to invite as many settlers as possible toom among the Vefl.ar, Pirn'ar (Brhmaas), Ce$is, Cakkiliyar, Akampais, 11alaiyakam, Timilar, Kuyavar and other such castes, both the higher and the lower, as well as the personalities called I.aficifika-nippa, Nallavku-tva,, Atti-mppa, and Karutta-vku-ci ik-mp 1. i2 • v. k5. 2. Ibid., V. 73. 3. Ibid., v. 7k. 4. Valy3,p. 26.

9Q9 Those who went to the island in response to the invitation were Atti-mppa, M4uvarya,, Ticai-vi1afiku-mauvarya, Ctuvant a-mauvarya,, Karut ta-vku, C iki -mppa, Ira-c iz.kav mppa, Iafic iñka-nippa,, Nallavku-niey-tva, V!ra-ct aiya, Tit a-v!ra.c iñka-nippa, Anrc apuri VTra-mauvarya, Ki4aikttava,, Nui-kttava, Ciika-vku, Yppaiyir, M1kkaiyir, Kppaiyir, Thnaicciyaãr, Tovvi-car, Tic ai-ve, Iac ñka-v.ku-tva, , Taat tia-kirpa, Vkkia-mayit t afl,, Karut tavarya-c ifika-kumra, Nut iyi, AiMcac ifika,, Kfica-kat ta.iya, Klifika, Tillai-mvyiravar, Cuva-t i a-rya, K k i-v4a- K'vri-ataitt, Mu1lai-maappa3i, Kumra-maapp4.i, Cañku-mat app4i, Caruku-ma app4i , Akampa iy.r, and the BrhMaas of the Ariya-vkiam (Irya-vaisa) . They crossed the sea in boats, arrived and stayed in Thppm in I1ki-nu (Ceylon)' Of these some later went to the Vanni and settled there. 'Of the four named Yppaiyir, Kppaiyir, xnaicciyar ,and Telli, the last mentioned went and ruled in Thcpa-ntu and hence the name Teuipp4ai' (for one of the villages there). 1. Vaiy, p. 27 ff. 2. Ibid., p. 30.

  • Page 1 and 2:

    MAP SHOWING SITES c_ ( •M• . N

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    2 ABSTRACT This thesis is a study o

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    4 COTES Page Abstract . . Acknowled

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    6 INIRODUCT ION In this work we hav

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    8 on this subject is Simon Casie Ch

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    10 Unlike the earlier works, Ancien

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    12 begins abruptly with the reign o

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    14 of the survival of earlier inhab

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    16 these were all writtem after the

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    18 based his work on the Vaiypal, K

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    Ndav4a inscription, dated in the th

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    22 determination of the nature of s

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    This is especially so regarding the

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    26 in culture and language, althoug

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    28 to derive the forms Tja and Iam

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    30 His third argument is that 'hund

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    the Tamil poems cannot be identifie

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    34 port is named }Iodouttou The pre

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    Our sources undoubtedly indicate th

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    38 evidence of the Pli chronicles s

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    first century B.0 Although the Mahv

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    42 It is as unreliable as the many

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    44 concerning any Dravidian settlem

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    form of a bounding circle or dolmen

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    48 though lesser known, ports of Ku

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    vicinity This means that all the ot

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    52 defeated the Sinhalese ruler and

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    54 influence of the Pallava school

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    56 on the 1fahvasa, states that thi

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    58 1na 'had the Damias expel1ed' Bu

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    to the existence of minor Tamil set

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    asentents These aiva ruins of Anurd

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    64 to have been an institution of t

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    66 or citizens who were members of

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    68 that lived in this quarter on th

  • Page 71 and 72:

    70 the term Dem4-kblla to mean 'an

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    72 conferred on certain officiala o

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    .74 body of indirect evidence, it m

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    76 suggest that there were Dravidia

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    7r chronicle. That by the tenth cen

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    80 India did not consider Ceylon as

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    82 b4 with the Xi4igani of the abov

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    84 CHAPTER II SL'rTLENTS IN THE PER

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    86 arrive at more than what has bee

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    88 struggle that went on between th

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    90 That Vijayablhu did not have any

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    92 large number of Tamil inscriptio

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    94 as well as the pariyclrakar, the

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    96 peninsula and three are in the K

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    98 of a 6trong civilian population

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    100 at Periyak4am. With this possib

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    of certain taxes for the coat of th

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    104 ndra-ca-pi and the cakra-ptyr w

  • Page 107 and 108:

    106 The gifts were made by several

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    108 the gift a 1_' by a certain Ara

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    110 of the year 1067, mentions a pe

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    112 a-ma4alam, to the temple of Kut

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    114 set up by officials do not nece

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    About ten Siva Dv1es, five Viu temp

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    at Nalla-t ai-iakkam, Buddhannehe l

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    120 of the tenth century was built

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    122 supports him by stating that 't

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    124 are known from the Ca inscripti

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    126 Pli Pulattbinagara), Koiy'rain1

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    128 They reveal the presence of Tam

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    130 in provisionally marking those

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    132 to temples for the performance

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    Ceylon This period, therefore, sees

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    136 to them or to their associate b

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    138 therefore, date back to about t

  • Page 141 and 142:

    140 on the interpretations of the t

  • Page 143 and 144:

    142 There was also a community of B

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    144 to suggest that there was any k

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    146 The AifffhIruvar were primarily

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    145 that all these bodies were orga

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    150 suggest the nature of the work

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    152 between the Valafljiyar and the

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    the 1a1r,rattir as one of their lea

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    153 three lines of this inscription

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    158 local and a foreign group. But

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    160 to in the V 1kala and VihirhThn

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    As pointed out earlier, the period

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    164 e) Tiru-ciila-aikkrar (Taniil t

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    166 been a aikkra (Pii V.akkr& may

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    168 Among the other sections of the

  • Page 171 and 172:

    170 inscription, an official who ha

  • Page 173 and 174:

    172 status and was used for individ

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    the Ker4a and ica4ia mercenaries in

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    1(0 three wings, we are unable at p

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    178 army is said to have been 2, 11

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    180 of the southern Maavars' In Cey

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    182 general of Parkramabhu I who co

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    184 year of a ParkramabThu, who is

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    186 South Indian artisans found emp

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    188 of South India, especially in t

  • Page 191 and 192:

    190 have been a Blow and unnoticed

  • Page 193 and 194:

    192 Even these minor movements of p

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    194 evidence of the epigraphs help

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    196 from ruined Buddhist buildings

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    The evidence relating to this perio

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    200 inscription we find that the Vi

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    that we get the earliest occurrence

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    204 where this inscription is found

  • Page 207 and 208:

    206 around the twelfth century the

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    208 consecration name of Ciica..ka-

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    210 ut from its occurrences in the

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    It is not probable that all these w

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    214 We also learn that the site of

  • Page 217 and 218:

    216 communities were Tamils, for it

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    218 te pie, have been definitely id

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    in the area which point in the same

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    settlements here in the period of C

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    224 About a mile away from Kanadarv

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    22 at Polonnaruva As a result we ar

  • Page 229 and 230:

    228 Nakarattr were probably of Kann

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    23 wars against the Cas and had the

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    232 were Tamils. Presumably this pa

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    234 not established in the Battical

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    23U CHAPTER IV STTLEHENTS IN THE TH

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    The first important feature of this

  • Page 241 and 242: 240 called Sasa vata, composed in t
  • Page 243 and 244: 242 record, the general Iti repelle
  • Page 245 and 246: 244 The conquest of northern Ceylon
  • Page 247 and 248: The CUavaida account of the invasio
  • Page 249 and 250: Almost inimediatel after the stroph
  • Page 251 and 252: 250 when the author of the Clavaisa
  • Page 253 and 254: established himself at Polonnaruva,
  • Page 255 and 256: 254 there is no gainsaying the fact
  • Page 257 and 258: importance of the foreign invasions
  • Page 259 and 260: 258 and that the majority of the Si
  • Page 261 and 262: 260 were among the more iportant re
  • Page 263 and 264: 262 In Paranavitana's opinion, 'all
  • Page 265 and 266: 264 One could suppose that the nume
  • Page 267 and 268: It may be recollected that several
  • Page 269 and 270: 268 Jaffna peninsula does not help
  • Page 271 and 272: It is not possible to identify the
  • Page 273 and 274: 1 establishment in the region in ea
  • Page 275 and 276: 274 anywhere. This poses a serious
  • Page 277 and 278: 27 who were responsible for giving
  • Page 279 and 280: worthy of note in this respect: 278
  • Page 281 and 282: 280 etymology The account of the se
  • Page 283 and 284: and tenth century some villages in
  • Page 285 and 286: materials for the erection of lasti
  • Page 287 and 288: 28G much depreciated as a result of
  • Page 289 and 290: 288 etymology which attempts to exp
  • Page 291: 290 earlier traditions from the lat
  • Page 295 and 296: The accounts in the Vaiy!pal and th
  • Page 297 and 298: 29 The Naavaryar (variant: Mauvarya
  • Page 299 and 300: 29 that all these castes were repre
  • Page 301 and 302: 300 These were evidently named afte
  • Page 303 and 304: from Kpakanu and Pu.ya-inakIpla-ppa
  • Page 305 and 306: 301 in our sources. In view of such
  • Page 307 and 308: 3OGo. Province, the chieftaincies o
  • Page 309 and 310: 307 In l9kl Geiger published an int
  • Page 311 and 312: 309 Arier in bewu ten Gegensatz zu
  • Page 313 and 314: 311 include in their enumeration. P
  • Page 315 and 316: 313 of warriors or tribesmen who we
  • Page 317 and 318: 315 of Ceylon. It is even possible
  • Page 319 and 320: 317 In Ceylon, the earliest work in
  • Page 321 and 322: 319 C!1avasa. Though at first sight
  • Page 323 and 324: 321 of Vannis, namely the }iaha-van
  • Page 325 and 326: The Vaiyars of the nineteenth centu
  • Page 327 and 328: 32 came into existence independentl
  • Page 329 and 330: In the sources mentioned above Ku.a
  • Page 331 and 332: (c) Co4agai a of the Trincomalee Sa
  • Page 333 and 334: 331 and aspired to the kingship of
  • Page 335 and 336: 333 enemies had led punitive raids
  • Page 337 and 338: 335 alias Co.agafiga whds mention i
  • Page 339 and 340: 337 with not only the renovation of
  • Page 341 and 342: 33) In the light of the evidence th
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    31 Sinhalese settlements that once

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    343 According to the Kcar-kalveu, K

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    345 Malaiyakam, T4uvai, Toaimatalam

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    347 Ppla Kttiram (Bh' la Gotra) and

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    34J Ukkiraciñka, , as it ap ears i

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    351 as Kantajy, Pakai and Carnpl!r

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    353 in the chronicles of Trincomale

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    35 va (chieftaincies) may be based

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    357 Probably Ki4akkan and possibly

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    35 settle ents of Dravidians that s

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    361 Ceylon by the Dravidians was no

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    1 . structures. A door-jamb from on

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    1 to the Tamil population, as in Ja

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    36/ Chaggxna (Skmam)finda mention i

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    369 The Ker4a origin of this caste

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    meanjn mariners or boatmen As a sea

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    narrated in the Vaiy and the Vaiypa

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    375 presence of Ilukkuva mercenarie

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    37' the rest. Consequently we are n

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    37 xniyam, the Xaliñga ruler (!gha

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    This tradition seems to refer to a

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    383 year 512 (2590 .c.) and underto

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    385 (Mugwiuvaavana), Villattavai (V

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    with Nu&varam in order to give it a

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    egion may have been forced to chang

  • Page 393 and 394:

    391 The wi e rea occurrence of Tami

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    393 used in the inscription for 'wo

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    From the foregoing analysis it beco

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    Marumakkattyarn laws of Kera.a and

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    399 CHAP!ER VI THE BEGINNINGS OF TH

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    401 part of the ia].and in the four

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    aside these arguments and shown tha

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    405 as well are baaed on the errone

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    the account of Ku!aa in some of the

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    409 resembles in many ways the lion

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    411 bhildren, a son and a daughter.

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    413 and the avvaiapva-ifl!lai. In t

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    and obtained the arid peninsula of

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    derivation of the name and that is

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    ecently, there oceurs the name Subh

  • Page 423 and 424:

    This statement is evidently due to

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    the basis of certain references in

  • Page 427 and 428:

    d2 Vra-ca1nika, (Ka1ifikar-ma - Kin

  • Page 429 and 430:

    427 the inscription. Similarly, the

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    429 P11 chronicle deals mainly with

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    431 an island off the peninsula of

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    433 been suggested that this may be

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    435 obliged to abandon it ' This wo

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    43? This is not quite convincing. D

  • Page 441 and 442:

    439 and driven away from the Sinhal

  • Page 443 and 444:

    441 is meant for those who were acc

  • Page 445 and 446:

    443 almost always in poetry, for a

  • Page 447 and 448:

    445 The text of this inscription fr

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    447 1vaka to be accused of having b

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    have been active in Ceylon in the t

  • Page 453 and 454:

    451 inscriptions regarding the even

  • Page 455 and 456:

    453 Paranavitana takes JAvagama to

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    455 No one would say that the latte

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    457 If, as we have suggested earlie

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    1 the T mi1 chronicles. 459 1. In h

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    ,.&+ra k.'ro Nia-sagrahaya and the

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    a Ca prince named lit'iki riya, wen

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    463 The conclusion that Vicaym 1ci

  • Page 469 and 470:

    467 denote some connection with the

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    463 nothing is known about this cit

  • Page 473 and 474:

    471 before 1262. As we know, betwee

  • Page 475 and 476:

    These invaders could not be ousted

  • Page 477 and 478:

    473 given protection to the new kin

  • Page 479 and 480:

    CHAPTER VII 477 THE BEGINNflGS OP T

  • Page 481 and 482:

    479 The astronomical details in the

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    481 Pya I, began his rule in 115 an

  • Page 485 and 486:

    483 Of these six inscriptions, four

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    485 Their inscriptions are not foun

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    48? produced in Jaffna, the ancesto

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    489 Ramnad who, as the ally of the

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    491 Izvaram a sect of Brhm{ns calle

  • Page 495 and 496:

    493 the 7katTya kingdom by the Musl

  • Page 497 and 498:

    aii2rir.ii pairuvarai varavalaittu)

  • Page 499 and 500:

    497 very early tim.e We see, theref

  • Page 501 and 502:

    "4- found in his workAaeema to b•

  • Page 503 and 504:

    501 rTraAgam All these ryae of the

  • Page 505 and 506:

    503 Te 1c!iRi tluk, in the Tinn.v.1

  • Page 507 and 508:

    505 people from ya-nZu These settle

  • Page 509 and 510:

    nearly ten years after the date of

  • Page 511 and 512:

    509 attempting to seize power. Do Q

  • Page 513 and 514:

    511 was the case, the invasion of I

  • Page 515 and 516:

    513 to historians as the kingdom of

  • Page 517 and 518:

    51 and !I.ppam for the kingdoms of

  • Page 519 and 520:

    51? Ma4arial is a compound of two w

  • Page 521 and 522:

    519 also seen that the aa of the in

  • Page 523 and 524:

    521 Dem4a-paaji.ma (Tamil Port) was

  • Page 525 and 526:

    Jafana-en-putalain as a variant of

  • Page 527 and 528:

    525 the island, it was Na11Lr that

  • Page 529 and 530:

    527 does not state whether he was a

  • Page 531 and 532:

    529 But till very recently there wa

  • Page 533 and 534:

    531 that CiA1t2ink,r and flpipafuna

  • Page 535 and 536:

    533 to the use of the vT4 flag in C

  • Page 537 and 538:

    535 which (lands) end in the River

  • Page 539 and 540:

    537 Mracci-r4a has been identified

  • Page 541 and 542:

    539 be subordinate territories of i

  • Page 543 and 544:

    541 kingdom marks the cul mination

  • Page 545 and 546:

    543 in the island in this period. T

  • Page 547 and 548:

    545 the invasions of )!gba and the

  • Page 549 and 550:

    541 of the thirteenth century favou

  • Page 551 and 552:

    549 A SELT BIBLIOGRAPUT A, Tami]. I

  • Page 553 and 554:

    551 15. PLTva1iya, ed. A.V.Suravira

  • Page 555 and 556:

    553 IV. Modern Works (Articles on e

  • Page 557 and 558:

    555 2k. Indrapa].a, Karthigesu 'The

  • Page 559 and 560:

    557 k8. Paranavitana, Senarat (cont

  • Page 561 and 562:

    559 57. Taylor, William, Catalowue

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