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Horticulture Principles and Practices

FIGURE 2 The world's

FIGURE 2 The world's largest unbranched inflorescence, Amorphophallus titanum, also known as Titan arum or corpse flower. (This item omitted from WebBook edition) of the Crystal Bridge—the anole in particular. Two species of anoles, Anolis carolinensis, originating in the southeast United States, and Anolis sagrei, native to islands of the Caribbean Sea, have established thriving populations in the Crystal Bridge. BIRDS Muffin and Bo jangles are the rulers of the roost in the Crystal Bridge. The pair are double yellow-headed Amazon parrots that were donated to the gardens in 1993. The parrots reside in the lobby of the conservatory and entertain guests with their antics and loud talking. BUTTERFLIES The zebra longwing (Heliconius charitonius), a tallow and black tropical butterfly native to the southern United States, was introduced to the Crystal Bridge in 1993. This species was selected because the caterpillar feeds only on passion vine and does not damage any of the other plants in the Crystal Bridge. After the caterpillars spin themselves into their chrysalises, they are gathered up and kept in a special chrysalis case until they are ready to emerge as winged adults. These butterflies are then released into the Crystal Bridge. The adult butterflies are happy to stay right in the conservatory to remain close to their food supply. FISH Fish were among the first animals introduced at the gardens. There are a variety of small fish swimming throughout the pond and stream system that are native to the tropical aquaria. Tropical fish in the Crystal Bridge include Pacu, Jack Dempsey Cichlid, Oscar, Albino Oscar, and Plecostomus. 1.2 A Brief History of Horticulture 11

AALSMEER FLOWER AUCTION – A WORLD LEADER Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Langston University, Oklahoma CLARK WILLIAMS Almost every country in the world produces flowers for domestic consumption. But only a few countries produce enough for export. Of these exporting countries, the world leader is Holland. Historically, Holland is responsible for the export of over half of the world’s floral products including cut flowers, foliages, and pot plants. One of the reasons for Holland’s position as the world leader is due to their flower auctions. This includes Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer which is the worlds largest flower auction. The Aalsmeer Flower Auction, located outside of Amsterdam, is considered to be the largest commercial facility in the world. Collectively, the buildings used by the Aalsmeer Flower Auction cover over one million square meters which is the equivalent of over 200 football fields. In 2006 the facility utilized 979 full-time employees and 853 part-time employees. The quantity of flowers and plants sold on a daily basis are staggering. Each day approximately 19 million flowers and 2 million plants are auctioned and sold to buyers worldwide. In 2006, the Aalsmeer Flower Auction sold 4.784 billion cut flowers, 407 million plants, and 157 million garden plants. These numbers gave Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer a 44.7 percent share of the Dutch export market and accounted for 1.756 billion euros (approximately 2.35 billion U.S. dollars) of total sales. Even though Holland is a world leader in flower production, a large amount of flowers that are sold in the auctions are imported. A very large percentage of these imports came from Africa with Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zimbabwe being 4 of the top 5 importing countries. Israel was the only non-African country in the top 5. The top five cut flowers sold through the Aalsmeer Flower Auction in 2006 were as follows: Roses – 1.762 billion, Tulips – 676 million, Chrysanthemums – 526 million, Transvaal Daisies – 269 million, and Lilies – 131 million. The majority of these flowers were purchased and sent to other European Union countries with Germany, the United Kingdom, and France being the largest customers. The reason that Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer can sell and export such a large quantity of flowers each day is by using the Dutch auction method and the use of 13 auction clocks. The Dutch auction process involves starting at a high asking price and having the price continually drop until a buyer bids and gets the item at that price. If you wait too long in hopes of a lower price, you get shut out by the other buyers. Trains of carts loaded with flowers continually flow through each of the 13 auction houses (Figure 1). Individual auctions for each cart take a matter of seconds utilizing the 13 large auction clocks. In 2006, FIGURE 1 (Source: Clark Williams) Flower auction in progress at Aalsmeer. 12 Chapter 1 What Is Horticulture?

  • Page 2 and 3: HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic
  • Page 4 and 5: HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic
  • Page 6 and 7: With love to Theresa, quarterback;
  • Page 8 and 9: Brief Contents Preface xxi PART 1 T
  • Page 10 and 11: Contents Preface xxi PART 1 THE UND
  • Page 12 and 13: 5.3 PLANT GROWTH PROCESSES 160 5.4
  • Page 14 and 15: 8.20 COMMON GREENHOUSE DISEASES 276
  • Page 16 and 17: 12.3 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
  • Page 18 and 19: PART 6 Summary 541 References and S
  • Page 20 and 21: 22.18 INDOOR COMPOSTING SYSTEMS 668
  • Page 22 and 23: Preface Horticulture is the area of
  • Page 24 and 25: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful
  • Page 26 and 27: PART 1 THE UNDERLYING SCIENCE CHAPT
  • Page 28 and 29: 1 What Is Horticulture? PURPOSE AND
  • Page 30 and 31: (a) (c) (b) (d) FIGURE 1-1 The many
  • Page 32 and 33: FIGURE 1 Bridge. The plaza view of
  • Page 34 and 35: CYCADS Many people mistake these pr
  • Page 38 and 39: FIGURE 2 Sold flowers are loaded on
  • Page 40 and 41: FIGURE 1-4 Formal landscaping featu
  • Page 42 and 43: 1.4 ROLEOFTHENURSERY AND SEED INDUS
  • Page 44 and 45: 1.5 HORTICULTURE AND SOCIETY Hortic
  • Page 46 and 47: TABLE 1-3 U.S. Horticultural Export
  • Page 48 and 49: Turfgrass Operation 1. Landscape te
  • Page 50 and 51: What Is Horticulture? This site pro
  • Page 52 and 53: Examples of botanical gardens http:
  • Page 54 and 55: 2 Classifying and Naming Horticultu
  • Page 56 and 57: Eight major taxa are commonly used
  • Page 58 and 59: TABLE 2-3 The Divisions of the King
  • Page 60 and 61: HISTORY OF PLANT TAXONOMY PAUL R. F
  • Page 62 and 63: AGE OF HERBALISTS Two major events
  • Page 64 and 65: possible system of nomenclature. Ho
  • Page 66 and 67: TABLE 1 Type Categories for Plant N
  • Page 68 and 69: 2.3 OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS (O
  • Page 70 and 71: 2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trun
  • Page 72 and 73: Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Drupe B
  • Page 74 and 75: FIGURE 2-14 A pome, represented by
  • Page 76 and 77: 2.3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES
  • Page 78 and 79: (a) (b) FIGURE 2-22 (Source: George
  • Page 80 and 81: FIGURE 2-25 A narrowleaf plant. (So
  • Page 82 and 83: FIGURE 2-29 Parts of a typical gras
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    c. Leaves d. Bulbs 2. Cut across (t

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    Whole plant Organs FIGURE 3-1 Level

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    ibonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, an

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    called cristae; this extreme foldin

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    By virtue of its position, the prim

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    Phloem Tissue Structurally, phloem

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    (a) Stalk (b) Culm FIGURE 3-5 Cross

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    Scale Compressed stem (a) Whole bul

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    Upper epidermis Palisade layer FIGU

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    usually occur in xerophytes. In cer

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    FIGURE 3-22 Selected common leaf ma

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    FIGURE 3-25 Selected common leaf ti

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    absorption of water and minerals fr

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    Outer bark Inner bark FIGURE 3-37 T

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    Anther Filament Stamen FIGURE 3-41

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    Exocarp Parts of a typi- FIGURE 3-4

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    PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LABORATORY 1.

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    4.1 CLIMATE, WEATHER, AND HORTICULT

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    concentration in the atmosphere.A c

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    TABLE 4-1 Climatic Adaptation of Se

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    and upward. Another important gener

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    Rate of photosynthesis mg/sq. dm/hr

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    and plants that flower under only c

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    times of the year. Growers start th

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    content. This section is sometimes

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    TABLE 4-7 Soil Mineral Nutrients Es

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    Micronutrients (Trace Elements) Mic

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    Neutral FIGURE 4-11 A representatio

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    4.4 FERTILIZERS Fertilizer sources

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    One of the most commonly used contr

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    Chlorosis (the yellowing of green l

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    Fertilizers may be applied before p

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    It is neither practical nor safe to

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    Solution: How much of ammonium nitr

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    1°C (34°F), the optimum temperatu

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    Cellulose sponge Perched water tabl

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    Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation Water

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    FIGURE 4-19 Furrow irrigation of le

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    can self-install an underground irr

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    1. Surface drainage. Surface draina

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    Secondary Tillage Primary tillage i

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    (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 4-20 (Source

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    texture. The most commonly used gra

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    TABLE 4-11 Selected Standard Mixes

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    Steam Pasteurization Steam pasteuri

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    Maracher, H. 1986. Mineral nutritio

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    5 Plant Physiology PURPOSE AND EXPE

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    Growth in an organism follows a cer

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    5.1.2 THE ROLE OF SIGNALS IN GROWTH

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    waxes are embedded. Waxes consist o

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    5.3.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis

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    CO 2 FIGURE 5-6 The C 4 pathway of

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    Growth and Development The general

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    TABLE 5-2 Energy Produced from Aero

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    Certain plants are adapted to dry e

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    conditions exist to sustain growth

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    Shoot Elongation In certain plants,

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    for success, since high temperature

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    FIGURE 5-13 Ripening of plantain sh

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    Terminal bud removed Unbranched pla

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    conditions—pertaining to light, m

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    them to maturity. The major process

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    6 Breeding Horticultural Plants PUR

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    Similarly, there can be no plant br

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    APPLICATION, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPE

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    hit with target DNA. Therefore, it

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    Generally, within ten days of exper

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    Aziz A.N., Sauve R.J., Zhou S., 200

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    (b) F 1 Rr Rr round round F 2 RR R

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    e.g., Aa × Aa), the lethal allele

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    eeder’s equation. Simply stated,

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    Before the seed or product becomes

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    6.18.2 THE GENERAL STEPS OF RDNA TE

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    2. Political disagreement. There ar

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Ac

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    PART 2 PROTECTING HORTICULTURAL PLA

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    7 Biological Enemies of Horticultur

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    8. Weeds may clog drains, waterways

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    is also a root parasite that obtain

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    LEGISLATIVE Both state and federal

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    Example Integrated cultural, physic

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    7.4.2 IMPORTANT INSECT ORDERS Insec

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    Egg FIGURE 7-3 Life cycle of an ins

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    sucking insects (also found with so

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    FIGURE 7-12 Corn earworm damage. (S

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    TABLE 7-1 Selected Fungal Diseases

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    7.6.1 SMALL ANIMALS Rabbits, mice,

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    FIGURE 7-16 The disease triangle. P

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    fungitoxic exudates in its leaves,

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    SUMMARY Insects are a major class o

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    For the home growers or those who c

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    for consumers and the environment).

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    TABLE 8-1 Strategy 4: Strategies an

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    gibberellic acid spray overcomes st

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    In a competitive industry, a variet

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    Chemicals gain access to humans thr

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    2. Pesticide management. Controllin

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    Every organism has its natural enem

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    TABLE 8-3 Selected Examples of Biol

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    1 2 YEAR 3 4 FIGURE 8-5 cycle. A cr

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    6. Heat treatment. In the greenhous

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    Organic Compounds (Organics) Organi

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    under enclosed conditions (e.g., wa

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    FIGURE 8-9 A tractor-mounted spraye

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    8.11.9 LANDSCAPE PESTS AND THEIR CO

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    application, a particular herbicide

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    Further, they do not provide unifor

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    SUMMARY Herbicides are chemicals us

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    Sulfur may be applied for both prev

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    8.23 PREVENTING GREENHOUSE DISEASES

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    PART 3 PROPAGATING HORTICULTURAL PL

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    9 Sexual Propagation PURPOSE AND EX

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    Anther Microspore Megaspore mother

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    Lettuce seeds Red light Darkness Fa

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    FEDERAL AND STATE SEED LAWS Federal

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    Germination Test In laboratory prac

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    FIGURE 15 The essential structures

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    processing into flour or meal). How

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    physiologically immature seeds must

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    seeds may be treated in this way be

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    The two basic modes of seedling eme

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    locations in the field. Home garden

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    FIGURE 9-9 A plastic flat. (Source:

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 9-12 (a) Sowing seed

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    y the gardener or grower. Whatever

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Co

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    species enables vegetative propagat

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    for rapid rooting. There are two ba

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    Cutting involving one node (e.g., s

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    This practice is especially importa

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    10.6.4 STICKING THE CUTTING Cutting

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    (a) Indexing by budding Diseased pl

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    10.11 M ETHODS OF GRAFTING Grafting

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    Scion Wax FIGURE 10-17 Steps in bar

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    MODULE 3 BUDDING 10.12 TYPES OF BUD

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    MODULE 4 LAYERING 10.13 TYPES OF LA

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    Buried part of shoot is nicked FIGU

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    variety of ways. In air layering, a

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    FIGURE 10-34 by using cormels. Prop

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    Psuedobulbs In the Dendrobium orchi

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    The technique is used widely in cro

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    PART 4 GROWING PLANTS INDOORS CHAPT

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    11 Growing Houseplants PURPOSE AND

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    TABLE 11-1 Common houseplants Commo

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    Saddle leaf Philodendron selloum To

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    Window Displays Plants in windows e

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    CONTAINER GARDENS DR. TERRI W. STAR

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    annuals and hardy perennial species

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    of the large container filled with

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    perfection about four to six weeks

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    FIGURE 11-6 Flowers displayed on th

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    TABLE 11-5 Plant Selected Plants fo

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    The lighting condition near these w

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    Fluorescent Lights Fluorescent ligh

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    may be used for one pot or a group

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    garden rooms, atriums, or a large c

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    The photoperiod affects when the ho

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    patted firm to keep the plant erect

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    Other Materials Apart from clay and

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    (a) ( FIGURE 11-25 Support for plan

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    TABLE 11-7 Common Problems of House

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    • Keep soil moist all the time

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    • Prefers high temperatures • P

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    amount and quality of light. If sup

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    12 Controlled-Environment Horticult

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    6. Curvilinear 7. Curved eave 8. Do

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    Detached greenhouses have several a

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    12.2.3 FRAME DESIGN There are two b

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    horticultural business a less-expen

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    Texas, Hawaii, and California. The

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    source of heat for times when the t

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    FIGURE 12-17 Greenhouse production

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    FIGURE 12-21 Moving tables allowing

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    Research program on greenhouse engi

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    greenhouses equipped with a variety

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    FIGURE 1 Annual energy required per

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    This system was demonstrated in a 5

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    FIGURE 6 Amounts of waste energy ut

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    Ekholt, B.A., D.R. Mears, M.S. Gini

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    or object to be warmed. Failure to

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    objects in its path (e.g., the floo

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    FIGURE 12-27 Motorized ventilation

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    FIGURE 12-30 Movable internal shade

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    FIGURE 12-33 A high pressure sodium

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    Source of Water The quality of loca

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    FIGURE 12-37 Overhead sprinkler irr

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    Intermittent Feed Greenhouse plants

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    However, in winter, greenhouse vent

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    OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. Explain the

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    . Foliage or green plants. Foliage

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    2. Labor. The size of the labor for

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    FIGURE 13-1 Greenhouse production o

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    FIGURE 13-2 Lettuce plug is inserte

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    13.8.4 AGGREGATE HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13-6 Plug produc

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    14 Growing Succulents PURPOSE AND E

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    FIGURE 14-3 Leaf succulent represen

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    frost-hardy. Their rosettes are usu

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    TABLE 14-1 Plant Selected Popular S

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 14-12 Typical bromel

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    14.7.1 WHAT ARE CACTI? 14.7 CACTI C

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    FIGURE 14-16 Opuntia. (Source: Crai

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    FIGURE 14-23 Mammillaria. (Source:

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    FIGURE 14-28 Both desert and jungle

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    Growing mix Gravel Cacti (a) (b) FI

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    PART5 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: ORNA

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    15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOS

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    8. Create recreational grounds. Suc

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    knowledge, with concern for resourc

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 15-2 The occurre

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    GUIDELINES FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN DAV

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    the landscape. Some very successful

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    Rhythm and Line Panoramic view of a

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    FIGURE 15-10 A formal garden. The e

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    How frequently do they entertain? A

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    the patio should be located on the

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    15.7.1 SELECTING PLANTS A homeowner

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    Plant Arrangement in the Landscape

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    Shadow FIGURE 15-15 Planting a tree

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    SUMMARY Landscaping enhances the su

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    3. Supply materials on a timely bas

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    such as preparation rooms (for mixi

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    of environmental fluctuations. Furt

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    FIGURE 16-4 A bare-root tree seedli

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    17 Installation of the Landscape PU

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    for walks, driveways, and patios (F

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    Planting may be limited to accentin

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    17.3.3 PREPARING THE BED The soil s

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    FIGURE 17-4 Bedding plants raised i

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    SUMMARY Bedding plants are largely

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    TABLE 17-6 Selected Ground Covers T

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    TABLE 17-7 Selected Ornamental Gras

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    they determine the success and surv

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    12. Wildlife attraction. Trees in t

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    pennsylvanica), hackberry (Celtis s

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    y winds. A stake, which is often a

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    TABLE 17-8 Selected Narrowleaf Ever

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    TABLE 17-11 Selected Deciduous Shru

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    Blooming bushes 1. Blue mist shrub

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    Planting Bulblets and Bulbils Speci

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    may be divided such that each secti

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    FIGURE 18-1 (Source: George Acquaah

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    Cool-Season (Temperate) Grasses In

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    Growth Habit Turfgrasses are the mo

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    Heavy Use Lawns on playgrounds and

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    The seed should be free from weeds

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    Source of Sod As with seed, sod sup

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    A plug of sod FIGURE 18-7 Plugging

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    way, plants are able to adapt to th

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    form of a can placed on the lawn wi

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    TABLE 18-3 Some Common Lawn and Tur

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    even surface soil surface for layin

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    MacCaskey, M. 1987. All about lawns

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    Pruning is sometimes done in conjun

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    4. Pruning may be done to reduce th

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    19.4.2 SAWS A saw may be designed t

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    defeat the purpose of pruning. The

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    Bud withers as cut end dries back d

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    19.6 STRATEGIES FOR PRUNING ABOVEGR

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    Rejuvenation Pruning Cut canes to a

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    3. In the third and subsequent year

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    (a) Cut Prune (b) FIGURE 19-16 Step

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    Eucalyptus and Paulownia are amenab

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    TRAINING & PRUNING DECIDUOUS FRUIT

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    Summer pruning eliminates an energy

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    a) b) FIGURE 2 Newly planted apple

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    FIGURE 6 Wooden limb spreaders can

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    FIGURE 9. An apple tree trained to

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    years to promote continued lateral

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    Horizontal Espalier The horizontal

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    19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are

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    FIGURE 19-26 Shearing of Christmas

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    pyramid-like form that is wider at

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    After selecting the appropriate spe

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    PART 6 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: VEG

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    20 Growing Vegetables Outdoors PURP

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    The National Agricultural Statistic

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    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

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    growers should take to determine an

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    pests and reduce/ eliminate hail da

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    square yard (10 to 68 grams per squ

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    High tunnels help increase the prof

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    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

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    20.4 VEGETABLE MARKET TYPES Fresh V

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    Establishing the Crop Planting into

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    home water supply from the tap. Thi

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    Cole crop Cabbage Root Potato Bean

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    6. Adequate nutrition. While overfe

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    variable, ranging from creamy yello

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    There are two general production pr

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    This toxin is heat resistant and no

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    large, or jumbo. The bulb may be sw

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    REFERENCES Growing selected vegetab

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    TABLE 21-1 Popular Herbs and Their

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    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 21-1

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    22 Organic Farming PURPOSE AND EXPE

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    22.3 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING

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    and the specific materials to be us

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    22.8 MANAGING SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY

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    preemergent or early postemergent o

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    Composting is a deliberate activity

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    22.14.5 THE CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATI

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    Moisture Supply Water is required b

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    Compost materials FIGURE 22-4 a wir

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    As microbial decomposition proceeds

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    Establishment and Management of an

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    night, freezing can occur in spring

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    accomplished by stratification. It

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    transmitted by the dagger nematode

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    PART 7 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND HANDL

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    24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PU

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    to more than four-fold in standard

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    Temperature and Humidity Wilting re

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    FLORAL DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW BY WM. J

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    Principle Definition Types (or Uses

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    pH value-a measure of the acidity o

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    FIGURE 6 Parallel Design-Parallel d

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    24.3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS The tool

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    3. Establish the focal point. 4. Ad

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    Natural Drying To dry naturally, fl

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    24.4.3 DRIED FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS Dr

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    25 Terrarium Culture PURPOSE AND EX

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    FIGURE 25-3 Terrarium containers ar

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    FIGURE 25-5 Assortment of tools use

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    25.6.7 ENHANCING THE DISPLAY Certai

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 26-1 Bonsai can be c

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    TABLE 26-3 Plant A Selection of Pop

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    26.3.1 COLLECTING BONSAI PLANTS FRO

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    Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26-9

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    26.5.2 SANITATION It is critical to

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    27 Postharvest Handling and Marketi

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    whereas oranges are picked (they ha

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    (b) (a) (c) (d) (e1) (e2) (f) FIGUR

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    To reduce packaging injury, contain

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    is replaced by the by-product of re

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    Stored produce may lose some color,

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    with pricing. When selling by volum

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 27-5 Horticultural p

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    APPENDIX A Temperature: Converting

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    APPENDIX B Metric Conversion Chart

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    APPENDIX D Common and Scientific Na

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    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Peony (Pa

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    GLOSSARY A Abaxial Turned away from

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    Cellulose A complex carbohydrate th

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    Floriculture The science and practi

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    M Macronutrient An essential elemen

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    Root cap A mass of hard cells cover

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    INDEX A-frame, 395 A-horizon, 108 A

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    defined, 390 fertilization, 432-434

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    Radiant heaters, 378 Radicle, 90 Re

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    color plate 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) M

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    color plate 3 (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (

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    color plate 5 (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (

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    color plate 7 (b) (c) (d) (a) (e) (

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    color plate 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (

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    color plate 11 (a) (c) (b) (d) Grow

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    color plate 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 17 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 21 (a) (b) (c) (e) (d)

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    color plate 23 (c) (b) (a) (d) (e)

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    color plate 25 (c) (a) (b) (d) (e)

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    color plate 27 (a1) (a2) (b2) (b1)

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    color plate 29 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 31 (a) (b) (c) Floral d