31 Kulaekhara P4ya as well as intheinscriptions ofthe Vijayanagara period 1ost ofthe persons mentioned inthe Ca and P4ya records bear the title of Vaiya-nya or Vaiyar-nya (Lord ofthe Vaiyars) and appear to have been Vaiya chiefs. Prominent among thea id one Vaiya-xiya Cuut who figures in as many as fifteen records ofthe time of Rjdhirja II. He is described inthese as a Ialaiynp chief, with the fulsome epithets Malaiyam Iaiyr Periya Uaiy CuUut Vaiya-nya, Rjarja Cdiyarja One oftheCeylonese works of this period, the Upsakajanlaikra, also refers to a Vanni feudatory ofthe P4ya ruler. (Pau-bhThnaale yo'bh vafiflo smanta bhThnipo) On the basis ofthese references we may venture to suggest that tabout the twelfth century some Vanni chiefs had risen to prominence as feudatories ofthe Cas andthe Pyas. Perhaps they were able to wield much influence as the suppliers of Vaiya soldiers to these South Indian rulers. 1. ?.E. . for 1903, Nos. 5k6 and 558 of 1902; N.E.I. for 1910, Nos. 215 and 13k of 1910; M.E.R. for 1913, Nos.30 and 34 of 1913; ?.E.R. for 1920, No .556 of 1919; F.E.P. for 1922, No.352 of 1922; .E.R. for 1934/35, Nos. 122, 143-149, 154-159, 126, 162, 177, 215 and 189 of 1934/35. 2. }.E.R. forI3f3c, No.lofI1344M 3. Upsaka-janlañkra, p.157
317 In Ceylon, the earliest work in which the name Vanni occurs is the P1!jvaliya. In connection with the occupation of RAjaraba by Igha, this work refers to the ]ahavanni areas 1 andthe chiefs of those regions who lived in. fear of }TAgha. This would mean that by about the latter half ofthe tbriteenth century the term vanni bad come to be used inCeylon to designate minor chieftaincies inthe areas of Rjaraha where the authority ofthe Sinhalese ruler was not felt any more. The PUjvaliya andthe Clavaisa frequently refer to the Vannie. The period to which these references relate is what may be called the post-Polonnaruva period (after 1215). Geiger is, however, ofthe opinion that there is a notice inthe CUavaisa regarding the Vannis ofthe twelfth century, although they are not mentioned by that name here. E hat Vannis oline Zweifel auch schon im l2.Jahrhundert gegeben, denn auch in der Beschreibung der Zustande, wie ale durch die daxnaligen Burgerkriege geworden waren, findet sich }hvs. 61.62 die Notiz : ,,Leute von vornebmer Abkunft (kulina) bielten sich, bier und dort an geeigneten Platzen (phasutthanesu) verstreut, verborgen und nahmen ihren Wohnsitz daselbst". 2 This claim of Geiger is based on his assumption that the Vannis were Sirihalese of noble descent who sought refuge inthe forest regions in times o distress and later came to be called Vannis, 1. Pv., p. 109. 2. W.Gei.ger, 'Die Vannis', . cit., p. 8.