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7 months ago

Heterosis of sorghum hybrid developed from local and introduced lines

Abstract Sorghum is a minor crop in Indonesia. The availability of hybrid variety in Indonesia will increase farmer adoption of sorghum as food crop. This study is aimed at obtaining information on combining ability of several IPB breeding lines and introduced lines which are considered as parental lines to develop the first sorghum hybrid variety in Indonesia. The study was conduced for three years from 2012 to 2014, consisted of evaluation of ferformance of Parental lines in acid soil, analysis of combing ability of parental lines and evaluation of heterosis and hybrid performance. The study showed that the B69 and PI-150-21-A lines have good general combining ability for yield and yield component. The introduced line P150-21-A showed a negative SCA value for plant height and could be used to reduced plant height in sorghum hybrids. This study showed that hybrids which have high mid parent heterosis for grain yield/plant were B-69 x Numbu with 72%, PI 150-21-A x Numbu with 66%, PI 150-20-A x Numbu with 63% and PI 10-90-A x Kawali with 62% higher yield compared to the average of the two parents. The hybrid PI 10-90-A x Kawali and B69 x Numbu also showed high high parent heterosis (HPH), which means that the two hybrids have grain yield/plant 33 % and 35% higher than the highest yielding parents. The four hybrids are good candidate for sorghum hybrid varieties with high yield potential.

Int. J. Agri. Agri. R.

Int. J. Agri. Agri. R. made on important nutritional content of sorghum grain over environments in order to select for superior sorghum genotypes with good grain quality (Trikoesoemaningtyas et al. 2005). Acknowledgements This study was funded by a grant from the Ministry of National Education and Culture the Republic of Indonesia, under the International Colaboration and Publication Research Grant Contract no 203/SP2H/PL/ Dit. Litababmas/IV/2012 for Trikoesoemaningtyas. Fehr WR. 1987. Principle of Cultivar Development. Theory and Technique. New York, US. Macmillan. Haussmann BIG, Obilana AB, Ayiecho PO, Blum A, Schipprack W, Geiger HH. 1999. Quantitative genetics parameters of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) grown in semi-arid areas of Kenya. Euphytica (105), 109-118. Hochholdinger F, Hoecker N. 2007. Towards the molecular basis of heterosis. Trends in Plant Science 12(9), 1360-1385. References Acquaah G. 2007. Principles of Plants Genetics and Breeding. Oxford, GB: Blackwell Scientific. Agustina K, Sopandie D, Trikoesoemaningtyas Wirnas D. 2010. Physiological Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Roots to Aluminium Toxicity and Phosphorous Deficiency. (in Indonesian). Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia 38(2). Human S, Andreani S, Sihono, Indriatama WM. 2011. Stability test for Sorghum mutant lines derived from induced mutation with gamma-ray irradiation. Atom Indonesia 37(3), 102-106. Maarouf IM. 2009. Line × tester analysis across locations and years in Sudanese × exotic lines of forage sorghum. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 1(9), 311-319. Assefa Y, Staggenborg SA, Prasad VPV. 2010. Grain Sorghum Water Requirement and Responses to Drought Stress: A Review. Plant Management Network. Online. Crop Management http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CM-2010-1109-01-RV. Premalatha N, Kumaravadivel N, Veerabadhiran P. 2006. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and its components in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Indian J. Genet 66(2), 123-126. Baker RJ. 1978. Issues in diallel analysis. Crop Sci 18, 533-536. [Balitsereal] Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia. 2012. Varietas Numbu dan Kawali (Sorgum). Maros, ID: Balitsereal. Falconer DS, Mackay TFC. 1996. Introduction to Quantitave Genetics 4 th ed. New York, USA. Longman. Farre I, Faci JM. 2006. Comparative response of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L. Moench) to irrigation deficit in a Mediterranean climate. Agricultural Water Management 83(1-2), 135-143. Puspitasari W, Human S, Wirnas D, Trikoesoemaningtyas. 2011. Evaluating Genetic Variability of Sorghum Mutant Lines Tolerant To Acid Soil. Atom Indonesia 38(2). Ratnavathi CV, Patil JV. 2013. Sorghum utilization as food. J Nutr Food Sci. 4(1), 247. Reddy VS, Kumar AA, Reddy PS. 2010. Recent advances in Sorghum improvement research at ICRISAT. Kasersart J (Nat. Sci.) 44, 499-506. Shull GH. 1948. What is Heterosis. Genetics 33, 439. Siles MM, Russell WK, Baltensperger DD, Rini et al. Page 8

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