TABLE 17–11 Selected Deciduous Shrubs Plant Hardiness Zone Low to medium growing Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster horizontalis) 5–9 Daphne (Daphne genkwa) 5–8 Cinquefoil (Potentilla fruiticosa) 2–8 Abelia (Abelia grandiflora) 6–8 Flowering almond (Prunus glandulosa) 4–8 Butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) 6–9 Barberry (Barberis thunbergi) 6–9 High growing Arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) 3–7 Cranberry bush (Viburnum opulus) 3–8 Lilac, Chinese (Syringa chinensis) 5–7 Bottlebrush buckeye (Aesculus parviflora) 5–8 Mock orange (Philadelphus spp.) 6–9 Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) 4–8 17.19 USING SHRUBS IN THE LANDSCAPE Unlike trees, shrubs are not grown for shade. Structurally, they provide bulk and mass in the landscape. Shrubs may be grouped into three size classes (Table 17–11): 1. Small: less than 3 feet (1 meter) 2. Medium: 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 meters) 3. Large: 6 to 12 feet (3 to 6 meters) As with trees, when including shrubs in the landscape, the appropriate size should be selected so that at maturity the plant will not overwhelm the building. Small- and mediumsized shrubs are suited to traditional uses; large species fit best in commercial landscapes. Shrubs and trees have some common uses. Shrubs and trees are major flowering species that add color to the landscape. Their leaves vary in shape, size, and color, and they also influence the texture of the landscape design. Many shrubs produce attractive fall colors, and fruiting types attract wildlife. In addition, many shrubs produce fragrant flowers. Other functional uses include hedges, screens, erosion control on slopes, foundation plantings, and background material in the landscape. They are readily massed and pruned to form a contiguous plant wall or hedge. The lower branches and some of the multiple stems may be removed so that one trunk is trained to give the shrub the appearance of a tree. 17.20 SHRUBS, BUSHES, AND VINES WITH ATTRACTIVE FALL COLORS Selecting plants for the landscape should be made according to the USDA plant hardiness zone classification. There is a wide variety of plants with dazzling fall colors for all the regions. However, there are several with spectacular colors that stand out among the rest. These include: 1. Burning bush (Euonymus alatus)—There are several varieties of this species, the ‘Rudy Haag’ variety being one of the most attractive. This dwarf bush stands 17.20 Shrubs, Bushes, and Vines with Attractive Fall Colors 535
3–5 feet tall and spreads the same length. In spite of its beauty, the plant is actually classified as an invasive species and must be kept in check in the landscape. To optimal color development, the plant must be properly watered and grown in sunny locations. 2. Sumac (Rhus spp.)—The name sumac conjures up negative images because it has both toxic and nontoxic species. The staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is a very tall bush, while smooth sumac (R. glabra) is shorter, reaching about 10 feet. The fall colors of the varieties include reds, maroon, and gold. 3. Forthergilla (Fothergilla major)—This is a white-flowered, sun-loving shrub with a pleasant fragrance, reaching a height of 6–10 feet. Its fall colors include yellow, orange, and scarlet. 4. Spirea (Spiraea betulifolia)—The ‘Tor’ variety of this shrub stands as tall as it is wide, reaching 2–3 feet. It produces white flowers in spring, but in fall its dark green foliage changes color to red. 5. Black viburnum (Viburnum prunifolium)—This shrub can attain a height of 12–15 feet, and produces white flowers in spring. In fall, it changes color from purple to reddish-bronze to crimson. 6. Oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia)—These species attains a height of 4–6 feet and about the same spread. It is partially shade-tolerant, bearing white flowers in summer that fade to pinkish-brown in fall, along with foliage that changes color to purple, orange, and red. 7. Oriental or American bittersweet vines (Celastrus orbiculatus)—The former is an invasive species. A striking feature of the bittersweet plants is the spectacular morphing over the seasons. In summer, they bear green berries that turn yellow in early fall, as the foliage starts to change color as well. As the fall season advances the yellow husk of the fruit peels back to reveal an orange berry as the foliage turns bright yellow. 8. Red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia)—This shrub attains a height of 6–10 feet and spreads 3–5 feet. It bears white flowers in early spring that change to red berries in summer. In fall, the berries change to deep purple. 9. Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) —This vine is relatively easy to grow. The caution with this vine is that, once it attaches to the wall, it is difficult to get rid of it. Consequently, unless one wants to have this permanently on the wall, it should not be grown near a building. In fall, its leaves change color from green to red and then burgundy. 10. Viking black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)—The ‘Viking’ variety of this shrub produces white flowers in spring. It reaches a height of about 3–5 feet and about the same spread. In fall, its foliage changes color from red to purple. It produces dark, purplish berries that persist through fall, attracting birds into the landscape. Other shrubs and vines with great fall foliage and flowers include: Attractive foliage 1. Barberry (Berberis spp.)—This shrub is adapted to zones 4–8. They produce red and yellow foliage with berries in fall. 2. Clethra (Clethra spp.)—Adapted to zones 3–8, these plants change foliage color to yellow or orange. 3. Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica)—It produces red foliage and is adapted to zones 6–9. 4. Winged euonymus (Euonymus spp.)—This plant is adapted to zones 3–8 and produces red foliage in fall. 5. Ornamental grape (Vitis spp.)—This vine is adapted to zones 5–9 and produces burgundy foliage in fall. 536 Chapter 17 Installation of the Landscape
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