534 clearly inform us that the couchant bull (nandi) was the emblem oftheJaffna rulersand since it is reasonable to presume that )gha and his associates, who seem to have founded the kingdom, introduced the emblem oftheir home-land, we may conclude that the main emblem oftheJaffna. kingdom was the couchant bu1l The lute flag may also have been used as one ofthe minor banners ofthe kingdom. The exact li'n4t* oftheJaffna kingdom are somewhat difficult to determine with the evidence at our disposal. It is only inthe time ofthe Portuguese occupation that we get proper information ofthe boundaries ofthe various kingdoms. A valuable description ofthe territories oftheJaffna kingdom is given by dc Queyroz:- The modest kingdom is not confined to the little district of Jafanapata, because to it are also added the neighbouring lands, and those ofthe Vani tVanni] which is said. to be the name ofthe Lordship which they held before we obtained possession ofthem, separated from the preceeding (ale) by a salty river, and connected only inthe extremiby or isthmus of Pachalapali accilai-p4aJ , within which were the lands of Balig&mo Tai Ucmam1, Temerache e-marcci) , Bedamrache aa-marccj) , and Pachalapalt }accilai-p4a for ing that pe4nsula, and outside it there stretch the lands ofthe Vani crosswise, from the side of Manar to that of Triquilem.]. rincomaleeJ , being sepaated also from the country of Nantta nt5ffam or Nahtittha] inthe jurisdiction ofthe Captainof Nanr MaIr by the river Paragali; 1. See supra,
535 which (lands) end inthe River ofthe Cross inthe midst ofthe lands ofthe Vanl andof others which stretch as far as Triqnilemal, which according to the map appears to be a large tract of country. These lands are divided into Patue andthe first near the River ofthe Cross is Tanamavaraddi eM mi'a-viiJ , a very fine country, but almost uninhabited because of war, and because it was thenroute of our arrayale, the husbandmen who escaped from the war bet1c1-ng themselves to the woods, leaving ver few for cultivation. Prom thence to the side of I4anar is the Province of Muliauali ufliyav4ai] , which consists of three p8tus, Varcama, Valadadi and )!lpatu. This Province is th. principal one of all the lands ofthe Vant, and is fruitful, though badly peopled on account of war and because it is unhealthy. Next comes Carnaptu tjCarunvai-pattij1 andthe province called Panag.mo krmaiirJ, the ne ofthe Vani who resided there. It consists ofthe P&tu of Urugare andof Valavi which border on the lands of NantSta, and along the coast ofthe sea or gulf ofCeylonthere are the villages of Parangali, Uerauil Punari, and others of lesser importance. 1 This evidence ofthe Portuguese writer is generally corroborated by the Sinhaleae and Tamil works. Prom the references inthe a-vaipava-mlai andthe VaiyIpIal it is clear that the kings ofJaffna directly ruled over the peninsula ofJaffnaandthe adjoining islands. The villages that were assigned, according to the ppj$a_vaipava-ntlai, to the nobles from South India by EMti Ckkaravartti, the first princely ruler ofthe kingdom, are all intheJaffna penlnula andthe adjacent islanda But it is often entioned that the seven Verni chieftaincies outside the peninsula were subordinate territories oftheJaffna kingdoin 1. 7.d. Queyroz, . cit., p. 51. 2. See era, 3. Tm., pp. 38, kO.