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113992242-Dravidian-Settlements-in-Ceylon-and-the-Beginnings-of-the-Kingdom-of-Jaffna-By-Karthigesu-Indrapala-Complete-Phd-Thesis-University-of-London-1965

496 A I When

496 A I When the words are separated, they would rea& as in the Vera. quoted above. That the word which qualifies Iiyar- is aal and not vaaL is further demonstrated. by the fact that the initial letter of this word, namely a ()4), a1U.terat.s with the first letter of the whole line, in keeping with the rules of the pj metre Aal, me.nlng strong, 'valiant', 'tough' or 'ability to kill', is a very common epithet for h or heroes, elephants, lions and armies, and has been in use from 1. Note the elliteration in this verse: A I vitiy aal riyai, kn E Ivalar*l iranta nI - O Tarukk4ilum kulirnta ta4i tan'cu ia Tirjum_cuunf_ti? The alliteration: - I ---------j------0 (vowel-vowel) a E1

497 very early tim.e We see, therefore, that there is no reason to 1. 1) gi_nikI, 11, , v. 16 (ad. Cuv1' l-Ita Paitar, Mad. 1909); 2) Piâkala-nika , X, stra 15, (Rippon Press, Madras 1917); 3) aa1 kari (valiant elephant) in }dirv'carksr Tiruvcakam , Ilittal Vi4 appam , v.32, p. 182 (ad. Cuppir.aViya Pi D ai , Mad. 19119); 11) aal an (valiant lion) in N!lak!ci, Tarumavurai Carude m, V. 55 p. 2k (ad. L.Chabavarti, Mad, 1936); 5) aa1 !y matann earam (the fatal dart of Cupid) in Kanparinflya, PIla-kaiu, Ka(m4a Paalain, v.11, P. 83k (ed. V.WIGopIla ri4anicIriyar, Mad. 1953); 6) aal arakid (th. strong Rkasi), ibid., Ir.4iya-krLam, CUrppaakai 'UI Paa1a', v.]Q, p. 54 (1953); 7) a] Irva4 (the valiant RIv.4a) , ibid., Cuntara-kIam, Poil-irutta Paa lam , v.20, p. 53k (1955); 8) aealvaliarakkan (the Rkasa with strength and the ability to kill), ibid., Yutta-kaa, Irv4axj, Yatai Paa1an, v.18, p. '+8 (pt.2) (19k8) ; 9) aa]. kein tit vran (the hero with strong broad shoulders), Kant a-puniam, - Mak!ntira-k4ani, VTravku Kantantaan Ccl Paalaa, v.22, p.111, (ad. M.T.flukavi, Mad. 1907); aa1 katir vl (the valiant kiig with the shining spear), Puk4Tnti, r,litoar..k7am, v.37, p. 386, (ad. K.RghavcIri and T.C.PirttacLati, Mad. 1938).

  • Page 1 and 2:

    MAP SHOWING SITES c_ ( •M• . N

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    2 ABSTRACT This thesis is a study o

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    4 COTES Page Abstract . . Acknowled

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    6 INIRODUCT ION In this work we hav

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    8 on this subject is Simon Casie Ch

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    10 Unlike the earlier works, Ancien

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    12 begins abruptly with the reign o

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    14 of the survival of earlier inhab

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    16 these were all writtem after the

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    18 based his work on the Vaiypal, K

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    Ndav4a inscription, dated in the th

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    22 determination of the nature of s

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    This is especially so regarding the

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    26 in culture and language, althoug

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    28 to derive the forms Tja and Iam

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    30 His third argument is that 'hund

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    the Tamil poems cannot be identifie

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    34 port is named }Iodouttou The pre

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    Our sources undoubtedly indicate th

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    38 evidence of the Pli chronicles s

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    first century B.0 Although the Mahv

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    42 It is as unreliable as the many

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    44 concerning any Dravidian settlem

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    form of a bounding circle or dolmen

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    48 though lesser known, ports of Ku

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    vicinity This means that all the ot

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    52 defeated the Sinhalese ruler and

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    54 influence of the Pallava school

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    56 on the 1fahvasa, states that thi

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    58 1na 'had the Damias expel1ed' Bu

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    to the existence of minor Tamil set

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    asentents These aiva ruins of Anurd

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    64 to have been an institution of t

  • Page 67 and 68:

    66 or citizens who were members of

  • Page 69 and 70:

    68 that lived in this quarter on th

  • Page 71 and 72:

    70 the term Dem4-kblla to mean 'an

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    72 conferred on certain officiala o

  • Page 75 and 76:

    .74 body of indirect evidence, it m

  • Page 77 and 78:

    76 suggest that there were Dravidia

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    7r chronicle. That by the tenth cen

  • Page 81 and 82:

    80 India did not consider Ceylon as

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    82 b4 with the Xi4igani of the abov

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    84 CHAPTER II SL'rTLENTS IN THE PER

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    86 arrive at more than what has bee

  • Page 89 and 90:

    88 struggle that went on between th

  • Page 91 and 92:

    90 That Vijayablhu did not have any

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    92 large number of Tamil inscriptio

  • Page 95 and 96:

    94 as well as the pariyclrakar, the

  • Page 97 and 98:

    96 peninsula and three are in the K

  • Page 99 and 100:

    98 of a 6trong civilian population

  • Page 101 and 102:

    100 at Periyak4am. With this possib

  • Page 103 and 104:

    of certain taxes for the coat of th

  • Page 105 and 106:

    104 ndra-ca-pi and the cakra-ptyr w

  • Page 107 and 108:

    106 The gifts were made by several

  • Page 109 and 110:

    108 the gift a 1_' by a certain Ara

  • Page 111 and 112:

    110 of the year 1067, mentions a pe

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    112 a-ma4alam, to the temple of Kut

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    114 set up by officials do not nece

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    About ten Siva Dv1es, five Viu temp

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    at Nalla-t ai-iakkam, Buddhannehe l

  • Page 121 and 122:

    120 of the tenth century was built

  • Page 123 and 124:

    122 supports him by stating that 't

  • Page 125 and 126:

    124 are known from the Ca inscripti

  • Page 127 and 128:

    126 Pli Pulattbinagara), Koiy'rain1

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    128 They reveal the presence of Tam

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    130 in provisionally marking those

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    132 to temples for the performance

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Ceylon This period, therefore, sees

  • Page 137 and 138:

    136 to them or to their associate b

  • Page 139 and 140:

    138 therefore, date back to about t

  • Page 141 and 142:

    140 on the interpretations of the t

  • Page 143 and 144:

    142 There was also a community of B

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    144 to suggest that there was any k

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    146 The AifffhIruvar were primarily

  • Page 149 and 150:

    145 that all these bodies were orga

  • Page 151 and 152:

    150 suggest the nature of the work

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    152 between the Valafljiyar and the

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    the 1a1r,rattir as one of their lea

  • Page 157 and 158:

    153 three lines of this inscription

  • Page 159 and 160:

    158 local and a foreign group. But

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    160 to in the V 1kala and VihirhThn

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    As pointed out earlier, the period

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    164 e) Tiru-ciila-aikkrar (Taniil t

  • Page 167 and 168:

    166 been a aikkra (Pii V.akkr& may

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    168 Among the other sections of the

  • Page 171 and 172:

    170 inscription, an official who ha

  • Page 173 and 174:

    172 status and was used for individ

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    the Ker4a and ica4ia mercenaries in

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    1(0 three wings, we are unable at p

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    178 army is said to have been 2, 11

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    180 of the southern Maavars' In Cey

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    182 general of Parkramabhu I who co

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    184 year of a ParkramabThu, who is

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    186 South Indian artisans found emp

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    188 of South India, especially in t

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    190 have been a Blow and unnoticed

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    192 Even these minor movements of p

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    194 evidence of the epigraphs help

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    196 from ruined Buddhist buildings

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    The evidence relating to this perio

  • Page 201 and 202:

    200 inscription we find that the Vi

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    that we get the earliest occurrence

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    204 where this inscription is found

  • Page 207 and 208:

    206 around the twelfth century the

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    208 consecration name of Ciica..ka-

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    210 ut from its occurrences in the

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    It is not probable that all these w

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    214 We also learn that the site of

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    216 communities were Tamils, for it

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    218 te pie, have been definitely id

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    in the area which point in the same

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    settlements here in the period of C

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    224 About a mile away from Kanadarv

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    22 at Polonnaruva As a result we ar

  • Page 229 and 230:

    228 Nakarattr were probably of Kann

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    23 wars against the Cas and had the

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    232 were Tamils. Presumably this pa

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    234 not established in the Battical

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    23U CHAPTER IV STTLEHENTS IN THE TH

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    The first important feature of this

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    240 called Sasa vata, composed in t

  • Page 243 and 244:

    242 record, the general Iti repelle

  • Page 245 and 246:

    244 The conquest of northern Ceylon

  • Page 247 and 248:

    The CUavaida account of the invasio

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    Almost inimediatel after the stroph

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    250 when the author of the Clavaisa

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    established himself at Polonnaruva,

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    254 there is no gainsaying the fact

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    importance of the foreign invasions

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    258 and that the majority of the Si

  • Page 261 and 262:

    260 were among the more iportant re

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    262 In Paranavitana's opinion, 'all

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    264 One could suppose that the nume

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    It may be recollected that several

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    268 Jaffna peninsula does not help

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    It is not possible to identify the

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    1 establishment in the region in ea

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    274 anywhere. This poses a serious

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    27 who were responsible for giving

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    worthy of note in this respect: 278

  • Page 281 and 282:

    280 etymology The account of the se

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    and tenth century some villages in

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    materials for the erection of lasti

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    28G much depreciated as a result of

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    288 etymology which attempts to exp

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    290 earlier traditions from the lat

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    9Q9 Those who went to the island in

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    The accounts in the Vaiy!pal and th

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    29 The Naavaryar (variant: Mauvarya

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    29 that all these castes were repre

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    300 These were evidently named afte

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    from Kpakanu and Pu.ya-inakIpla-ppa

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    301 in our sources. In view of such

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    3OGo. Province, the chieftaincies o

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    307 In l9kl Geiger published an int

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    309 Arier in bewu ten Gegensatz zu

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    311 include in their enumeration. P

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    313 of warriors or tribesmen who we

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    315 of Ceylon. It is even possible

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    317 In Ceylon, the earliest work in

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    319 C!1avasa. Though at first sight

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    321 of Vannis, namely the }iaha-van

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    The Vaiyars of the nineteenth centu

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    32 came into existence independentl

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    In the sources mentioned above Ku.a

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    (c) Co4agai a of the Trincomalee Sa

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    331 and aspired to the kingship of

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    333 enemies had led punitive raids

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    335 alias Co.agafiga whds mention i

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    337 with not only the renovation of

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    33) In the light of the evidence th

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    31 Sinhalese settlements that once

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    343 According to the Kcar-kalveu, K

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    345 Malaiyakam, T4uvai, Toaimatalam

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    347 Ppla Kttiram (Bh' la Gotra) and

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    34J Ukkiraciñka, , as it ap ears i

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    351 as Kantajy, Pakai and Carnpl!r

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    353 in the chronicles of Trincomale

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    35 va (chieftaincies) may be based

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    357 Probably Ki4akkan and possibly

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    35 settle ents of Dravidians that s

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    361 Ceylon by the Dravidians was no

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    1 . structures. A door-jamb from on

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    1 to the Tamil population, as in Ja

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    36/ Chaggxna (Skmam)finda mention i

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    369 The Ker4a origin of this caste

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    meanjn mariners or boatmen As a sea

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    narrated in the Vaiy and the Vaiypa

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    375 presence of Ilukkuva mercenarie

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    37' the rest. Consequently we are n

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    37 xniyam, the Xaliñga ruler (!gha

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    This tradition seems to refer to a

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    383 year 512 (2590 .c.) and underto

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    385 (Mugwiuvaavana), Villattavai (V

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    with Nu&varam in order to give it a

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    egion may have been forced to chang

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    391 The wi e rea occurrence of Tami

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    393 used in the inscription for 'wo

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    From the foregoing analysis it beco

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    Marumakkattyarn laws of Kera.a and

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    399 CHAP!ER VI THE BEGINNINGS OF TH

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    401 part of the ia].and in the four

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    aside these arguments and shown tha

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    405 as well are baaed on the errone

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    the account of Ku!aa in some of the

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    409 resembles in many ways the lion

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    411 bhildren, a son and a daughter.

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    413 and the avvaiapva-ifl!lai. In t

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    and obtained the arid peninsula of

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    derivation of the name and that is

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    ecently, there oceurs the name Subh

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    This statement is evidently due to

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    the basis of certain references in

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    d2 Vra-ca1nika, (Ka1ifikar-ma - Kin

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    427 the inscription. Similarly, the

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    429 P11 chronicle deals mainly with

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    431 an island off the peninsula of

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    433 been suggested that this may be

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    435 obliged to abandon it ' This wo

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    43? This is not quite convincing. D

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    439 and driven away from the Sinhal

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    441 is meant for those who were acc

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    443 almost always in poetry, for a

  • Page 447 and 448: 445 The text of this inscription fr
  • Page 449 and 450: 447 1vaka to be accused of having b
  • Page 451 and 452: have been active in Ceylon in the t
  • Page 453 and 454: 451 inscriptions regarding the even
  • Page 455 and 456: 453 Paranavitana takes JAvagama to
  • Page 457 and 458: 455 No one would say that the latte
  • Page 459 and 460: 457 If, as we have suggested earlie
  • Page 461 and 462: 1 the T mi1 chronicles. 459 1. In h
  • Page 463 and 464: ,.&+ra k.'ro Nia-sagrahaya and the
  • Page 465 and 466: a Ca prince named lit'iki riya, wen
  • Page 467 and 468: 463 The conclusion that Vicaym 1ci
  • Page 469 and 470: 467 denote some connection with the
  • Page 471 and 472: 463 nothing is known about this cit
  • Page 473 and 474: 471 before 1262. As we know, betwee
  • Page 475 and 476: These invaders could not be ousted
  • Page 477 and 478: 473 given protection to the new kin
  • Page 479 and 480: CHAPTER VII 477 THE BEGINNflGS OP T
  • Page 481 and 482: 479 The astronomical details in the
  • Page 483 and 484: 481 Pya I, began his rule in 115 an
  • Page 485 and 486: 483 Of these six inscriptions, four
  • Page 487 and 488: 485 Their inscriptions are not foun
  • Page 489 and 490: 48? produced in Jaffna, the ancesto
  • Page 491 and 492: 489 Ramnad who, as the ally of the
  • Page 493 and 494: 491 Izvaram a sect of Brhm{ns calle
  • Page 495 and 496: 493 the 7katTya kingdom by the Musl
  • Page 497: aii2rir.ii pairuvarai varavalaittu)
  • Page 501 and 502: "4- found in his workAaeema to b•
  • Page 503 and 504: 501 rTraAgam All these ryae of the
  • Page 505 and 506: 503 Te 1c!iRi tluk, in the Tinn.v.1
  • Page 507 and 508: 505 people from ya-nZu These settle
  • Page 509 and 510: nearly ten years after the date of
  • Page 511 and 512: 509 attempting to seize power. Do Q
  • Page 513 and 514: 511 was the case, the invasion of I
  • Page 515 and 516: 513 to historians as the kingdom of
  • Page 517 and 518: 51 and !I.ppam for the kingdoms of
  • Page 519 and 520: 51? Ma4arial is a compound of two w
  • Page 521 and 522: 519 also seen that the aa of the in
  • Page 523 and 524: 521 Dem4a-paaji.ma (Tamil Port) was
  • Page 525 and 526: Jafana-en-putalain as a variant of
  • Page 527 and 528: 525 the island, it was Na11Lr that
  • Page 529 and 530: 527 does not state whether he was a
  • Page 531 and 532: 529 But till very recently there wa
  • Page 533 and 534: 531 that CiA1t2ink,r and flpipafuna
  • Page 535 and 536: 533 to the use of the vT4 flag in C
  • Page 537 and 538: 535 which (lands) end in the River
  • Page 539 and 540: 537 Mracci-r4a has been identified
  • Page 541 and 542: 539 be subordinate territories of i
  • Page 543 and 544: 541 kingdom marks the cul mination
  • Page 545 and 546: 543 in the island in this period. T
  • Page 547 and 548: 545 the invasions of )!gba and the
  • Page 549 and 550:

    541 of the thirteenth century favou

  • Page 551 and 552:

    549 A SELT BIBLIOGRAPUT A, Tami]. I

  • Page 553 and 554:

    551 15. PLTva1iya, ed. A.V.Suravira

  • Page 555 and 556:

    553 IV. Modern Works (Articles on e

  • Page 557 and 558:

    555 2k. Indrapa].a, Karthigesu 'The

  • Page 559 and 560:

    557 k8. Paranavitana, Senarat (cont

  • Page 561 and 562:

    559 57. Taylor, William, Catalowue

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