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Horticulture Principles and Practices

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accomplished by stratification. It entails mixing seed with a moisture-holding material such as peat, sawdust, or even sand. These materials are also porous enough for aeration. The mixture is then held at a cool temperature in storage for the appropriate duration according to the plant species. Plum and apple seeds require stratification at 1 to 5°C (34 to 40°F) for about 60 to 90 days, while peach is stratified for 75 to 100 days at 0 to 7°C (32 to 45°F). Black walnut and hickory may be stratified at 1 to 10°C (33 to 50°F) for about 60 to 90 days. Certain seeds experience a delay in germination caused by a hard seed coat. In this instance, the seed may be soaked in hot water (or dropped in boiling water momentarily), mechanically scratched (scarification), or soaked in sulfuric acid. 23.5 THE ANNUAL CYCLE OF A FRUIT TREE A temperate fruit tree undergoes a certain developmental cycle during which a number of physiological and developmental changes occur. These changes are influenced by the environment. In winter, fruit trees enter a dormant period that affects seeds and buds. This type of dormancy, endodormancy, is caused by certain internal, physiological mechanisms. Upon exposure to cold temperature, the dormancy is effectively broken. This winter chilling requirement is essential for the plant to be prepared for proper development when spring arrives. For most fruit trees, the winter chilling requirement temperature is 7°C (45°F) or lower. The duration of chilling varies both within and among species. Springtime brings the warm temperatures and heat units needed for the dormant buds that have been successfully winter chilled to develop into either flowers or shoots. At some point during the growth cycle of the tree, the flowers become pollinated, fertilized, and then produce fruits. Many trees have an inherent capacity to self-regulate the load of fruits borne during the season by the process of self-thinning. Excessive blossoms as well as fruit drop occur at certain times. However, species such as apple and peach are ineffective in self-thinning. Generally, fruits require seed development for fruits to set properly. As previously indicated, fruits differ in growth pattern. Apple development follows the classic sigmoid curve, while peach development follows the double sigmoid curve. Flower buds for the next year’s crop are formed in mid- and late summer. Deciduous fruits generally follow this pattern. The environmental conditions must be appropriate for the desired number of fruiting branches to be formed. An unfavorable condition may cause most buds to develop into vegetative buds. Fruit tree flowers are generally perfect. However, fruits such as walnut and pecan are monoecious. Endodormancy starts in the late fall, and plants remain in this state until winter chilling occurs to break the dormancy. 23.6 SPACING FRUIT TREES The proper spacing among trees in an orchard is determined by the following: 1. The adult size of the plant. Trees grow slowly but eventually occupy a significant amount of space. It is important to know what size the plant will ultimately attain before deciding on plant spacing for the orchard. 2. Rootstock. Certain rootstocks, as previously discussed, have the capacity to affect the size of the fruiting cultivar. While some rootstocks have a dwarfing effect (e.g., M9 in apple), others, such as MM1110, enhance the growth of the flowering cultivar. 23.6 Spacing Fruit Trees 675

3. Growing environment. The growing environment determines how much of the plant’s potential will be achieved in cultivation. Under conditions of proper temperature, high soil fertility, and adequate moisture, plants generally grow large. 4. Predetermined planting density. In terms of tree density, three strategies of planting are adopted in orchards. Stone fruits and nuts are highly productive under a lowdensity planting strategy (with a plant population of about 250 trees per hectare [100 trees per acre]). Using dwarfing rootstocks enables the grower to increase plant density because of the size-reducing effect of the rootstock. This practice allows a high-density strategy to be adopted whereby a plant population of 500 to 1,235 plants per hectare (200 to 500 plants per acre) can be achieved. This close spacing is employed under intensive plant culture; effective management and high fertility are required for success. Operations using close spacing make use of various plant training systems, coupled with regular pruning to control growth and plant size. Fruit trees may also be spaced moderately in the orchard. This medium-density spacing is possible if plants are small in adult size. It allows a density of about 250 to 500 plants per hectare (100 to 200 plants per acre). 23.7 FRUIT TREE PLANTING STYLES Trees in an orchard may be arranged in one of several ways, the most common being the square system. In this system, all plants are equally spaced between adjacent plants. The quincunx arrangement is a variation of the square system whereby the permanent crop is interplanted with a temporary crop that is grown, harvested, and completely removed from the field after several years. Consequently, the open space between trees is utilized until the trees have attained adult size. Other plant arrangements are also in use. 23.8 GROWTH REGULATORS Growers of certain tree fruits like apples and pears use growth regulators to modify tree growth and structure, remove excess fruit (fruit thinning), modify fruit maturity, and for preharvest drop control. Training plants successfully requires that seedlings have a certain minimum number of branches (3–5) arranged in a certain way. Growers may use growth regulators to stimulate additional branching for the specific training system to be used. Those consisting of cytokinins and gibberellic acid (e.g., Promalin, Typy) help stimulate additional branch growth. Excessive shoot growth may be suppressed by applying growth regulators like Apogee ® . Another important application of chemicals in tree fruit production is the use of growth thinners (containing, e.g., NAA, 6-BA) to control actual fruit size and to sustained high productivity of the tree. Growth regulators are also used to manage fruit harvest. Application of a chemical like ReTain on apples can help expand the harvest window while fruit retain their firmness without dropping. Delayed ripening can promote proper and more complete fruit red color development provided warm days and cool nights persist. Other fruit disorders associated with ripening (e.g., water core, stem end cracking) can also be reduced with such treatment. 23.9 PEST CONTROL Nematodes are an economic pest in fruit crop production. They parasitize on tree roots, reducing vigor and crop yields. Also, they predispose tree fruits to diseases and reduce winter hardiness of the plants. The tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is 676 Chapter 23 Establishment and Management of an Orchard

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    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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    With love to Theresa, quarterback;

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    Brief Contents Preface xxi PART 1 T

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    Contents Preface xxi PART 1 THE UND

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    5.3 PLANT GROWTH PROCESSES 160 5.4

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    8.20 COMMON GREENHOUSE DISEASES 276

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    12.3 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

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    PART 6 Summary 541 References and S

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    22.18 INDOOR COMPOSTING SYSTEMS 668

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    Preface Horticulture is the area of

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful

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    PART 1 THE UNDERLYING SCIENCE CHAPT

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    1 What Is Horticulture? PURPOSE AND

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    (a) (c) (b) (d) FIGURE 1-1 The many

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    FIGURE 1 Bridge. The plaza view of

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    CYCADS Many people mistake these pr

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    FIGURE 2 The world's largest unbran

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    FIGURE 2 Sold flowers are loaded on

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    FIGURE 1-4 Formal landscaping featu

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    1.4 ROLEOFTHENURSERY AND SEED INDUS

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    1.5 HORTICULTURE AND SOCIETY Hortic

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    TABLE 1-3 U.S. Horticultural Export

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    Turfgrass Operation 1. Landscape te

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    What Is Horticulture? This site pro

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    Examples of botanical gardens http:

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    2 Classifying and Naming Horticultu

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    Eight major taxa are commonly used

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    TABLE 2-3 The Divisions of the King

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    HISTORY OF PLANT TAXONOMY PAUL R. F

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    AGE OF HERBALISTS Two major events

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    possible system of nomenclature. Ho

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    TABLE 1 Type Categories for Plant N

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    2.3 OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS (O

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    2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trun

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    Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Drupe B

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    FIGURE 2-14 A pome, represented by

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    2.3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 2-22 (Source: George

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    FIGURE 2-25 A narrowleaf plant. (So

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    FIGURE 2-29 Parts of a typical gras

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    such as rosemary, sage, thyme, marj

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    c. Leaves d. Bulbs 2. Cut across (t

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    Whole plant Organs FIGURE 3-1 Level

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    ibonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, an

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    called cristae; this extreme foldin

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    By virtue of its position, the prim

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    Phloem Tissue Structurally, phloem

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    (a) Stalk (b) Culm FIGURE 3-5 Cross

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    Scale Compressed stem (a) Whole bul

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    Upper epidermis Palisade layer FIGU

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    usually occur in xerophytes. In cer

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    FIGURE 3-22 Selected common leaf ma

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    FIGURE 3-25 Selected common leaf ti

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    absorption of water and minerals fr

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    Outer bark Inner bark FIGURE 3-37 T

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    Anther Filament Stamen FIGURE 3-41

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    Exocarp Parts of a typi- FIGURE 3-4

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    PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LABORATORY 1.

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    4.1 CLIMATE, WEATHER, AND HORTICULT

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    concentration in the atmosphere.A c

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    TABLE 4-1 Climatic Adaptation of Se

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    and upward. Another important gener

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    Rate of photosynthesis mg/sq. dm/hr

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    and plants that flower under only c

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    times of the year. Growers start th

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    content. This section is sometimes

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    TABLE 4-7 Soil Mineral Nutrients Es

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    Micronutrients (Trace Elements) Mic

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    Neutral FIGURE 4-11 A representatio

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    4.4 FERTILIZERS Fertilizer sources

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    One of the most commonly used contr

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    Chlorosis (the yellowing of green l

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    Fertilizers may be applied before p

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    It is neither practical nor safe to

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    Solution: How much of ammonium nitr

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    1°C (34°F), the optimum temperatu

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    Cellulose sponge Perched water tabl

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    Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation Water

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    FIGURE 4-19 Furrow irrigation of le

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    can self-install an underground irr

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    1. Surface drainage. Surface draina

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    Secondary Tillage Primary tillage i

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    (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 4-20 (Source

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    texture. The most commonly used gra

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    TABLE 4-11 Selected Standard Mixes

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    Steam Pasteurization Steam pasteuri

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    Maracher, H. 1986. Mineral nutritio

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    5 Plant Physiology PURPOSE AND EXPE

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    Growth in an organism follows a cer

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    5.1.2 THE ROLE OF SIGNALS IN GROWTH

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    waxes are embedded. Waxes consist o

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    5.3.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis

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    CO 2 FIGURE 5-6 The C 4 pathway of

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    Growth and Development The general

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    TABLE 5-2 Energy Produced from Aero

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    Certain plants are adapted to dry e

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    conditions exist to sustain growth

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    Shoot Elongation In certain plants,

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    for success, since high temperature

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    FIGURE 5-13 Ripening of plantain sh

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    Terminal bud removed Unbranched pla

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    conditions—pertaining to light, m

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    them to maturity. The major process

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    6 Breeding Horticultural Plants PUR

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    Similarly, there can be no plant br

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    APPLICATION, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPE

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    hit with target DNA. Therefore, it

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    Generally, within ten days of exper

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    Aziz A.N., Sauve R.J., Zhou S., 200

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    (b) F 1 Rr Rr round round F 2 RR R

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    e.g., Aa × Aa), the lethal allele

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    eeder’s equation. Simply stated,

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    Before the seed or product becomes

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    6.18.2 THE GENERAL STEPS OF RDNA TE

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    2. Political disagreement. There ar

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Ac

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    PART 2 PROTECTING HORTICULTURAL PLA

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    7 Biological Enemies of Horticultur

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    8. Weeds may clog drains, waterways

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    is also a root parasite that obtain

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    LEGISLATIVE Both state and federal

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    Example Integrated cultural, physic

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    7.4.2 IMPORTANT INSECT ORDERS Insec

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    Egg FIGURE 7-3 Life cycle of an ins

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    sucking insects (also found with so

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    FIGURE 7-12 Corn earworm damage. (S

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    TABLE 7-1 Selected Fungal Diseases

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    7.6.1 SMALL ANIMALS Rabbits, mice,

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    FIGURE 7-16 The disease triangle. P

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    fungitoxic exudates in its leaves,

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    SUMMARY Insects are a major class o

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    For the home growers or those who c

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    for consumers and the environment).

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    TABLE 8-1 Strategy 4: Strategies an

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    gibberellic acid spray overcomes st

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    In a competitive industry, a variet

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    Chemicals gain access to humans thr

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    2. Pesticide management. Controllin

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    Every organism has its natural enem

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    TABLE 8-3 Selected Examples of Biol

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    1 2 YEAR 3 4 FIGURE 8-5 cycle. A cr

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    6. Heat treatment. In the greenhous

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    Organic Compounds (Organics) Organi

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    under enclosed conditions (e.g., wa

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    FIGURE 8-9 A tractor-mounted spraye

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    8.11.9 LANDSCAPE PESTS AND THEIR CO

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    application, a particular herbicide

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    Further, they do not provide unifor

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    SUMMARY Herbicides are chemicals us

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    Sulfur may be applied for both prev

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    8.23 PREVENTING GREENHOUSE DISEASES

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    PART 3 PROPAGATING HORTICULTURAL PL

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    9 Sexual Propagation PURPOSE AND EX

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    Anther Microspore Megaspore mother

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    Lettuce seeds Red light Darkness Fa

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    FEDERAL AND STATE SEED LAWS Federal

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    Germination Test In laboratory prac

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    FIGURE 15 The essential structures

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    processing into flour or meal). How

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    physiologically immature seeds must

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    seeds may be treated in this way be

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    The two basic modes of seedling eme

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    locations in the field. Home garden

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    FIGURE 9-9 A plastic flat. (Source:

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 9-12 (a) Sowing seed

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    y the gardener or grower. Whatever

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Co

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    species enables vegetative propagat

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    for rapid rooting. There are two ba

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    Cutting involving one node (e.g., s

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    This practice is especially importa

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    10.6.4 STICKING THE CUTTING Cutting

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    (a) Indexing by budding Diseased pl

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    10.11 M ETHODS OF GRAFTING Grafting

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    Scion Wax FIGURE 10-17 Steps in bar

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    MODULE 3 BUDDING 10.12 TYPES OF BUD

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    MODULE 4 LAYERING 10.13 TYPES OF LA

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    Buried part of shoot is nicked FIGU

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    variety of ways. In air layering, a

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    FIGURE 10-34 by using cormels. Prop

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    Psuedobulbs In the Dendrobium orchi

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    The technique is used widely in cro

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    PART 4 GROWING PLANTS INDOORS CHAPT

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    11 Growing Houseplants PURPOSE AND

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    TABLE 11-1 Common houseplants Commo

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    Saddle leaf Philodendron selloum To

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    Window Displays Plants in windows e

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    CONTAINER GARDENS DR. TERRI W. STAR

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    annuals and hardy perennial species

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    of the large container filled with

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    perfection about four to six weeks

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    FIGURE 11-6 Flowers displayed on th

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    TABLE 11-5 Plant Selected Plants fo

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    The lighting condition near these w

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    Fluorescent Lights Fluorescent ligh

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    may be used for one pot or a group

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    garden rooms, atriums, or a large c

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    The photoperiod affects when the ho

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    patted firm to keep the plant erect

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    Other Materials Apart from clay and

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    (a) ( FIGURE 11-25 Support for plan

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    TABLE 11-7 Common Problems of House

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    • Keep soil moist all the time

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    • Prefers high temperatures • P

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    amount and quality of light. If sup

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    12 Controlled-Environment Horticult

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    6. Curvilinear 7. Curved eave 8. Do

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    Detached greenhouses have several a

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    12.2.3 FRAME DESIGN There are two b

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    horticultural business a less-expen

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    Texas, Hawaii, and California. The

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    source of heat for times when the t

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    FIGURE 12-17 Greenhouse production

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    FIGURE 12-21 Moving tables allowing

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    Research program on greenhouse engi

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    greenhouses equipped with a variety

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    FIGURE 1 Annual energy required per

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    This system was demonstrated in a 5

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    FIGURE 6 Amounts of waste energy ut

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    Ekholt, B.A., D.R. Mears, M.S. Gini

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    or object to be warmed. Failure to

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    objects in its path (e.g., the floo

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    FIGURE 12-27 Motorized ventilation

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    FIGURE 12-30 Movable internal shade

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    FIGURE 12-33 A high pressure sodium

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    Source of Water The quality of loca

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    FIGURE 12-37 Overhead sprinkler irr

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    Intermittent Feed Greenhouse plants

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    However, in winter, greenhouse vent

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    OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. Explain the

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    . Foliage or green plants. Foliage

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    2. Labor. The size of the labor for

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    FIGURE 13-1 Greenhouse production o

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    FIGURE 13-2 Lettuce plug is inserte

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    13.8.4 AGGREGATE HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13-6 Plug produc

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    14 Growing Succulents PURPOSE AND E

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    FIGURE 14-3 Leaf succulent represen

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    frost-hardy. Their rosettes are usu

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    TABLE 14-1 Plant Selected Popular S

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 14-12 Typical bromel

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    14.7.1 WHAT ARE CACTI? 14.7 CACTI C

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    FIGURE 14-16 Opuntia. (Source: Crai

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    FIGURE 14-23 Mammillaria. (Source:

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    FIGURE 14-28 Both desert and jungle

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    Growing mix Gravel Cacti (a) (b) FI

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    PART5 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: ORNA

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    15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOS

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    8. Create recreational grounds. Suc

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    knowledge, with concern for resourc

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 15-2 The occurre

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    GUIDELINES FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN DAV

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    the landscape. Some very successful

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    Rhythm and Line Panoramic view of a

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    FIGURE 15-10 A formal garden. The e

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    How frequently do they entertain? A

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    the patio should be located on the

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    15.7.1 SELECTING PLANTS A homeowner

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    Plant Arrangement in the Landscape

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    Shadow FIGURE 15-15 Planting a tree

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    SUMMARY Landscaping enhances the su

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    3. Supply materials on a timely bas

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    such as preparation rooms (for mixi

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    of environmental fluctuations. Furt

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    FIGURE 16-4 A bare-root tree seedli

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    17 Installation of the Landscape PU

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    for walks, driveways, and patios (F

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    Planting may be limited to accentin

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    17.3.3 PREPARING THE BED The soil s

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    FIGURE 17-4 Bedding plants raised i

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    SUMMARY Bedding plants are largely

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    TABLE 17-6 Selected Ground Covers T

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    TABLE 17-7 Selected Ornamental Gras

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    they determine the success and surv

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    12. Wildlife attraction. Trees in t

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    pennsylvanica), hackberry (Celtis s

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    y winds. A stake, which is often a

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    TABLE 17-8 Selected Narrowleaf Ever

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    TABLE 17-11 Selected Deciduous Shru

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    Blooming bushes 1. Blue mist shrub

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    Planting Bulblets and Bulbils Speci

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    may be divided such that each secti

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    FIGURE 18-1 (Source: George Acquaah

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    Cool-Season (Temperate) Grasses In

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    Growth Habit Turfgrasses are the mo

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    Heavy Use Lawns on playgrounds and

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    The seed should be free from weeds

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    Source of Sod As with seed, sod sup

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    A plug of sod FIGURE 18-7 Plugging

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    way, plants are able to adapt to th

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    form of a can placed on the lawn wi

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    TABLE 18-3 Some Common Lawn and Tur

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    even surface soil surface for layin

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    MacCaskey, M. 1987. All about lawns

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    Pruning is sometimes done in conjun

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    4. Pruning may be done to reduce th

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    19.4.2 SAWS A saw may be designed t

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    defeat the purpose of pruning. The

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    Bud withers as cut end dries back d

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    19.6 STRATEGIES FOR PRUNING ABOVEGR

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    Rejuvenation Pruning Cut canes to a

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    3. In the third and subsequent year

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    (a) Cut Prune (b) FIGURE 19-16 Step

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    Eucalyptus and Paulownia are amenab

  • Page 612 and 613:

    TRAINING & PRUNING DECIDUOUS FRUIT

  • Page 614 and 615:

    Summer pruning eliminates an energy

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    a) b) FIGURE 2 Newly planted apple

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    FIGURE 6 Wooden limb spreaders can

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    FIGURE 9. An apple tree trained to

  • Page 622 and 623:

    years to promote continued lateral

  • Page 624 and 625:

    Horizontal Espalier The horizontal

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    19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are

  • Page 628 and 629:

    FIGURE 19-26 Shearing of Christmas

  • Page 630 and 631:

    pyramid-like form that is wider at

  • Page 632 and 633:

    After selecting the appropriate spe

  • Page 634 and 635:

    PART 6 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: VEG

  • Page 636 and 637:

    20 Growing Vegetables Outdoors PURP

  • Page 638 and 639:

    The National Agricultural Statistic

  • Page 640 and 641:

    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

  • Page 642 and 643:

    growers should take to determine an

  • Page 644 and 645:

    pests and reduce/ eliminate hail da

  • Page 646 and 647:

    square yard (10 to 68 grams per squ

  • Page 648 and 649:

    High tunnels help increase the prof

  • Page 650 and 651: (This item omitted from WebBook edi
  • Page 652 and 653: 20.4 VEGETABLE MARKET TYPES Fresh V
  • Page 654 and 655: Establishing the Crop Planting into
  • Page 656 and 657: home water supply from the tap. Thi
  • Page 658 and 659: Cole crop Cabbage Root Potato Bean
  • Page 660 and 661: 6. Adequate nutrition. While overfe
  • Page 662 and 663: variable, ranging from creamy yello
  • Page 664 and 665: There are two general production pr
  • Page 666 and 667: This toxin is heat resistant and no
  • Page 668 and 669: large, or jumbo. The bulb may be sw
  • Page 670 and 671: REFERENCES Growing selected vegetab
  • Page 672 and 673: TABLE 21-1 Popular Herbs and Their
  • Page 674 and 675: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 21-1
  • Page 676 and 677: 22 Organic Farming PURPOSE AND EXPE
  • Page 678 and 679: 22.3 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING
  • Page 680 and 681: and the specific materials to be us
  • Page 682 and 683: 22.8 MANAGING SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY
  • Page 684 and 685: preemergent or early postemergent o
  • Page 686 and 687: Composting is a deliberate activity
  • Page 688 and 689: 22.14.5 THE CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATI
  • Page 690 and 691: Moisture Supply Water is required b
  • Page 692 and 693: Compost materials FIGURE 22-4 a wir
  • Page 694 and 695: As microbial decomposition proceeds
  • Page 696 and 697: Establishment and Management of an
  • Page 698 and 699: night, freezing can occur in spring
  • Page 702 and 703: transmitted by the dagger nematode
  • Page 704 and 705: PART 7 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND HANDL
  • Page 706 and 707: 24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PU
  • Page 708 and 709: to more than four-fold in standard
  • Page 710 and 711: Temperature and Humidity Wilting re
  • Page 712 and 713: FLORAL DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW BY WM. J
  • Page 714 and 715: Principle Definition Types (or Uses
  • Page 716 and 717: pH value-a measure of the acidity o
  • Page 718 and 719: FIGURE 6 Parallel Design-Parallel d
  • Page 720 and 721: 24.3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS The tool
  • Page 722 and 723: 3. Establish the focal point. 4. Ad
  • Page 724 and 725: Natural Drying To dry naturally, fl
  • Page 726 and 727: 24.4.3 DRIED FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS Dr
  • Page 728 and 729: 25 Terrarium Culture PURPOSE AND EX
  • Page 730 and 731: FIGURE 25-3 Terrarium containers ar
  • Page 732 and 733: FIGURE 25-5 Assortment of tools use
  • Page 734 and 735: 25.6.7 ENHANCING THE DISPLAY Certai
  • Page 736 and 737: (a) (b) FIGURE 26-1 Bonsai can be c
  • Page 738 and 739: TABLE 26-3 Plant A Selection of Pop
  • Page 740 and 741: 26.3.1 COLLECTING BONSAI PLANTS FRO
  • Page 742 and 743: Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26-9
  • Page 744 and 745: 26.5.2 SANITATION It is critical to
  • Page 746 and 747: 27 Postharvest Handling and Marketi
  • Page 748 and 749: whereas oranges are picked (they ha
  • Page 750 and 751:

    (b) (a) (c) (d) (e1) (e2) (f) FIGUR

  • Page 752 and 753:

    To reduce packaging injury, contain

  • Page 754 and 755:

    is replaced by the by-product of re

  • Page 756 and 757:

    Stored produce may lose some color,

  • Page 758 and 759:

    with pricing. When selling by volum

  • Page 760 and 761:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 27-5 Horticultural p

  • Page 762 and 763:

    APPENDIX A Temperature: Converting

  • Page 764 and 765:

    APPENDIX B Metric Conversion Chart

  • Page 766 and 767:

    APPENDIX D Common and Scientific Na

  • Page 768 and 769:

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Peony (Pa

  • Page 770 and 771:

    GLOSSARY A Abaxial Turned away from

  • Page 772 and 773:

    Cellulose A complex carbohydrate th

  • Page 774 and 775:

    Floriculture The science and practi

  • Page 776 and 777:

    M Macronutrient An essential elemen

  • Page 778 and 779:

    Root cap A mass of hard cells cover

  • Page 780 and 781:

    INDEX A-frame, 395 A-horizon, 108 A

  • Page 782 and 783:

    defined, 390 fertilization, 432-434

  • Page 784 and 785:

    Radiant heaters, 378 Radicle, 90 Re

  • Page 786 and 787:

    color plate 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) M

  • Page 788 and 789:

    color plate 3 (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (

  • Page 790 and 791:

    color plate 5 (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (

  • Page 792 and 793:

    color plate 7 (b) (c) (d) (a) (e) (

  • Page 794 and 795:

    color plate 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (

  • Page 796 and 797:

    color plate 11 (a) (c) (b) (d) Grow

  • Page 798 and 799:

    color plate 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 800 and 801:

    color plate 15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 802 and 803:

    color plate 17 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 804 and 805:

    color plate 19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 806 and 807:

    color plate 21 (a) (b) (c) (e) (d)

  • Page 808 and 809:

    color plate 23 (c) (b) (a) (d) (e)

  • Page 810 and 811:

    color plate 25 (c) (a) (b) (d) (e)

  • Page 812 and 813:

    color plate 27 (a1) (a2) (b2) (b1)

  • Page 814 and 815:

    color plate 29 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 816 and 817:

    color plate 31 (a) (b) (c) Floral d

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