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Horticulture Principles and Practices

• Keep soil moist all

• Keep soil moist all the time • Place on pebble tray for high humidity • Keep temperature around the 80s • Tolerates pot-bounding • Propagate by rooting leaf in water, by stem cutting, or air layering 8. Bird-of-paradise (Strelitza reginae) • Bright light (full sun) in fall and winter; medium (indirect) light in spring • Let soil dry between watering • Prefers moderate temperatures • May take up to ten years before flowering 9. Madagascar dragon tree (Dracaena marginata) • Prefers bright light (full sun) in winter; tolerates low light • High humidity for good leaf growth • Mist often • Keep daytime temperatures high • Propagate by layering or stem cutting 10. Jade plant (Crassula ovata) • Place in high light (south window) • Let dry between watering; excess moisture causes rot; soil should be well drained • High temperatures preferred • Pot-bounding stimulates flowering • Pinch growing tips to produces branching 11. Corn plant (Dracaena fragrans ‘Compacta’) • Place in bright, indirect light away from direct sun • Keep soil moist and mist often to keep humid • Tolerates cool and warm temperatures • Pinch tips for a bushy growth • Clean leaves with tepid water • Propagate by stem cutting or air layering 12. Rubber plant (Ficus elastica ‘Robusta’) • Medium bright light (indirect sunlight) • Tolerates low light • Mist frequently to maintain high humidity • Let soil dry between waterings • Water thoroughly and then drain and let dry • Clean leaves with moist cloth 13. Asparagus fern (Asparagus umbellatus) • Prefers high light (full sun) • Soil should be kept moist • Keep temperature above 50°F • Prune often to keep it in shape. • Propagate by division; black seeds produced may also be used 14. Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) Mums (Dendranthema grandiflora) • Prefers high light in vegetative growth and medium light in blooms • Water moderately; keep soil moist • Day temperature is about 50–60°F • Cut stems back after blooms to about four inches • Pinch stem tips to produce a fuller bushy plant • Propagate by stem cuttings 11.11 Common Houseplants and Their Care 383

384 Chapter 11 Growing Houseplants 15. Aloe (Aloe Vera) • Prefers high light (place in south window) • Can bloom if light is intense • Do not overwater • High daytime temperatures needed • Fertilize moderately on a monthly basis • Propagate by offsets, cuttings, or division 16. Peace lily (Spathiphyllum wallisii) • Prefers medium light (bright indirect); intolerant of full sun • Maintain high humidity and moist soil • Temperature should be kept around 80°F during the day • Yellowing leaves should be removed • Propagate by dividing or seed 17. Snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciala) • Grows well in medium light (bright, indirect sunlight); tolerant of dim light • Drench and drain and let dry between watering; drought tolerant • Prefers high room temperature • Clean leaves with moist cloth periodically • Propagate by cuttings, offset, or rhizome division 18. Swiss cheese plant (Monstera oblique) • Bright light promotes characteristic windowed leaves • Can grow on totem poles or in baskets • Low water requirements; keep dry between waterings • Prefers moderate temperatures 19. Friendship plant (Pilea involucrata) • Prefers light shade or medium light • Keep soil moist • Keep temperatures moderate 20. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherima) • Place in south window for high light when color is developed • Water well but keep dry between waterings • Keep temperature moderate during the daytime • Cut plant back to about eight inches • To have color during next season, place plant in darkness (short photoperiod) from 5 P.M.–8 A.M. for about thirty days starting on October 1 21. Easter lily (Lilium longiforum) • When in bloom, keep in medium light (bright, indirect sunlight) • Water well but keep dry between waterings • Prefers cool temperature during bloom • Cut the stalk after plant dies, dig bulb, clean and store in cool dry place for planting in early fall • Propagate by scales 22. Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata ‘Bostoriensis’) • Place in east window for medium light • Water well but let soil dry between waterings; mist especially during the summer • Temperature should be no more than 75°F for best growth • Supply fertilizers sparingly • Propagate by division or runners; mature spores may also be used 23. Umbrella tree (Schefflera arboricola ‘Luciana’) • Place in medium light (bright, indirect sunlight); dim light produces reduced foliage • Keep soil dry between watering and mist frequently

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    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

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    With love to Theresa, quarterback;

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    Brief Contents Preface xxi PART 1 T

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    Contents Preface xxi PART 1 THE UND

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    5.3 PLANT GROWTH PROCESSES 160 5.4

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    8.20 COMMON GREENHOUSE DISEASES 276

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    12.3 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

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    PART 6 Summary 541 References and S

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    22.18 INDOOR COMPOSTING SYSTEMS 668

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    Preface Horticulture is the area of

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful

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    PART 1 THE UNDERLYING SCIENCE CHAPT

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    1 What Is Horticulture? PURPOSE AND

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    (a) (c) (b) (d) FIGURE 1-1 The many

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    FIGURE 1 Bridge. The plaza view of

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    CYCADS Many people mistake these pr

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    FIGURE 2 The world's largest unbran

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    FIGURE 2 Sold flowers are loaded on

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    FIGURE 1-4 Formal landscaping featu

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    1.4 ROLEOFTHENURSERY AND SEED INDUS

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    1.5 HORTICULTURE AND SOCIETY Hortic

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    TABLE 1-3 U.S. Horticultural Export

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    Turfgrass Operation 1. Landscape te

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    What Is Horticulture? This site pro

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    Examples of botanical gardens http:

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    2 Classifying and Naming Horticultu

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    Eight major taxa are commonly used

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    TABLE 2-3 The Divisions of the King

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    HISTORY OF PLANT TAXONOMY PAUL R. F

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    AGE OF HERBALISTS Two major events

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    possible system of nomenclature. Ho

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    TABLE 1 Type Categories for Plant N

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    2.3 OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS (O

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    2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trun

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    Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Drupe B

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    FIGURE 2-14 A pome, represented by

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    2.3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 2-22 (Source: George

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    FIGURE 2-25 A narrowleaf plant. (So

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    FIGURE 2-29 Parts of a typical gras

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    such as rosemary, sage, thyme, marj

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    c. Leaves d. Bulbs 2. Cut across (t

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    Whole plant Organs FIGURE 3-1 Level

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    ibonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, an

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    called cristae; this extreme foldin

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    By virtue of its position, the prim

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    Phloem Tissue Structurally, phloem

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    (a) Stalk (b) Culm FIGURE 3-5 Cross

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    Scale Compressed stem (a) Whole bul

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    Upper epidermis Palisade layer FIGU

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    usually occur in xerophytes. In cer

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    FIGURE 3-22 Selected common leaf ma

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    FIGURE 3-25 Selected common leaf ti

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    absorption of water and minerals fr

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    Outer bark Inner bark FIGURE 3-37 T

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    Anther Filament Stamen FIGURE 3-41

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    Exocarp Parts of a typi- FIGURE 3-4

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    PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LABORATORY 1.

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    4.1 CLIMATE, WEATHER, AND HORTICULT

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    concentration in the atmosphere.A c

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    TABLE 4-1 Climatic Adaptation of Se

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    and upward. Another important gener

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    Rate of photosynthesis mg/sq. dm/hr

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    and plants that flower under only c

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    times of the year. Growers start th

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    content. This section is sometimes

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    TABLE 4-7 Soil Mineral Nutrients Es

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    Micronutrients (Trace Elements) Mic

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    Neutral FIGURE 4-11 A representatio

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    4.4 FERTILIZERS Fertilizer sources

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    One of the most commonly used contr

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    Chlorosis (the yellowing of green l

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    Fertilizers may be applied before p

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    It is neither practical nor safe to

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    Solution: How much of ammonium nitr

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    1°C (34°F), the optimum temperatu

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    Cellulose sponge Perched water tabl

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    Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation Water

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    FIGURE 4-19 Furrow irrigation of le

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    can self-install an underground irr

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    1. Surface drainage. Surface draina

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    Secondary Tillage Primary tillage i

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    (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 4-20 (Source

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    texture. The most commonly used gra

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    TABLE 4-11 Selected Standard Mixes

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    Steam Pasteurization Steam pasteuri

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    Maracher, H. 1986. Mineral nutritio

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    5 Plant Physiology PURPOSE AND EXPE

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    Growth in an organism follows a cer

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    5.1.2 THE ROLE OF SIGNALS IN GROWTH

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    waxes are embedded. Waxes consist o

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    5.3.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis

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    CO 2 FIGURE 5-6 The C 4 pathway of

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    Growth and Development The general

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    TABLE 5-2 Energy Produced from Aero

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    Certain plants are adapted to dry e

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    conditions exist to sustain growth

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    Shoot Elongation In certain plants,

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    for success, since high temperature

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    FIGURE 5-13 Ripening of plantain sh

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    Terminal bud removed Unbranched pla

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    conditions—pertaining to light, m

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    them to maturity. The major process

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    6 Breeding Horticultural Plants PUR

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    Similarly, there can be no plant br

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    APPLICATION, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPE

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    hit with target DNA. Therefore, it

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    Generally, within ten days of exper

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    Aziz A.N., Sauve R.J., Zhou S., 200

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    (b) F 1 Rr Rr round round F 2 RR R

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    e.g., Aa × Aa), the lethal allele

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    eeder’s equation. Simply stated,

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    Before the seed or product becomes

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    6.18.2 THE GENERAL STEPS OF RDNA TE

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    2. Political disagreement. There ar

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Ac

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    PART 2 PROTECTING HORTICULTURAL PLA

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    7 Biological Enemies of Horticultur

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    8. Weeds may clog drains, waterways

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    is also a root parasite that obtain

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    LEGISLATIVE Both state and federal

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    Example Integrated cultural, physic

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    7.4.2 IMPORTANT INSECT ORDERS Insec

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    Egg FIGURE 7-3 Life cycle of an ins

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    sucking insects (also found with so

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    FIGURE 7-12 Corn earworm damage. (S

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    TABLE 7-1 Selected Fungal Diseases

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    7.6.1 SMALL ANIMALS Rabbits, mice,

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    FIGURE 7-16 The disease triangle. P

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    fungitoxic exudates in its leaves,

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    SUMMARY Insects are a major class o

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    For the home growers or those who c

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    for consumers and the environment).

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    TABLE 8-1 Strategy 4: Strategies an

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    gibberellic acid spray overcomes st

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    In a competitive industry, a variet

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    Chemicals gain access to humans thr

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    2. Pesticide management. Controllin

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    Every organism has its natural enem

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    TABLE 8-3 Selected Examples of Biol

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    1 2 YEAR 3 4 FIGURE 8-5 cycle. A cr

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    6. Heat treatment. In the greenhous

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    Organic Compounds (Organics) Organi

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    under enclosed conditions (e.g., wa

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    FIGURE 8-9 A tractor-mounted spraye

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    8.11.9 LANDSCAPE PESTS AND THEIR CO

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    application, a particular herbicide

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    Further, they do not provide unifor

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    SUMMARY Herbicides are chemicals us

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    Sulfur may be applied for both prev

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    8.23 PREVENTING GREENHOUSE DISEASES

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    PART 3 PROPAGATING HORTICULTURAL PL

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    9 Sexual Propagation PURPOSE AND EX

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    Anther Microspore Megaspore mother

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    Lettuce seeds Red light Darkness Fa

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    FEDERAL AND STATE SEED LAWS Federal

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    Germination Test In laboratory prac

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    FIGURE 15 The essential structures

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    processing into flour or meal). How

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    physiologically immature seeds must

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    seeds may be treated in this way be

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    The two basic modes of seedling eme

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    locations in the field. Home garden

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    FIGURE 9-9 A plastic flat. (Source:

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 9-12 (a) Sowing seed

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    y the gardener or grower. Whatever

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    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Co

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    species enables vegetative propagat

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    for rapid rooting. There are two ba

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    Cutting involving one node (e.g., s

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    This practice is especially importa

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    10.6.4 STICKING THE CUTTING Cutting

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    (a) Indexing by budding Diseased pl

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    10.11 M ETHODS OF GRAFTING Grafting

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    Scion Wax FIGURE 10-17 Steps in bar

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    MODULE 3 BUDDING 10.12 TYPES OF BUD

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    MODULE 4 LAYERING 10.13 TYPES OF LA

  • Page 358 and 359: Buried part of shoot is nicked FIGU
  • Page 360 and 361: variety of ways. In air layering, a
  • Page 362 and 363: FIGURE 10-34 by using cormels. Prop
  • Page 364 and 365: Psuedobulbs In the Dendrobium orchi
  • Page 366 and 367: The technique is used widely in cro
  • Page 368 and 369: PART 4 GROWING PLANTS INDOORS CHAPT
  • Page 370 and 371: 11 Growing Houseplants PURPOSE AND
  • Page 372 and 373: TABLE 11-1 Common houseplants Commo
  • Page 374 and 375: Saddle leaf Philodendron selloum To
  • Page 376 and 377: Window Displays Plants in windows e
  • Page 378 and 379: CONTAINER GARDENS DR. TERRI W. STAR
  • Page 380 and 381: annuals and hardy perennial species
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  • Page 384 and 385: perfection about four to six weeks
  • Page 386 and 387: FIGURE 11-6 Flowers displayed on th
  • Page 388 and 389: TABLE 11-5 Plant Selected Plants fo
  • Page 390 and 391: The lighting condition near these w
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  • Page 394 and 395: may be used for one pot or a group
  • Page 396 and 397: garden rooms, atriums, or a large c
  • Page 398 and 399: The photoperiod affects when the ho
  • Page 400 and 401: patted firm to keep the plant erect
  • Page 402 and 403: Other Materials Apart from clay and
  • Page 404 and 405: (a) ( FIGURE 11-25 Support for plan
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  • Page 410 and 411: • Prefers high temperatures • P
  • Page 412 and 413: amount and quality of light. If sup
  • Page 414 and 415: 12 Controlled-Environment Horticult
  • Page 416 and 417: 6. Curvilinear 7. Curved eave 8. Do
  • Page 418 and 419: Detached greenhouses have several a
  • Page 420 and 421: 12.2.3 FRAME DESIGN There are two b
  • Page 422 and 423: horticultural business a less-expen
  • Page 424 and 425: Texas, Hawaii, and California. The
  • Page 426 and 427: source of heat for times when the t
  • Page 428 and 429: FIGURE 12-17 Greenhouse production
  • Page 430 and 431: FIGURE 12-21 Moving tables allowing
  • Page 432 and 433: Research program on greenhouse engi
  • Page 434 and 435: greenhouses equipped with a variety
  • Page 436 and 437: FIGURE 1 Annual energy required per
  • Page 438 and 439: This system was demonstrated in a 5
  • Page 440 and 441: FIGURE 6 Amounts of waste energy ut
  • Page 442 and 443: Ekholt, B.A., D.R. Mears, M.S. Gini
  • Page 444 and 445: or object to be warmed. Failure to
  • Page 446 and 447: objects in its path (e.g., the floo
  • Page 448 and 449: FIGURE 12-27 Motorized ventilation
  • Page 450 and 451: FIGURE 12-30 Movable internal shade
  • Page 452 and 453: FIGURE 12-33 A high pressure sodium
  • Page 454 and 455: Source of Water The quality of loca
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    Intermittent Feed Greenhouse plants

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    However, in winter, greenhouse vent

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    OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. Explain the

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    . Foliage or green plants. Foliage

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    2. Labor. The size of the labor for

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    FIGURE 13-1 Greenhouse production o

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    FIGURE 13-2 Lettuce plug is inserte

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    13.8.4 AGGREGATE HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13-6 Plug produc

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    14 Growing Succulents PURPOSE AND E

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    FIGURE 14-3 Leaf succulent represen

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    frost-hardy. Their rosettes are usu

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    TABLE 14-1 Plant Selected Popular S

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 14-12 Typical bromel

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    14.7.1 WHAT ARE CACTI? 14.7 CACTI C

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    FIGURE 14-16 Opuntia. (Source: Crai

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    FIGURE 14-23 Mammillaria. (Source:

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    FIGURE 14-28 Both desert and jungle

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    Growing mix Gravel Cacti (a) (b) FI

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    PART5 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: ORNA

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    15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOS

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    8. Create recreational grounds. Suc

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    knowledge, with concern for resourc

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    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 15-2 The occurre

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    GUIDELINES FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN DAV

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    the landscape. Some very successful

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    Rhythm and Line Panoramic view of a

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    FIGURE 15-10 A formal garden. The e

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    How frequently do they entertain? A

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    the patio should be located on the

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    15.7.1 SELECTING PLANTS A homeowner

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    Plant Arrangement in the Landscape

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    Shadow FIGURE 15-15 Planting a tree

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    SUMMARY Landscaping enhances the su

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    3. Supply materials on a timely bas

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    such as preparation rooms (for mixi

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    of environmental fluctuations. Furt

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    FIGURE 16-4 A bare-root tree seedli

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    17 Installation of the Landscape PU

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    for walks, driveways, and patios (F

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    Planting may be limited to accentin

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    17.3.3 PREPARING THE BED The soil s

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    FIGURE 17-4 Bedding plants raised i

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    SUMMARY Bedding plants are largely

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    TABLE 17-6 Selected Ground Covers T

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    TABLE 17-7 Selected Ornamental Gras

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    they determine the success and surv

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    12. Wildlife attraction. Trees in t

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    pennsylvanica), hackberry (Celtis s

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    y winds. A stake, which is often a

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    TABLE 17-8 Selected Narrowleaf Ever

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    TABLE 17-11 Selected Deciduous Shru

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    Blooming bushes 1. Blue mist shrub

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    Planting Bulblets and Bulbils Speci

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    may be divided such that each secti

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    FIGURE 18-1 (Source: George Acquaah

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    Cool-Season (Temperate) Grasses In

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    Growth Habit Turfgrasses are the mo

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    Heavy Use Lawns on playgrounds and

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    The seed should be free from weeds

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    Source of Sod As with seed, sod sup

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    A plug of sod FIGURE 18-7 Plugging

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    way, plants are able to adapt to th

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    form of a can placed on the lawn wi

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    TABLE 18-3 Some Common Lawn and Tur

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    even surface soil surface for layin

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    MacCaskey, M. 1987. All about lawns

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    Pruning is sometimes done in conjun

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    4. Pruning may be done to reduce th

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    19.4.2 SAWS A saw may be designed t

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    defeat the purpose of pruning. The

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    Bud withers as cut end dries back d

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    19.6 STRATEGIES FOR PRUNING ABOVEGR

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    Rejuvenation Pruning Cut canes to a

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    3. In the third and subsequent year

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    (a) Cut Prune (b) FIGURE 19-16 Step

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    Eucalyptus and Paulownia are amenab

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    TRAINING & PRUNING DECIDUOUS FRUIT

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    Summer pruning eliminates an energy

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    a) b) FIGURE 2 Newly planted apple

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    FIGURE 6 Wooden limb spreaders can

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    FIGURE 9. An apple tree trained to

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    years to promote continued lateral

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    Horizontal Espalier The horizontal

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    19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are

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    FIGURE 19-26 Shearing of Christmas

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    pyramid-like form that is wider at

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    After selecting the appropriate spe

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    PART 6 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: VEG

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    20 Growing Vegetables Outdoors PURP

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    The National Agricultural Statistic

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    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

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    growers should take to determine an

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    pests and reduce/ eliminate hail da

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    square yard (10 to 68 grams per squ

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    High tunnels help increase the prof

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    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

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    20.4 VEGETABLE MARKET TYPES Fresh V

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    Establishing the Crop Planting into

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    home water supply from the tap. Thi

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    Cole crop Cabbage Root Potato Bean

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    6. Adequate nutrition. While overfe

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    variable, ranging from creamy yello

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    There are two general production pr

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    This toxin is heat resistant and no

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    large, or jumbo. The bulb may be sw

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    REFERENCES Growing selected vegetab

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    TABLE 21-1 Popular Herbs and Their

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    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 21-1

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    22 Organic Farming PURPOSE AND EXPE

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    22.3 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING

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    and the specific materials to be us

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    22.8 MANAGING SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY

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    preemergent or early postemergent o

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    Composting is a deliberate activity

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    22.14.5 THE CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATI

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    Moisture Supply Water is required b

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    Compost materials FIGURE 22-4 a wir

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    As microbial decomposition proceeds

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    Establishment and Management of an

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    night, freezing can occur in spring

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    accomplished by stratification. It

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    transmitted by the dagger nematode

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    PART 7 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND HANDL

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    24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PU

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    to more than four-fold in standard

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    Temperature and Humidity Wilting re

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    FLORAL DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW BY WM. J

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    Principle Definition Types (or Uses

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    pH value-a measure of the acidity o

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    FIGURE 6 Parallel Design-Parallel d

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    24.3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS The tool

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    3. Establish the focal point. 4. Ad

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    Natural Drying To dry naturally, fl

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    24.4.3 DRIED FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS Dr

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    25 Terrarium Culture PURPOSE AND EX

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    FIGURE 25-3 Terrarium containers ar

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    FIGURE 25-5 Assortment of tools use

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    25.6.7 ENHANCING THE DISPLAY Certai

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 26-1 Bonsai can be c

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    TABLE 26-3 Plant A Selection of Pop

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    26.3.1 COLLECTING BONSAI PLANTS FRO

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    Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26-9

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    26.5.2 SANITATION It is critical to

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    27 Postharvest Handling and Marketi

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    whereas oranges are picked (they ha

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    (b) (a) (c) (d) (e1) (e2) (f) FIGUR

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    To reduce packaging injury, contain

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    is replaced by the by-product of re

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    Stored produce may lose some color,

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    with pricing. When selling by volum

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    (a) (b) FIGURE 27-5 Horticultural p

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    APPENDIX A Temperature: Converting

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    APPENDIX B Metric Conversion Chart

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    APPENDIX D Common and Scientific Na

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    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Peony (Pa

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    GLOSSARY A Abaxial Turned away from

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    Cellulose A complex carbohydrate th

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    Floriculture The science and practi

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    M Macronutrient An essential elemen

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    Root cap A mass of hard cells cover

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    INDEX A-frame, 395 A-horizon, 108 A

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    defined, 390 fertilization, 432-434

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    Radiant heaters, 378 Radicle, 90 Re

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    color plate 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) M

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    color plate 3 (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (

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    color plate 5 (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (

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    color plate 7 (b) (c) (d) (a) (e) (

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    color plate 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (

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    color plate 11 (a) (c) (b) (d) Grow

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    color plate 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 17 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 21 (a) (b) (c) (e) (d)

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    color plate 23 (c) (b) (a) (d) (e)

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    color plate 25 (c) (a) (b) (d) (e)

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    color plate 27 (a1) (a2) (b2) (b1)

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    color plate 29 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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    color plate 31 (a) (b) (c) Floral d