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# Horticulture Principles and Practices

## Solution: How much of

Solution: How much of ammonium nitrate and treble superphosphate should be applied to achieve the recommended rate? Ammonium nitrate contains 34% N; treble superphosphate contains 45% P 2 O 5 . From example (2), the amount of source to be added to provide 80 kg of N = [80 × 100]/34 = 235 kg of 34-0-0 per hectare. Similarly, for 40 kg of P 2 O 5 = [40 × 100]/45 = 88.9 kg of 0-45-0 kg per hectare. Total of mixture = 235 + 89 = 324 per hectare. To convert from kg per hectare to pounds per acre, multiply by 0.89. 4.4.10 SOIL SALINITY Soil salinity refers to the presence of excessive amounts of soluble salts (Na + ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ , Cl ,SO 2 4 ) in the soil. High soil salinity inhibits water extraction by plants. Plants differ in their tolerance of soil salinity. Soil salinity is more of a problem under hot and dry weather conditions. It is measured in electrical conductivity units (decisiemens per meter or dS/m). Salinity of 0–2 units is tolerable to plants. However, at 4–8, most crops experience yield decreases, whereas at 8–16 or higher, only tolerant plants can produce acceptable yields. The sodium hazard of irrigation water is measured as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), where SAR is calculated as follows: SAR Na Ca 2 Mg 2 Irrigation water that is high in SAR leads to breakdown in soil physical structure. 4.5 SOIL ORGANISMS The soil is teeming with life. Some soil organisms improve the plant environment for good crop growth, whereas others are pests that damage or kill plants. Soil organisms may be divided into several operational groups. 4.5.1 MICROORGANISMS Soil microorganisms (or microbes) include bacteria and fungi, as well as actinomycetes. They perform very useful functions to the benefit of plants. Bacteria, through enzymatic digestion, decompose dead organic material. This action increases the soil’s organic matter content and improves its physical properties. Microbes in the soil are also involved in nutrient cycling processes (such as the nitrogen cycle). Fungi are also important decomposers. In acidic soils, fungi are crucial because they tolerate acidity. The most prominent fungi of interest are the molds and mushrooms. Microbes, although useful, can also be a menace by causing diseases that are responsible for economic loss to producers. 4.5.2 NONARTHROPOD ANIMALS Arthropods are animals with exoskeletons and jointed legs; nonarthropods lack these features. Nonarthropods of horticultural interest are nematodes (roundworms) and 4.5 Soil Organisms 127

earthworms. Nematodes are round, microscopic, and the most abundant animals in soil. Nematodes are parasitic to a wide host of horticultural plants, including tomato, carrot, turfgrass, fruit trees, and ornamentals. They inhabit the roots of their hosts and cause the development of amorphous structures that resemble nodules formed by Rhizobia. These growths not only deform the roots but, more importantly, stifle the growth of plants. Earthworms, on the other hand, have positive roles in relation to soil. They improve soil water infiltration and aeration by their earth-moving activities and increase the organic matter content of the soil through the plant materials they drag into the holes they dig. They are important in lawns, because they feed on the thatch (dead plant material on the soil surface) that builds up with the mowing of lawns. Earthworms thrive in areas that are moist and high in organic matter, avoiding dry and acidic soils. 4.5.3 ARTHROPOD ANIMALS Examples of arthropods (animals with exoskeletons and jointed legs) of importance to horticulture include termites, millipedes, centipedes, butterflies, ants, grubs, and other insects. Termites improve drainage of the soil by the pore spaces they create. Ants and termites are also earth movers like earthworms, except that these insects can move huge quantities of material from within the soil to the surface, creating unsightly hills in lawns. Grubs are a menace in lawns because they feed on grass roots, causing dead spots to appear. 4.5.4 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS Soil-inhabiting vertebrate animals include rodents, such as ground squirrels, mice, gophers, and rabbits. They are known for their earth-moving activities, some of which can create unsightly structures. However, the holes they burrow help in soil drainage. Rodents can ravage crops in the field, which results in economic loss for the grower. 4.6 SOIL AIR A typical mineral soil, as previously indicated, consists of 25 percent air. Air is required for respiration by plant roots. Waterlogged conditions cause pore spaces to be filled with water and thus force plants to respire anaerobically (respiration in the absence of oxygen). Seeds require oxygen for germination. Clay soils are very susceptible to poor soil aeration, whereas sandy soils are well aerated. To improve aeration of clay soils, crops may be planted on raised beds, which helps to drain the soil pore spaces so that air can occupy them. Vegetables such as tomato and pea are susceptible to oxygen deficiency, which occurs in soils that are water saturated. These plants wilt and eventually die if the situation is not promptly corrected. Soil oxygen levels of less than about 10 to 12 percent are stressful to most plants. Plants such as water lilies have adaptive structures for respiration under water. Crops grown in water as a medium require aeration to aid in root respiration. Air is also required for decomposition of organic matter by soil bacteria (Chapter 22). Under waterlogged conditions, plant materials do not decompose properly and form materials such as peat (partially decomposed organic matter). 128 Chapter 4 Plant Growth Environment 4.7 SOIL TEMPERATURE Temperature regulates the rates of all chemical reactions. Plant roots do not grow when the soil temperature is 5°C (41°F) or colder. Even though small grains can germinate at

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HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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With love to Theresa, quarterback;

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Brief Contents Preface xxi PART 1 T

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Contents Preface xxi PART 1 THE UND

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5.3 PLANT GROWTH PROCESSES 160 5.4

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8.20 COMMON GREENHOUSE DISEASES 276

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12.3 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

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PART 6 Summary 541 References and S

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22.18 INDOOR COMPOSTING SYSTEMS 668

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Preface Horticulture is the area of

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful

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PART 1 THE UNDERLYING SCIENCE CHAPT

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1 What Is Horticulture? PURPOSE AND

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(a) (c) (b) (d) FIGURE 1-1 The many

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FIGURE 1 Bridge. The plaza view of

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CYCADS Many people mistake these pr

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FIGURE 2 The world's largest unbran

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FIGURE 2 Sold flowers are loaded on

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FIGURE 1-4 Formal landscaping featu

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1.4 ROLEOFTHENURSERY AND SEED INDUS

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1.5 HORTICULTURE AND SOCIETY Hortic

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TABLE 1-3 U.S. Horticultural Export

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Turfgrass Operation 1. Landscape te

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What Is Horticulture? This site pro

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Examples of botanical gardens http:

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2 Classifying and Naming Horticultu

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Eight major taxa are commonly used

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TABLE 2-3 The Divisions of the King

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HISTORY OF PLANT TAXONOMY PAUL R. F

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AGE OF HERBALISTS Two major events

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possible system of nomenclature. Ho

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TABLE 1 Type Categories for Plant N

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2.3 OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS (O

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2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trun

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Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Drupe B

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FIGURE 2-14 A pome, represented by

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2.3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

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(a) (b) FIGURE 2-22 (Source: George

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FIGURE 2-25 A narrowleaf plant. (So

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FIGURE 2-29 Parts of a typical gras

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such as rosemary, sage, thyme, marj

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c. Leaves d. Bulbs 2. Cut across (t

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Whole plant Organs FIGURE 3-1 Level

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ibonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, an

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called cristae; this extreme foldin

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By virtue of its position, the prim

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Phloem Tissue Structurally, phloem

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(a) Stalk (b) Culm FIGURE 3-5 Cross

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Scale Compressed stem (a) Whole bul

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• Page 106 and 107: FIGURE 3-22 Selected common leaf ma
• Page 108 and 109: FIGURE 3-25 Selected common leaf ti
• Page 110 and 111: absorption of water and minerals fr
• Page 112 and 113: Outer bark Inner bark FIGURE 3-37 T
• Page 114 and 115: Anther Filament Stamen FIGURE 3-41
• Page 116 and 117: Exocarp Parts of a typi- FIGURE 3-4
• Page 118 and 119: PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LABORATORY 1.
• Page 120 and 121: 4.1 CLIMATE, WEATHER, AND HORTICULT
• Page 122 and 123: concentration in the atmosphere.A c
• Page 124 and 125: TABLE 4-1 Climatic Adaptation of Se
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• Page 128 and 129: Rate of photosynthesis mg/sq. dm/hr
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• Page 132 and 133: times of the year. Growers start th
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• Page 136 and 137: TABLE 4-7 Soil Mineral Nutrients Es
• Page 138 and 139: Micronutrients (Trace Elements) Mic
• Page 140 and 141: Neutral FIGURE 4-11 A representatio
• Page 142 and 143: 4.4 FERTILIZERS Fertilizer sources
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• Page 146 and 147: Chlorosis (the yellowing of green l
• Page 148 and 149: Fertilizers may be applied before p
• Page 150 and 151: It is neither practical nor safe to
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• Page 156 and 157: Cellulose sponge Perched water tabl
• Page 158 and 159: Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation Water
• Page 160 and 161: FIGURE 4-19 Furrow irrigation of le
• Page 162 and 163: can self-install an underground irr
• Page 164 and 165: 1. Surface drainage. Surface draina
• Page 166 and 167: Secondary Tillage Primary tillage i
• Page 168 and 169: (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 4-20 (Source
• Page 170 and 171: texture. The most commonly used gra
• Page 172 and 173: TABLE 4-11 Selected Standard Mixes
• Page 174 and 175: Steam Pasteurization Steam pasteuri
• Page 176 and 177: Maracher, H. 1986. Mineral nutritio
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• Page 180 and 181: Growth in an organism follows a cer
• Page 182 and 183: 5.1.2 THE ROLE OF SIGNALS IN GROWTH
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• Page 192 and 193: TABLE 5-2 Energy Produced from Aero
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FIGURE 5-13 Ripening of plantain sh

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Terminal bud removed Unbranched pla

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conditions—pertaining to light, m

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them to maturity. The major process

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6 Breeding Horticultural Plants PUR

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Similarly, there can be no plant br

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APPLICATION, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPE

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hit with target DNA. Therefore, it

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Generally, within ten days of exper

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Aziz A.N., Sauve R.J., Zhou S., 200

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(b) F 1 Rr Rr round round F 2 RR R

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e.g., Aa × Aa), the lethal allele

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eeder’s equation. Simply stated,

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Before the seed or product becomes

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6.18.2 THE GENERAL STEPS OF RDNA TE

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2. Political disagreement. There ar

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PART 2 PROTECTING HORTICULTURAL PLA

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7 Biological Enemies of Horticultur

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8. Weeds may clog drains, waterways

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is also a root parasite that obtain

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LEGISLATIVE Both state and federal

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Example Integrated cultural, physic

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7.4.2 IMPORTANT INSECT ORDERS Insec

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Egg FIGURE 7-3 Life cycle of an ins

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sucking insects (also found with so

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FIGURE 7-12 Corn earworm damage. (S

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TABLE 7-1 Selected Fungal Diseases

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7.6.1 SMALL ANIMALS Rabbits, mice,

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FIGURE 7-16 The disease triangle. P

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fungitoxic exudates in its leaves,

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SUMMARY Insects are a major class o

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For the home growers or those who c

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for consumers and the environment).

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TABLE 8-1 Strategy 4: Strategies an

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gibberellic acid spray overcomes st

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In a competitive industry, a variet

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2. Pesticide management. Controllin

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Every organism has its natural enem

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TABLE 8-3 Selected Examples of Biol

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1 2 YEAR 3 4 FIGURE 8-5 cycle. A cr

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6. Heat treatment. In the greenhous

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Organic Compounds (Organics) Organi

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under enclosed conditions (e.g., wa

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FIGURE 8-9 A tractor-mounted spraye

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8.11.9 LANDSCAPE PESTS AND THEIR CO

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application, a particular herbicide

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Further, they do not provide unifor

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SUMMARY Herbicides are chemicals us

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Sulfur may be applied for both prev

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8.23 PREVENTING GREENHOUSE DISEASES

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PART 3 PROPAGATING HORTICULTURAL PL

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9 Sexual Propagation PURPOSE AND EX

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Anther Microspore Megaspore mother

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Lettuce seeds Red light Darkness Fa

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FEDERAL AND STATE SEED LAWS Federal

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Germination Test In laboratory prac

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FIGURE 15 The essential structures

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processing into flour or meal). How

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physiologically immature seeds must

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seeds may be treated in this way be

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The two basic modes of seedling eme

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locations in the field. Home garden

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FIGURE 9-9 A plastic flat. (Source:

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(a) (b) FIGURE 9-12 (a) Sowing seed

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y the gardener or grower. Whatever

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species enables vegetative propagat

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for rapid rooting. There are two ba

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Cutting involving one node (e.g., s

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This practice is especially importa

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10.6.4 STICKING THE CUTTING Cutting

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(a) Indexing by budding Diseased pl

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10.11 M ETHODS OF GRAFTING Grafting

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Scion Wax FIGURE 10-17 Steps in bar

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MODULE 3 BUDDING 10.12 TYPES OF BUD

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MODULE 4 LAYERING 10.13 TYPES OF LA

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Buried part of shoot is nicked FIGU

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variety of ways. In air layering, a

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FIGURE 10-34 by using cormels. Prop

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Psuedobulbs In the Dendrobium orchi

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The technique is used widely in cro

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PART 4 GROWING PLANTS INDOORS CHAPT

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11 Growing Houseplants PURPOSE AND

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TABLE 11-1 Common houseplants Commo

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Window Displays Plants in windows e

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CONTAINER GARDENS DR. TERRI W. STAR

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annuals and hardy perennial species

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of the large container filled with

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perfection about four to six weeks

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FIGURE 11-6 Flowers displayed on th

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TABLE 11-5 Plant Selected Plants fo

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The lighting condition near these w

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Fluorescent Lights Fluorescent ligh

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may be used for one pot or a group

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garden rooms, atriums, or a large c

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The photoperiod affects when the ho

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patted firm to keep the plant erect

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Other Materials Apart from clay and

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(a) ( FIGURE 11-25 Support for plan

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TABLE 11-7 Common Problems of House

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• Keep soil moist all the time

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• Prefers high temperatures • P

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amount and quality of light. If sup

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12 Controlled-Environment Horticult

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6. Curvilinear 7. Curved eave 8. Do

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Detached greenhouses have several a

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12.2.3 FRAME DESIGN There are two b

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Texas, Hawaii, and California. The

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source of heat for times when the t

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FIGURE 12-17 Greenhouse production

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FIGURE 12-21 Moving tables allowing

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Research program on greenhouse engi

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greenhouses equipped with a variety

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FIGURE 1 Annual energy required per

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This system was demonstrated in a 5

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FIGURE 6 Amounts of waste energy ut

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Ekholt, B.A., D.R. Mears, M.S. Gini

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or object to be warmed. Failure to

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objects in its path (e.g., the floo

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FIGURE 12-27 Motorized ventilation

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FIGURE 12-33 A high pressure sodium

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Source of Water The quality of loca

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Intermittent Feed Greenhouse plants

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However, in winter, greenhouse vent

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OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. Explain the

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. Foliage or green plants. Foliage

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2. Labor. The size of the labor for

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FIGURE 13-1 Greenhouse production o

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FIGURE 13-2 Lettuce plug is inserte

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13.8.4 AGGREGATE HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS

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(a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13-6 Plug produc

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14 Growing Succulents PURPOSE AND E

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FIGURE 14-3 Leaf succulent represen

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frost-hardy. Their rosettes are usu

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TABLE 14-1 Plant Selected Popular S

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(a) (b) FIGURE 14-12 Typical bromel

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14.7.1 WHAT ARE CACTI? 14.7 CACTI C

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FIGURE 14-16 Opuntia. (Source: Crai

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FIGURE 14-23 Mammillaria. (Source:

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FIGURE 14-28 Both desert and jungle

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Growing mix Gravel Cacti (a) (b) FI

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PART5 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: ORNA

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15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOS

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8. Create recreational grounds. Suc

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knowledge, with concern for resourc

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(a) (b) (c) FIGURE 15-2 The occurre

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GUIDELINES FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN DAV

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the landscape. Some very successful

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Rhythm and Line Panoramic view of a

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FIGURE 15-10 A formal garden. The e

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How frequently do they entertain? A

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the patio should be located on the

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15.7.1 SELECTING PLANTS A homeowner

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Plant Arrangement in the Landscape

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Shadow FIGURE 15-15 Planting a tree

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SUMMARY Landscaping enhances the su

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3. Supply materials on a timely bas

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such as preparation rooms (for mixi

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of environmental fluctuations. Furt

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FIGURE 16-4 A bare-root tree seedli

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17 Installation of the Landscape PU

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for walks, driveways, and patios (F

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Planting may be limited to accentin

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17.3.3 PREPARING THE BED The soil s

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FIGURE 17-4 Bedding plants raised i

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SUMMARY Bedding plants are largely

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TABLE 17-6 Selected Ground Covers T

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TABLE 17-7 Selected Ornamental Gras

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they determine the success and surv

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12. Wildlife attraction. Trees in t

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pennsylvanica), hackberry (Celtis s

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y winds. A stake, which is often a

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TABLE 17-8 Selected Narrowleaf Ever

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TABLE 17-11 Selected Deciduous Shru

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Blooming bushes 1. Blue mist shrub

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Planting Bulblets and Bulbils Speci

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may be divided such that each secti

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FIGURE 18-1 (Source: George Acquaah

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Cool-Season (Temperate) Grasses In

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Growth Habit Turfgrasses are the mo

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Heavy Use Lawns on playgrounds and

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The seed should be free from weeds

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Source of Sod As with seed, sod sup

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A plug of sod FIGURE 18-7 Plugging

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way, plants are able to adapt to th

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form of a can placed on the lawn wi

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TABLE 18-3 Some Common Lawn and Tur

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even surface soil surface for layin

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Pruning is sometimes done in conjun

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4. Pruning may be done to reduce th

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19.4.2 SAWS A saw may be designed t

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defeat the purpose of pruning. The

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Bud withers as cut end dries back d

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19.6 STRATEGIES FOR PRUNING ABOVEGR

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Rejuvenation Pruning Cut canes to a

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3. In the third and subsequent year

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(a) Cut Prune (b) FIGURE 19-16 Step

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Eucalyptus and Paulownia are amenab

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TRAINING & PRUNING DECIDUOUS FRUIT

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Summer pruning eliminates an energy

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a) b) FIGURE 2 Newly planted apple

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FIGURE 6 Wooden limb spreaders can

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FIGURE 9. An apple tree trained to

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years to promote continued lateral

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Horizontal Espalier The horizontal

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19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are

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FIGURE 19-26 Shearing of Christmas

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pyramid-like form that is wider at

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After selecting the appropriate spe

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PART 6 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: VEG

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20 Growing Vegetables Outdoors PURP

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The National Agricultural Statistic

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(This item omitted from WebBook edi

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growers should take to determine an

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pests and reduce/ eliminate hail da

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square yard (10 to 68 grams per squ

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High tunnels help increase the prof

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(This item omitted from WebBook edi

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20.4 VEGETABLE MARKET TYPES Fresh V

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Establishing the Crop Planting into

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home water supply from the tap. Thi

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Cole crop Cabbage Root Potato Bean

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variable, ranging from creamy yello

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There are two general production pr

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This toxin is heat resistant and no

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large, or jumbo. The bulb may be sw

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REFERENCES Growing selected vegetab

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TABLE 21-1 Popular Herbs and Their

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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 21-1

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22 Organic Farming PURPOSE AND EXPE

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22.3 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING

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and the specific materials to be us

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22.8 MANAGING SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY

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preemergent or early postemergent o

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Composting is a deliberate activity

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22.14.5 THE CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATI

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Moisture Supply Water is required b

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Compost materials FIGURE 22-4 a wir

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As microbial decomposition proceeds

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Establishment and Management of an

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night, freezing can occur in spring

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accomplished by stratification. It

• Page 702 and 703:

transmitted by the dagger nematode

• Page 704 and 705:

PART 7 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND HANDL

• Page 706 and 707:

24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PU

• Page 708 and 709:

to more than four-fold in standard

• Page 710 and 711:

Temperature and Humidity Wilting re

• Page 712 and 713:

FLORAL DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW BY WM. J

• Page 714 and 715:

Principle Definition Types (or Uses

• Page 716 and 717:

pH value-a measure of the acidity o

• Page 718 and 719:

FIGURE 6 Parallel Design-Parallel d

• Page 720 and 721:

24.3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS The tool

• Page 722 and 723:

3. Establish the focal point. 4. Ad

• Page 724 and 725:

Natural Drying To dry naturally, fl

• Page 726 and 727:

24.4.3 DRIED FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS Dr

• Page 728 and 729:

25 Terrarium Culture PURPOSE AND EX

• Page 730 and 731:

FIGURE 25-3 Terrarium containers ar

• Page 732 and 733:

FIGURE 25-5 Assortment of tools use

• Page 734 and 735:

25.6.7 ENHANCING THE DISPLAY Certai

• Page 736 and 737:

(a) (b) FIGURE 26-1 Bonsai can be c

• Page 738 and 739:

TABLE 26-3 Plant A Selection of Pop

• Page 740 and 741:

26.3.1 COLLECTING BONSAI PLANTS FRO

• Page 742 and 743:

Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26-9

• Page 744 and 745:

26.5.2 SANITATION It is critical to

• Page 746 and 747:

27 Postharvest Handling and Marketi

• Page 748 and 749:

whereas oranges are picked (they ha

• Page 750 and 751:

(b) (a) (c) (d) (e1) (e2) (f) FIGUR

• Page 752 and 753:

To reduce packaging injury, contain

• Page 754 and 755:

is replaced by the by-product of re

• Page 756 and 757:

Stored produce may lose some color,

• Page 758 and 759:

with pricing. When selling by volum

• Page 760 and 761:

(a) (b) FIGURE 27-5 Horticultural p

• Page 762 and 763:

APPENDIX A Temperature: Converting

• Page 764 and 765:

APPENDIX B Metric Conversion Chart

• Page 766 and 767:

APPENDIX D Common and Scientific Na

• Page 768 and 769:

Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Peony (Pa

• Page 770 and 771:

GLOSSARY A Abaxial Turned away from

• Page 772 and 773:

Cellulose A complex carbohydrate th

• Page 774 and 775:

Floriculture The science and practi

• Page 776 and 777:

M Macronutrient An essential elemen

• Page 778 and 779:

Root cap A mass of hard cells cover

• Page 780 and 781:

INDEX A-frame, 395 A-horizon, 108 A

• Page 782 and 783:

defined, 390 fertilization, 432-434

• Page 784 and 785:

• Page 786 and 787:

color plate 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) M

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color plate 3 (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (

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color plate 5 (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (

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color plate 7 (b) (c) (d) (a) (e) (

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color plate 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (

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color plate 11 (a) (c) (b) (d) Grow

• Page 798 and 799:

color plate 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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color plate 15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

• Page 802 and 803:

color plate 17 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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color plate 19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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color plate 21 (a) (b) (c) (e) (d)

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color plate 23 (c) (b) (a) (d) (e)

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color plate 25 (c) (a) (b) (d) (e)

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color plate 27 (a1) (a2) (b2) (b1)

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color plate 29 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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color plate 31 (a) (b) (c) Floral d

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