Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26–9 Aging is a significant aspect of bonsai design. Artificial aging can be induced through a combination of mechanical and chemical treatments. Tree with protruding, aged branch stumps 26.3.6 AGING The technique of aging is called jin. Although a special knife may be purchased for this procedure, a simple grafting knife may also be used successfully. After stripping off the bark, the bare surface should be polished with fine-grade sandpaper, after which dilute citric acid or a scouring solution may be rubbed on the bare surface to bleach the area. The result gives the appearance of aged plants (Figure 26–9). 26.4 REPOTTING BONSAI 26.4.1 PREPARING THE CONTAINER When repotting bonsai, a piece of wire is passed through the holes in the bottom of the container to anchor the plant (Figure 26–10). A fine wire mesh is stretched over the drainage hole, and a layer of gravel or potting medium (sterilized mix of equal amounts of coarse sand, soil, and sphagnum moss) is placed to a depth of about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in the container. 26.4.2 ROOT PRUNING The plant is removed from its original container and the roots examined after removing much of the soil. The taproot is cut back to leave a short stump. Other lateral roots are also pruned so that the remaining root mass fits the bonsai container. 26.4.3 SECURING THE PLANT With a reduced root mass, the plant is often top-heavy and needs to be secured in the shallow container by tying with the anchor wire passed through the drainage holes (Figure 26–11). After that, more potting medium is added to cover the roots, slightly mounding it around the stem. 26.4.4 WATERING AND FERTILIZING Watering and fertilizing are two operations that are very critical to the success of a bonsai. As previously indicated, the miniature plant depends on one’s ability to control and slow the growth and development of the plant. Growth control relies to a great extent on the management of watering and fertilizing. Since the bonsai container is shallow, the 26.4 Repotting Bonsai 717
FIGURE 26–10 Bonsai are repotted periodically as a maintenance activity. The container should be lined with a drainage material and then topped with the potting medium. Wires Bottom of container lined with screen wire Potting medium Drainage material FIGURE 26–11 Wires are used to stabilize the plant in a shallow container. Trim roots to fit new container Use wires to secure plant Wire plant should be watered thoroughly, especially in summer. Hard and polluted water should be avoided; rain water is the most recommended but may not always be available. Chlorine in an urban water supply is injurious to plants. If tap water must be used, the container of water should sit open outside to evaporate the chlorine. The spout of the watering can should be capped with a head that delivers a fine spray. For fertilizing, slow-acting fertilizers are most desirable. Specially constituted bonsai fertilizer may be purchased from a nursery. Organic fertilizer pellets contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in proportions of 50:30:20 compounded from materials such as bone meal and fish meal. Bonsai are fertilized during the active growing period. Fertilizing of flowering and fruiting bonsai plants should be delayed until after flowering. 26.5 POSTESTABLISHMENT CARE 26.5.1 PRUNING AND REPOTTING A bonsai plant needs periodic pruning to maintain its shape and control growth. Depending on the species, roots require pruning every three to five years, since they quickly become pot-bound in the restricted area of the bonsai container. The plant to be pruned is removed from the container and the roots trimmed below the soil level. Pruning should also be geared toward providing room for new growth over the next three to five years. The plant should then be resecured, if necessary, by tying with a wire before fresh potting medium is added and the plant watered. 718 Chapter 26 Bonsai: The Art of Miniature Plant Culture
This books ( Financial Accounting: Practice and Principles ) Made by Jan Bebbington
The successful systems based formula for teaching financial accounting that gained such academic acclaim in its first and second editions, is back! Financial Accounting remains the student s favourite! The third edition is more streamlined, more user friendly and even more accessible. An in-depth, worked example from an actual partnership, brings alive for students the accounting issues involved in partnerships, a required topic of accreditation. Financial Accounting is based on a threefold approach: an organizational flow-model is used to locate financial accounting in its organizational context; this model is then used to derive a systematic logical approach to financial accounting and the construction of the financial statements; and the text attempts to forge a firm link between the traditional diet of introductory financial accounting and the wider issues of accounting theory. Financial Accounting is the ideal text for undergraduate Accounting students.
To Download Please Click http://yp.filetrends.club/?book=1861527713