SUMMARY Insects are a major class of horticultural pests both indoors and outdoors. The economically important insect orders that affect plants are Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera. Some insects chew, whereas others suck, during feeding. Some insects attack stored products. Important insect pests include aphids, fruit flies, and corn earworms. Spider mites (not true insects) are common pests of horticultural importance. Plant diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma-like organisms. Most infectious plant diseases are caused by fungi. Bacterial diseases of horticultural plants are few. Other animal pests include birds, rodents, and nematodes. REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Agnos, G. N. 1988. Plant pathology. New York: Academic Press. Bohmont, B. L. 1997. The standard pesticide user’s guide. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Brooklyn Botanical Garden. 2000. Natural disease control: A common-sense approach to plant first aid. Handbook #164. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Inc., 1000 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, NY. Cravens, R. H. 1977. Pests and diseases. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life. Dixon, G. R. 1981. Vegetable crop diseases. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing. Ellis, B., and F. Bradley. 1996. The organic gardener’s handbook of natural insect and disease control. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press. Gilberg, L. (ed.). 1993. Garden pests and diseases. Sunset Books. Sunset Publishing Corporation, CA. Klingman, G. C., F. M. Ashton, and L. J. Noordhoff. 1982. Weed science: Principlesand practices, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Olkowski, W., S. Daar, and H. Olkowski. 1995. The gardener’ guide to common-sense pest control. The Tauton Press, USA. Prone, P. 1978. Diseases and pests of ornamental plants, 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Ware, G. W. 1988. Complete guide to pest control, 2d ed. Fresno, Calif.: Thomson Publications. Horticultural pests http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Entomology/entfacts/efveg.htm Houseplant pests http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/insect/05595.html Viral diseases of plants with photos http://plantpathology.tamu.edu/Texlab/Multicrop/virus.html OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. What is a weed? 2. Why is it important to control weeds in horticultural production? 3. Prior to implementing a pest control plan, it is important to know the life-cycle of the pest. Why is this so? 4. Give a specific reason why viral infections commonly do not kill infected plants. 5. Discuss the concept of the disease triangle. 6. Explain the gene-for-gene concept in the understanding of disease incidence in pants. 7. Distinguish between vertical and horizontal disease resistance. 8. The mere presence of a pathogen does not warrant the implementation of pest control. Explain. Outcomes Assessment 239
8 Principlesand Methods of Disease and Pest Control PURPOSE AND EXPECTED OUTCOMES This chapter is designed to classify the methods of disease and pest control and discuss the rationale behind their use, their effectiveness, and the environmental consequences of their use. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to 1. Discuss the general principles of pest control. 2. Discuss the rationale behind each of the four control strategies. 3. Classify pesticides. 4. Classify insecticides. 5. Classify herbicides. 6. Discuss the strategies for the safe and effective use of herbicides. 7. Describe the equipment used in the application of pesticides. 8. Describe the pros and cons of each pest-control strategy. 240 OVERVIEW In Chapter 6, we learned that the expressed phenotype depends on the genotype (the kinds of genes) and the environment in which the genes are expressed (P G E). The environment (E) should not be limited to the growth factors (light, moisture, temperature, and nutrients), even though these are the essential components. Biological competitors in the general environment may compete with useful plants for these growth substances to the detriment of the latter or destroy tissues and interrupt physical and developmental functions of cultivated plants. In terms of the environment, some of these competitors are native, or endemic, to particular areas. Others are imported by a variety of modes. Diseases and pests must be controlled because they cause economic loss to a horticultural operation. The loss may come as a result of 1. Increased cost of production (additional inputs) 2. Decreased yield 3. Decreased quality
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