FIGURE 9–9 A plastic flat. (Source: George Acquaah) FIGURE 9–10 A cavity seeding tray. (Source: George Acquaah) covered with the appropriate soil mix and then transferred to a nursery where, under conditions of appropriate moisture, temperature, and light, the seeds are nursed to the size ready for sale. Seedlings are sold in units called packs. Homeowners and other growers who do not wish to raise their own seedlings find these packs a very convenient source of planting materials. Since seedlings have individual cells in the pack, they are easier to transplant. Peat Pots and Discs Peat pots are made of compressed sphagnum peat moss and newspaper fiber. They are biodegradable, and, as such, when used as material for containers for seed germination, the containers are planted directly along with the seedling. Peat pots are usually treated with a fungicide and nitrogen fertilizer to aid in germination (Figure 9–11). A grower may also find it convenient to use a compressed peat moss disk for starting certain seeds (Figure 9–11). The advantage of this method of raising seedlings is that the seedling can be directly transplanted without removing it from the moss medium. If desired, a grower can purchase a simple mechanical unit for making homemade seedling blocks for raising seedlings. These blocks work similarly to peat moss disks. Seedlings raised in this way can be easily transplanted with a ball of soil, which increases transplanting success. Sometimes, peat pots may be used for raising seedlings. Peat Moss Disks Compressed peat moss disks used to start seeds or root cuttings and planted with the seedlings. 9.15.2 TIMING OF SEEDING Horticulture, as previously indicated, is a science, art, and business. Timeliness of operation is crucial for success, especially if production is geared toward a seasonal or holiday market. If you want to produce pumpkins for Halloween, you must know the date for the event, the duration of growth for pumpkins, and when you should sell for maximum profit (definitely before the event); you can then decide when to plant the crop. Some horticultural products have year-round markets. 9.15.3 SEED TREATMENT Most ornamental seeds are not pretreated by the seed production company. If properly produced, no pretreatment may be necessary for seeds. However, pretreatment with a fungicide is helpful in protecting against soilborne diseases. 9.15 Seed Nursery Activities 305
FIGURE 9–11 Seedlings can be raised in compressed (a) peat disks or (b) peat pots (Source: For (b) George Acquaah) Dry compressed peat disk or pellet (a) Seed emerging from expanded medium after soaking in water Seedling ready for planting (b) 306 Chapter 9 Sexual Propagation 9.15.4 SOWING SEEDS The seed packet displays a variety of information, including the name of the cultivars and directions for production (sowing, spacing, care, and maturity). When in doubt, always consult the instructions on seed packets. The soil surface should be of fine tilth. Instead of broadcasting over the entire soil surface, seeds should be planted in rows. This strategy helps in transplanting the seedlings. A number of shallow grooves should be made by placing a straightedge on top of the soil and drawing a line with a finger or stick. If the seeds are not too small, they can be evenly distributed in the grooves. With care, the seeds can also be distributed fairly evenly in the grooves by tilting the opened packet and gently tapping it as it is moved along the groove. A simple handheld seed planter, a folded paper, or even the seed envelope itself may be used to drill seeds (Figure 9–12). Most seeds must be covered lightly after sowing (Figure 9–13). This covering may be part of the germination medium or other material such as shredded sphagnum moss. Fine seeds (e.g., petunia and begonia) are best left uncovered to be washed down with water during watering. Since a flat may contain rows of different plant species or cultivars, it is a good practice to always label each different item with a plastic label that indicates the plant name, cultivar, and date of planting. Some seed companies enclose labels in their packages. Some growers simply invert the empty packet over a stake that marks the rows sown to a particular cultivar. However, sometimes the paper rots under repeated watering or may be blown away by wind. Use indelible or water-insoluble ink in writing the label.
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The successful systems based formula for teaching financial accounting that gained such academic acclaim in its first and second editions, is back! Financial Accounting remains the student s favourite! The third edition is more streamlined, more user friendly and even more accessible. An in-depth, worked example from an actual partnership, brings alive for students the accounting issues involved in partnerships, a required topic of accreditation. Financial Accounting is based on a threefold approach: an organizational flow-model is used to locate financial accounting in its organizational context; this model is then used to derive a systematic logical approach to financial accounting and the construction of the financial statements; and the text attempts to forge a firm link between the traditional diet of introductory financial accounting and the wider issues of accounting theory. Financial Accounting is the ideal text for undergraduate Accounting students.
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