FIGURE 6 Parallel Design–Parallel designs use parallel stem placement of groupings of flowers. This design would be considered a “decorative” parallel, because much of the negative space (which is typical in parallel designs) between the groupings is massed with additional materials. (Source: Wm. J. McKinley) FIGURE 7 Vegetative Design–Vegetative designs use plant materials in a naturalistic manner to resemble plants growing together in specific environments. Most commercial vegetative designs, such as the one shown, are not “pure” vegetative designs, but rather adaptations for easier marketability that appeal to customer aesthetics. (Source: Wm. J. McKinley) Vase life–the length of time a cut flower or foliage will be aesthetically pleasing after being harvested. Transpiration–the loss of water through small openings (stomata) on the leaves and flowers Underwater Cutting–cutting the stem ends of flowers/foliage under water to prevent air from entering the stems References Johnson, James L., McKinley, William J., Benz, M (Buddy), Flowers: Creative Design (2001). College Station, TX: San Jacinto Publishing Co. Society of American Florists, Flower Therapy, retrieved May 15, 2007 from, www.aboutflowers.com/flowertherapy/information.htm Society of American Florists, Flowers=Happiness, retrieved May 15, 2007 from, www.aboutflowers.com/happier.html Society of American Florists, Mother Nature’s Social Security, retrieved May 15, 2007 from, www.aboutflowers.com/seniorstudy.htm The AIFD Guide to Floral Design - Terms, Techniques, and Traditions (2005). The American Institute of Floral Designers, Baltimore, MD. 24.3 Flower Arranging 693
Proportion and Scale Proportion describes the desired relationship between size and shape among objects (or parts of objects) displayed together. Scale, a component of proportion, deals with relative size of objects displayed together. Several elements go into producing a proportional design—the characteristics of the flowers, container, table (where applicable), and room. Although tall containers can be used for tall displays, low containers should not hold tall flowers. The general recommendation is that the arrangement be about one and a half to two times the container height or width. The display should not overwhelm the table or the room. An oversized display is out of place in a small room, and a tiny display is ineffective in a large room or on a large table. Accent Plant A plant strategically located in a landscape to draw attention to a particular feature in the area. Focal Point and Accent Rather than creating a design with all-around appeal, it is best to have emphasis or dominance in which one or several parts generate most interest. A focal point can be created by including an exotic or very attractive flower (accent plant) in the design. This flower could be described as a conversation piece that draws the immediate attention of viewers. In lieu of such a specimen, a designer can use other techniques such as repetition and massing to draw attention to a design. A focal point should be located at the top of the container. Contrast Without contrast, a design can be monotonous and boring. Flowers differ in color, size, texture, and shape; these characteristics should be used to enhance the arrangement. Unity If a designer observes the principles of good balance, proportion, scale, and contrast and includes an effective focal point, the resulting creation blends together to produce an effective display that is aesthetically pleasing and functional. Unity is achieved in a design when the viewer gets the sense that all elements are working together. The design elements are not seen individually when there is unity. The Role of Containers Containers serve important roles in flower arranging other than just holding flowers. In some displays, they can hardly be seen. In many others, however, they provide a background for the arrangement. The size of the container determines the size of the finished product (remember that the arrangement should be one and a half to two times the size of the container). Containers can be ceramic, plastic, crystal, or some other material (Figure 24–2). Bright colors should be avoided and preference given to shades of white, green, gray, or beige. Solid colors should be chosen, although simple patterns may add to the display; elaborate patterns distract from the floral display and should be avoided. FIGURE 24-2 Containers for cut flowers. There is variety and room for creativity in selecting containers. 694 Chapter 24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design
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