Views
8 months ago

Horticulture Principles and Practices

greenhouses equipped

greenhouses equipped with a variety of curtain insulation systems had demonstrated the significant variation in transfer rates under different weather conditions. From this work it was possible to develop a quantitative relationship between the heat loss coefficient of each covering system and the weather conditions as defined by wind speed and sky clearness index. It was found that the sky clearness index has a strong influence on radiative heat loss from the greenhouse that is substantially reduced by the IR inhibitor. In addition to determining the heat loss characteristics of the different films and their combinations, light transmission and changes in transmission were evaluated. PAR light transmission of both types of film were generally comparable with the non-IR film having slightly greater transmission initially and both films loosing some transmission over time due to a combination of dirt build up and film darkening. Both film darkening and reduction in light transmission due to dirt accumulation were measured at the end of the test period. As the IR film did not darken as much or accumulate as much dirt over time it had slightly greater light transmission in the second year of use. Another effect of the IR inhibitor, which is generally accepted as significant for improved plant production, is that the transmitted light is much more diffuse than is the case for the non-IR film. The heat savings in the series of tests varied from about 25% to 40% depending upon weather conditions. While the specific film developed and tested in the early 1980’s is no longer commercially available, IR inhibited films are in widespread use with similar energy savings characteristics according to manufacturers. An important aspect of both IR inhibited plastic films and internal curtain systems is that in addition to the energy savings, the reduction in heat loss by radiation results in significant increases in plant tissue temperatures relative to the greenhouse air which can result in slightly lower thermostat settings for air temperature resulting in additional energy savings. Another research activity of the late 1960’s, not initially regarded has having energy savings consequences, was focused on improving the watering systems for tomato production in trough culture. While doing this work, several attempts were made to also increase the temperature of the root zone by watering with warm water but it was found that within less than an hour, with evaporation and other heat loss, soil temperature had returned to its initial condition. Therefore several techniques were tried to keep the soil warm, including circulating water in plastic tubes under the beds, which served to keep the soil warmer and did improve growth. This observation led to an increasing interest in using floor-heating systems to augment traditional overhead heating systems and to reduce the difference between colder root zone and warmer overhead air temperatures for crops grown on the floor. Without soil heating, it is often necessary to overheat the greenhouse air to achieve target soil temperatures. An independently controlled soil heating system has the potential to reduce the total energy requirement by reducing the air temperature and thus the heat loss from the greenhouse. More importantly, the ability to have somewhat independent control of soil and air temperature enables the grower to find the right combination of soil and air temperatures for a given crop and at a given stage of development. In general, the aim of the environmental control engineer should be to provide environmental control tools to the grower, and clearly independent control of soil and air temperature give more management opportunities to the grower. A number of techniques have been developed for root zone heating in greenhouses and during research at Rutgers University heat transfer coefficients for many have been measured and used to guide system design (Roberts and Mears, 1980). More detailed information on the research and guidance on system design is available on the Horticultural Engineering web site and in the publication NRAES-3. Early research focused on designs incorporating plastic or rubber tubing in porous concrete floors. Porous concrete, produced with aggregate and cement but no sand, provides a solid working surface and good drainage for pots and flats placed directly on the floor. Both small diameter tubing and 3/4 inch plastic pipe were initially studied to determine the uniformity of floor surface temperature and heat transfer rate as determined by the spacing of the pipes within the floor and the arrangement and moisture condition of the pots or flats on the floor. Through the extension program, a large number of commercial installations of floor heating systems were designed for growers to install on their own throughout the 12.3 Internal Environmental Control 409

world. In addition some bench top systems were designed utilizing 1/2 or 3/4 inch plastic tubing, and smaller diameter tubing systems provided by commercial suppliers have come into widespread use. In all cases it is important to design the system so that the floor or bench surface is heated uniformly so the crop will be uniform. An important characteristic of root zone heating systems is the large heat storage capacity. Soil temperature will only change slowly in response to changes in the aerial environment or changes in the temperature of the circulating water that is the heat source. This means that, unlike air temperature, root zone temperatures cannot be programmed to change significantly except over long time periods. To consider the implications of the energy conservation aspects of the various greenhouse design choices discussed above consider the energy requirements representative designs of commercial greenhouses. In Table 1 below the annual heat requirement for an acre of growing space at temperatures ranging from 50 to 70°F have been calculated based on a 10 year composite hourly weather data base for the Philadelphia International Airport. Similar calculations could be prepared for locations with different weather patterns and compared with commercial experience. The heat transfer coefficients for glass, polyethylene and IR inhibited polyethylene used in this table are based on values presented in NRAES-3 and the glass plus curtain figures are based on tests done in The Netherlands for modern curtain materials. The coefficients for plain and IR inhibited polyethylene with modern curtain materials are estimated from the others. These figures are useful for comparative purposes but it is important to note that specific building design, location and exposure to wind, installation of glazing and curtain systems, heating system design and other factors all affect actual fuel consumption. Single span greenhouses would require more fuel than multi-span gutter-connected units for all temperatures as seen by comparing the first two rows. For example, for greenhouses in reasonably good repair running at 65°F, an acre of single span glass houses could require about 123,000 Therms while a gutter-connected block of the same size would need about 80,000 Therms. For the calculations in Table 1 the wall heights were all assumed at 12 feet, though even higher wall and gutter heights are becoming increasingly popular. Reducing wall height would have some significant savings for the single span units but not for the gutter connected designs. A significant advantage of a gutter connected greenhouse for large areas is that with the elimination of many side walls the heat loss from the walls is minimized relative to that through the roof and relative to the floor growing area. Increased height is advantageous in that space is available for mechanical systems, curtain systems, lighting and automation. Also research and experience has shown that height promotes uniformity of environmental conditions, particularly in cooling. Continuing with the comparison at 65°F, an acre block of gutter-connected doublelayer polyethylene would only need 50,000 Therms and adding a good energy conserving curtain system could reduce this requirement to 37,000 Therms. The development of IR TABLE 1 Annual per acre heat requirement in Therms Greenhouse Temperature °F → 50 55 60 65 70 Small single span glass units 48,582 69,074 93,330 123,041 161,823 Large gutter connected glass 30,393 42,662 59,014 80,490 107,342 Gutter con. plain polyethylene 18,089 25,949 36,529 49,949 66,097 Gutter con. IR poly 11,701 16,946 24,025 32,915 43,683 Gutter con. poly curtain 13,204 19,216 27,231 37,353 49,484 Gutter con. IR poly curtain 8,995 12,993 18,252 24,897 33,027 Gutter con. Glass curtain 13,037 18,980 26,911 36,884 48,928 410 Chapter 12 Controlled-Environment Horticulture

  • Page 2 and 3:

    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

  • Page 4 and 5:

    HORTICULTURE Principles and Practic

  • Page 6 and 7:

    With love to Theresa, quarterback;

  • Page 8 and 9:

    Brief Contents Preface xxi PART 1 T

  • Page 10 and 11:

    Contents Preface xxi PART 1 THE UND

  • Page 12 and 13:

    5.3 PLANT GROWTH PROCESSES 160 5.4

  • Page 14 and 15:

    8.20 COMMON GREENHOUSE DISEASES 276

  • Page 16 and 17:

    12.3 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

  • Page 18 and 19:

    PART 6 Summary 541 References and S

  • Page 20 and 21:

    22.18 INDOOR COMPOSTING SYSTEMS 668

  • Page 22 and 23:

    Preface Horticulture is the area of

  • Page 24 and 25:

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful

  • Page 26 and 27:

    PART 1 THE UNDERLYING SCIENCE CHAPT

  • Page 28 and 29:

    1 What Is Horticulture? PURPOSE AND

  • Page 30 and 31:

    (a) (c) (b) (d) FIGURE 1-1 The many

  • Page 32 and 33:

    FIGURE 1 Bridge. The plaza view of

  • Page 34 and 35:

    CYCADS Many people mistake these pr

  • Page 36 and 37:

    FIGURE 2 The world's largest unbran

  • Page 38 and 39:

    FIGURE 2 Sold flowers are loaded on

  • Page 40 and 41:

    FIGURE 1-4 Formal landscaping featu

  • Page 42 and 43:

    1.4 ROLEOFTHENURSERY AND SEED INDUS

  • Page 44 and 45:

    1.5 HORTICULTURE AND SOCIETY Hortic

  • Page 46 and 47:

    TABLE 1-3 U.S. Horticultural Export

  • Page 48 and 49:

    Turfgrass Operation 1. Landscape te

  • Page 50 and 51:

    What Is Horticulture? This site pro

  • Page 52 and 53:

    Examples of botanical gardens http:

  • Page 54 and 55:

    2 Classifying and Naming Horticultu

  • Page 56 and 57:

    Eight major taxa are commonly used

  • Page 58 and 59:

    TABLE 2-3 The Divisions of the King

  • Page 60 and 61:

    HISTORY OF PLANT TAXONOMY PAUL R. F

  • Page 62 and 63:

    AGE OF HERBALISTS Two major events

  • Page 64 and 65:

    possible system of nomenclature. Ho

  • Page 66 and 67:

    TABLE 1 Type Categories for Plant N

  • Page 68 and 69:

    2.3 OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS (O

  • Page 70 and 71:

    2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trun

  • Page 72 and 73:

    Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits Drupe B

  • Page 74 and 75:

    FIGURE 2-14 A pome, represented by

  • Page 76 and 77:

    2.3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

  • Page 78 and 79:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 2-22 (Source: George

  • Page 80 and 81:

    FIGURE 2-25 A narrowleaf plant. (So

  • Page 82 and 83:

    FIGURE 2-29 Parts of a typical gras

  • Page 84 and 85:

    such as rosemary, sage, thyme, marj

  • Page 86 and 87:

    c. Leaves d. Bulbs 2. Cut across (t

  • Page 88 and 89:

    Whole plant Organs FIGURE 3-1 Level

  • Page 90 and 91:

    ibonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, an

  • Page 92 and 93:

    called cristae; this extreme foldin

  • Page 94 and 95:

    By virtue of its position, the prim

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Phloem Tissue Structurally, phloem

  • Page 98 and 99:

    (a) Stalk (b) Culm FIGURE 3-5 Cross

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Scale Compressed stem (a) Whole bul

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Upper epidermis Palisade layer FIGU

  • Page 104 and 105:

    usually occur in xerophytes. In cer

  • Page 106 and 107:

    FIGURE 3-22 Selected common leaf ma

  • Page 108 and 109:

    FIGURE 3-25 Selected common leaf ti

  • Page 110 and 111:

    absorption of water and minerals fr

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Outer bark Inner bark FIGURE 3-37 T

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Anther Filament Stamen FIGURE 3-41

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Exocarp Parts of a typi- FIGURE 3-4

  • Page 118 and 119:

    PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LABORATORY 1.

  • Page 120 and 121:

    4.1 CLIMATE, WEATHER, AND HORTICULT

  • Page 122 and 123:

    concentration in the atmosphere.A c

  • Page 124 and 125:

    TABLE 4-1 Climatic Adaptation of Se

  • Page 126 and 127:

    and upward. Another important gener

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Rate of photosynthesis mg/sq. dm/hr

  • Page 130 and 131:

    and plants that flower under only c

  • Page 132 and 133:

    times of the year. Growers start th

  • Page 134 and 135:

    content. This section is sometimes

  • Page 136 and 137:

    TABLE 4-7 Soil Mineral Nutrients Es

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Micronutrients (Trace Elements) Mic

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Neutral FIGURE 4-11 A representatio

  • Page 142 and 143:

    4.4 FERTILIZERS Fertilizer sources

  • Page 144 and 145:

    One of the most commonly used contr

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Chlorosis (the yellowing of green l

  • Page 148 and 149:

    Fertilizers may be applied before p

  • Page 150 and 151:

    It is neither practical nor safe to

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Solution: How much of ammonium nitr

  • Page 154 and 155:

    1°C (34°F), the optimum temperatu

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Cellulose sponge Perched water tabl

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Overhead Sprinkler Irrigation Water

  • Page 160 and 161:

    FIGURE 4-19 Furrow irrigation of le

  • Page 162 and 163:

    can self-install an underground irr

  • Page 164 and 165:

    1. Surface drainage. Surface draina

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Secondary Tillage Primary tillage i

  • Page 168 and 169:

    (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 4-20 (Source

  • Page 170 and 171:

    texture. The most commonly used gra

  • Page 172 and 173:

    TABLE 4-11 Selected Standard Mixes

  • Page 174 and 175:

    Steam Pasteurization Steam pasteuri

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Maracher, H. 1986. Mineral nutritio

  • Page 178 and 179:

    5 Plant Physiology PURPOSE AND EXPE

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Growth in an organism follows a cer

  • Page 182 and 183:

    5.1.2 THE ROLE OF SIGNALS IN GROWTH

  • Page 184 and 185:

    waxes are embedded. Waxes consist o

  • Page 186 and 187:

    5.3.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis

  • Page 188 and 189:

    CO 2 FIGURE 5-6 The C 4 pathway of

  • Page 190 and 191:

    Growth and Development The general

  • Page 192 and 193:

    TABLE 5-2 Energy Produced from Aero

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Certain plants are adapted to dry e

  • Page 196 and 197:

    conditions exist to sustain growth

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Shoot Elongation In certain plants,

  • Page 200 and 201:

    for success, since high temperature

  • Page 202 and 203:

    FIGURE 5-13 Ripening of plantain sh

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Terminal bud removed Unbranched pla

  • Page 206 and 207:

    conditions—pertaining to light, m

  • Page 208 and 209:

    them to maturity. The major process

  • Page 210 and 211:

    6 Breeding Horticultural Plants PUR

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Similarly, there can be no plant br

  • Page 214 and 215:

    APPLICATION, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPE

  • Page 216 and 217:

    hit with target DNA. Therefore, it

  • Page 218 and 219:

    Generally, within ten days of exper

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Aziz A.N., Sauve R.J., Zhou S., 200

  • Page 222 and 223:

    (b) F 1 Rr Rr round round F 2 RR R

  • Page 224 and 225:

    e.g., Aa × Aa), the lethal allele

  • Page 226 and 227:

    eeder’s equation. Simply stated,

  • Page 228 and 229:

    Before the seed or product becomes

  • Page 230 and 231:

    6.18.2 THE GENERAL STEPS OF RDNA TE

  • Page 232 and 233:

    2. Political disagreement. There ar

  • Page 234 and 235:

    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Ac

  • Page 236 and 237:

    PART 2 PROTECTING HORTICULTURAL PLA

  • Page 238 and 239:

    7 Biological Enemies of Horticultur

  • Page 240 and 241:

    8. Weeds may clog drains, waterways

  • Page 242 and 243:

    is also a root parasite that obtain

  • Page 244 and 245:

    LEGISLATIVE Both state and federal

  • Page 246 and 247:

    Example Integrated cultural, physic

  • Page 248 and 249:

    7.4.2 IMPORTANT INSECT ORDERS Insec

  • Page 250 and 251:

    Egg FIGURE 7-3 Life cycle of an ins

  • Page 252 and 253:

    sucking insects (also found with so

  • Page 254 and 255:

    FIGURE 7-12 Corn earworm damage. (S

  • Page 256 and 257:

    TABLE 7-1 Selected Fungal Diseases

  • Page 258 and 259:

    7.6.1 SMALL ANIMALS Rabbits, mice,

  • Page 260 and 261:

    FIGURE 7-16 The disease triangle. P

  • Page 262 and 263:

    fungitoxic exudates in its leaves,

  • Page 264 and 265:

    SUMMARY Insects are a major class o

  • Page 266 and 267:

    For the home growers or those who c

  • Page 268 and 269:

    for consumers and the environment).

  • Page 270 and 271:

    TABLE 8-1 Strategy 4: Strategies an

  • Page 272 and 273:

    gibberellic acid spray overcomes st

  • Page 274 and 275:

    In a competitive industry, a variet

  • Page 276 and 277:

    Chemicals gain access to humans thr

  • Page 278 and 279:

    2. Pesticide management. Controllin

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Every organism has its natural enem

  • Page 282 and 283:

    TABLE 8-3 Selected Examples of Biol

  • Page 284 and 285:

    1 2 YEAR 3 4 FIGURE 8-5 cycle. A cr

  • Page 286 and 287:

    6. Heat treatment. In the greenhous

  • Page 288 and 289:

    Organic Compounds (Organics) Organi

  • Page 290 and 291:

    under enclosed conditions (e.g., wa

  • Page 292 and 293:

    FIGURE 8-9 A tractor-mounted spraye

  • Page 294 and 295:

    8.11.9 LANDSCAPE PESTS AND THEIR CO

  • Page 296 and 297:

    application, a particular herbicide

  • Page 298 and 299:

    Further, they do not provide unifor

  • Page 300 and 301:

    SUMMARY Herbicides are chemicals us

  • Page 302 and 303:

    Sulfur may be applied for both prev

  • Page 304 and 305:

    8.23 PREVENTING GREENHOUSE DISEASES

  • Page 306 and 307:

    PART 3 PROPAGATING HORTICULTURAL PL

  • Page 308 and 309:

    9 Sexual Propagation PURPOSE AND EX

  • Page 310 and 311:

    Anther Microspore Megaspore mother

  • Page 312 and 313:

    Lettuce seeds Red light Darkness Fa

  • Page 314 and 315:

    FEDERAL AND STATE SEED LAWS Federal

  • Page 316 and 317:

    Germination Test In laboratory prac

  • Page 318 and 319:

    FIGURE 15 The essential structures

  • Page 320 and 321:

    processing into flour or meal). How

  • Page 322 and 323:

    physiologically immature seeds must

  • Page 324 and 325:

    seeds may be treated in this way be

  • Page 326 and 327:

    The two basic modes of seedling eme

  • Page 328 and 329:

    locations in the field. Home garden

  • Page 330 and 331:

    FIGURE 9-9 A plastic flat. (Source:

  • Page 332 and 333:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 9-12 (a) Sowing seed

  • Page 334 and 335:

    y the gardener or grower. Whatever

  • Page 336 and 337:

    REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING Co

  • Page 338 and 339:

    species enables vegetative propagat

  • Page 340 and 341:

    for rapid rooting. There are two ba

  • Page 342 and 343:

    Cutting involving one node (e.g., s

  • Page 344 and 345:

    This practice is especially importa

  • Page 346 and 347:

    10.6.4 STICKING THE CUTTING Cutting

  • Page 348 and 349:

    (a) Indexing by budding Diseased pl

  • Page 350 and 351:

    10.11 M ETHODS OF GRAFTING Grafting

  • Page 352 and 353:

    Scion Wax FIGURE 10-17 Steps in bar

  • Page 354 and 355:

    MODULE 3 BUDDING 10.12 TYPES OF BUD

  • Page 356 and 357:

    MODULE 4 LAYERING 10.13 TYPES OF LA

  • Page 358 and 359:

    Buried part of shoot is nicked FIGU

  • Page 360 and 361:

    variety of ways. In air layering, a

  • Page 362 and 363:

    FIGURE 10-34 by using cormels. Prop

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Psuedobulbs In the Dendrobium orchi

  • Page 366 and 367:

    The technique is used widely in cro

  • Page 368 and 369:

    PART 4 GROWING PLANTS INDOORS CHAPT

  • Page 370 and 371:

    11 Growing Houseplants PURPOSE AND

  • Page 372 and 373:

    TABLE 11-1 Common houseplants Commo

  • Page 374 and 375:

    Saddle leaf Philodendron selloum To

  • Page 376 and 377:

    Window Displays Plants in windows e

  • Page 378 and 379:

    CONTAINER GARDENS DR. TERRI W. STAR

  • Page 380 and 381:

    annuals and hardy perennial species

  • Page 382 and 383:

    of the large container filled with

  • Page 384 and 385: perfection about four to six weeks
  • Page 386 and 387: FIGURE 11-6 Flowers displayed on th
  • Page 388 and 389: TABLE 11-5 Plant Selected Plants fo
  • Page 390 and 391: The lighting condition near these w
  • Page 392 and 393: Fluorescent Lights Fluorescent ligh
  • Page 394 and 395: may be used for one pot or a group
  • Page 396 and 397: garden rooms, atriums, or a large c
  • Page 398 and 399: The photoperiod affects when the ho
  • Page 400 and 401: patted firm to keep the plant erect
  • Page 402 and 403: Other Materials Apart from clay and
  • Page 404 and 405: (a) ( FIGURE 11-25 Support for plan
  • Page 406 and 407: TABLE 11-7 Common Problems of House
  • Page 408 and 409: • Keep soil moist all the time
  • Page 410 and 411: • Prefers high temperatures • P
  • Page 412 and 413: amount and quality of light. If sup
  • Page 414 and 415: 12 Controlled-Environment Horticult
  • Page 416 and 417: 6. Curvilinear 7. Curved eave 8. Do
  • Page 418 and 419: Detached greenhouses have several a
  • Page 420 and 421: 12.2.3 FRAME DESIGN There are two b
  • Page 422 and 423: horticultural business a less-expen
  • Page 424 and 425: Texas, Hawaii, and California. The
  • Page 426 and 427: source of heat for times when the t
  • Page 428 and 429: FIGURE 12-17 Greenhouse production
  • Page 430 and 431: FIGURE 12-21 Moving tables allowing
  • Page 432 and 433: Research program on greenhouse engi
  • Page 436 and 437: FIGURE 1 Annual energy required per
  • Page 438 and 439: This system was demonstrated in a 5
  • Page 440 and 441: FIGURE 6 Amounts of waste energy ut
  • Page 442 and 443: Ekholt, B.A., D.R. Mears, M.S. Gini
  • Page 444 and 445: or object to be warmed. Failure to
  • Page 446 and 447: objects in its path (e.g., the floo
  • Page 448 and 449: FIGURE 12-27 Motorized ventilation
  • Page 450 and 451: FIGURE 12-30 Movable internal shade
  • Page 452 and 453: FIGURE 12-33 A high pressure sodium
  • Page 454 and 455: Source of Water The quality of loca
  • Page 456 and 457: FIGURE 12-37 Overhead sprinkler irr
  • Page 458 and 459: Intermittent Feed Greenhouse plants
  • Page 460 and 461: However, in winter, greenhouse vent
  • Page 462 and 463: OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT 1. Explain the
  • Page 464 and 465: . Foliage or green plants. Foliage
  • Page 466 and 467: 2. Labor. The size of the labor for
  • Page 468 and 469: FIGURE 13-1 Greenhouse production o
  • Page 470 and 471: FIGURE 13-2 Lettuce plug is inserte
  • Page 472 and 473: 13.8.4 AGGREGATE HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS
  • Page 474 and 475: (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13-6 Plug produc
  • Page 476 and 477: 14 Growing Succulents PURPOSE AND E
  • Page 478 and 479: FIGURE 14-3 Leaf succulent represen
  • Page 480 and 481: frost-hardy. Their rosettes are usu
  • Page 482 and 483: TABLE 14-1 Plant Selected Popular S
  • Page 484 and 485:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 14-12 Typical bromel

  • Page 486 and 487:

    14.7.1 WHAT ARE CACTI? 14.7 CACTI C

  • Page 488 and 489:

    FIGURE 14-16 Opuntia. (Source: Crai

  • Page 490 and 491:

    FIGURE 14-23 Mammillaria. (Source:

  • Page 492 and 493:

    FIGURE 14-28 Both desert and jungle

  • Page 494 and 495:

    Growing mix Gravel Cacti (a) (b) FI

  • Page 496 and 497:

    PART5 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: ORNA

  • Page 498 and 499:

    15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOS

  • Page 500 and 501:

    8. Create recreational grounds. Suc

  • Page 502 and 503:

    knowledge, with concern for resourc

  • Page 504 and 505:

    (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 15-2 The occurre

  • Page 506 and 507:

    GUIDELINES FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN DAV

  • Page 508 and 509:

    the landscape. Some very successful

  • Page 510 and 511:

    Rhythm and Line Panoramic view of a

  • Page 512 and 513:

    FIGURE 15-10 A formal garden. The e

  • Page 514 and 515:

    How frequently do they entertain? A

  • Page 516 and 517:

    the patio should be located on the

  • Page 518 and 519:

    15.7.1 SELECTING PLANTS A homeowner

  • Page 520 and 521:

    Plant Arrangement in the Landscape

  • Page 522 and 523:

    Shadow FIGURE 15-15 Planting a tree

  • Page 524 and 525:

    SUMMARY Landscaping enhances the su

  • Page 526 and 527:

    3. Supply materials on a timely bas

  • Page 528 and 529:

    such as preparation rooms (for mixi

  • Page 530 and 531:

    of environmental fluctuations. Furt

  • Page 532 and 533:

    FIGURE 16-4 A bare-root tree seedli

  • Page 534 and 535:

    17 Installation of the Landscape PU

  • Page 536 and 537:

    for walks, driveways, and patios (F

  • Page 538 and 539:

    Planting may be limited to accentin

  • Page 540 and 541:

    17.3.3 PREPARING THE BED The soil s

  • Page 542 and 543:

    FIGURE 17-4 Bedding plants raised i

  • Page 544 and 545:

    SUMMARY Bedding plants are largely

  • Page 546 and 547:

    TABLE 17-6 Selected Ground Covers T

  • Page 548 and 549:

    TABLE 17-7 Selected Ornamental Gras

  • Page 550 and 551:

    they determine the success and surv

  • Page 552 and 553:

    12. Wildlife attraction. Trees in t

  • Page 554 and 555:

    pennsylvanica), hackberry (Celtis s

  • Page 556 and 557:

    y winds. A stake, which is often a

  • Page 558 and 559:

    TABLE 17-8 Selected Narrowleaf Ever

  • Page 560 and 561:

    TABLE 17-11 Selected Deciduous Shru

  • Page 562 and 563:

    Blooming bushes 1. Blue mist shrub

  • Page 564 and 565:

    Planting Bulblets and Bulbils Speci

  • Page 566 and 567:

    may be divided such that each secti

  • Page 568 and 569:

    FIGURE 18-1 (Source: George Acquaah

  • Page 570 and 571:

    Cool-Season (Temperate) Grasses In

  • Page 572 and 573:

    Growth Habit Turfgrasses are the mo

  • Page 574 and 575:

    Heavy Use Lawns on playgrounds and

  • Page 576 and 577:

    The seed should be free from weeds

  • Page 578 and 579:

    Source of Sod As with seed, sod sup

  • Page 580 and 581:

    A plug of sod FIGURE 18-7 Plugging

  • Page 582 and 583:

    way, plants are able to adapt to th

  • Page 584 and 585:

    form of a can placed on the lawn wi

  • Page 586 and 587:

    TABLE 18-3 Some Common Lawn and Tur

  • Page 588 and 589:

    even surface soil surface for layin

  • Page 590 and 591:

    MacCaskey, M. 1987. All about lawns

  • Page 592 and 593:

    Pruning is sometimes done in conjun

  • Page 594 and 595:

    4. Pruning may be done to reduce th

  • Page 596 and 597:

    19.4.2 SAWS A saw may be designed t

  • Page 598 and 599:

    defeat the purpose of pruning. The

  • Page 600 and 601:

    Bud withers as cut end dries back d

  • Page 602 and 603:

    19.6 STRATEGIES FOR PRUNING ABOVEGR

  • Page 604 and 605:

    Rejuvenation Pruning Cut canes to a

  • Page 606 and 607:

    3. In the third and subsequent year

  • Page 608 and 609:

    (a) Cut Prune (b) FIGURE 19-16 Step

  • Page 610 and 611:

    Eucalyptus and Paulownia are amenab

  • Page 612 and 613:

    TRAINING & PRUNING DECIDUOUS FRUIT

  • Page 614 and 615:

    Summer pruning eliminates an energy

  • Page 616 and 617:

    a) b) FIGURE 2 Newly planted apple

  • Page 618 and 619:

    FIGURE 6 Wooden limb spreaders can

  • Page 620 and 621:

    FIGURE 9. An apple tree trained to

  • Page 622 and 623:

    years to promote continued lateral

  • Page 624 and 625:

    Horizontal Espalier The horizontal

  • Page 626 and 627:

    19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are

  • Page 628 and 629:

    FIGURE 19-26 Shearing of Christmas

  • Page 630 and 631:

    pyramid-like form that is wider at

  • Page 632 and 633:

    After selecting the appropriate spe

  • Page 634 and 635:

    PART 6 GROWING PLANTS OUTDOORS: VEG

  • Page 636 and 637:

    20 Growing Vegetables Outdoors PURP

  • Page 638 and 639:

    The National Agricultural Statistic

  • Page 640 and 641:

    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

  • Page 642 and 643:

    growers should take to determine an

  • Page 644 and 645:

    pests and reduce/ eliminate hail da

  • Page 646 and 647:

    square yard (10 to 68 grams per squ

  • Page 648 and 649:

    High tunnels help increase the prof

  • Page 650 and 651:

    (This item omitted from WebBook edi

  • Page 652 and 653:

    20.4 VEGETABLE MARKET TYPES Fresh V

  • Page 654 and 655:

    Establishing the Crop Planting into

  • Page 656 and 657:

    home water supply from the tap. Thi

  • Page 658 and 659:

    Cole crop Cabbage Root Potato Bean

  • Page 660 and 661:

    6. Adequate nutrition. While overfe

  • Page 662 and 663:

    variable, ranging from creamy yello

  • Page 664 and 665:

    There are two general production pr

  • Page 666 and 667:

    This toxin is heat resistant and no

  • Page 668 and 669:

    large, or jumbo. The bulb may be sw

  • Page 670 and 671:

    REFERENCES Growing selected vegetab

  • Page 672 and 673:

    TABLE 21-1 Popular Herbs and Their

  • Page 674 and 675:

    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 21-1

  • Page 676 and 677:

    22 Organic Farming PURPOSE AND EXPE

  • Page 678 and 679:

    22.3 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING

  • Page 680 and 681:

    and the specific materials to be us

  • Page 682 and 683:

    22.8 MANAGING SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY

  • Page 684 and 685:

    preemergent or early postemergent o

  • Page 686 and 687:

    Composting is a deliberate activity

  • Page 688 and 689:

    22.14.5 THE CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATI

  • Page 690 and 691:

    Moisture Supply Water is required b

  • Page 692 and 693:

    Compost materials FIGURE 22-4 a wir

  • Page 694 and 695:

    As microbial decomposition proceeds

  • Page 696 and 697:

    Establishment and Management of an

  • Page 698 and 699:

    night, freezing can occur in spring

  • Page 700 and 701:

    accomplished by stratification. It

  • Page 702 and 703:

    transmitted by the dagger nematode

  • Page 704 and 705:

    PART 7 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND HANDL

  • Page 706 and 707:

    24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PU

  • Page 708 and 709:

    to more than four-fold in standard

  • Page 710 and 711:

    Temperature and Humidity Wilting re

  • Page 712 and 713:

    FLORAL DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW BY WM. J

  • Page 714 and 715:

    Principle Definition Types (or Uses

  • Page 716 and 717:

    pH value-a measure of the acidity o

  • Page 718 and 719:

    FIGURE 6 Parallel Design-Parallel d

  • Page 720 and 721:

    24.3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS The tool

  • Page 722 and 723:

    3. Establish the focal point. 4. Ad

  • Page 724 and 725:

    Natural Drying To dry naturally, fl

  • Page 726 and 727:

    24.4.3 DRIED FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS Dr

  • Page 728 and 729:

    25 Terrarium Culture PURPOSE AND EX

  • Page 730 and 731:

    FIGURE 25-3 Terrarium containers ar

  • Page 732 and 733:

    FIGURE 25-5 Assortment of tools use

  • Page 734 and 735:

    25.6.7 ENHANCING THE DISPLAY Certai

  • Page 736 and 737:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 26-1 Bonsai can be c

  • Page 738 and 739:

    TABLE 26-3 Plant A Selection of Pop

  • Page 740 and 741:

    26.3.1 COLLECTING BONSAI PLANTS FRO

  • Page 742 and 743:

    Strip bark Bare branch FIGURE 26-9

  • Page 744 and 745:

    26.5.2 SANITATION It is critical to

  • Page 746 and 747:

    27 Postharvest Handling and Marketi

  • Page 748 and 749:

    whereas oranges are picked (they ha

  • Page 750 and 751:

    (b) (a) (c) (d) (e1) (e2) (f) FIGUR

  • Page 752 and 753:

    To reduce packaging injury, contain

  • Page 754 and 755:

    is replaced by the by-product of re

  • Page 756 and 757:

    Stored produce may lose some color,

  • Page 758 and 759:

    with pricing. When selling by volum

  • Page 760 and 761:

    (a) (b) FIGURE 27-5 Horticultural p

  • Page 762 and 763:

    APPENDIX A Temperature: Converting

  • Page 764 and 765:

    APPENDIX B Metric Conversion Chart

  • Page 766 and 767:

    APPENDIX D Common and Scientific Na

  • Page 768 and 769:

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Peony (Pa

  • Page 770 and 771:

    GLOSSARY A Abaxial Turned away from

  • Page 772 and 773:

    Cellulose A complex carbohydrate th

  • Page 774 and 775:

    Floriculture The science and practi

  • Page 776 and 777:

    M Macronutrient An essential elemen

  • Page 778 and 779:

    Root cap A mass of hard cells cover

  • Page 780 and 781:

    INDEX A-frame, 395 A-horizon, 108 A

  • Page 782 and 783:

    defined, 390 fertilization, 432-434

  • Page 784 and 785:

    Radiant heaters, 378 Radicle, 90 Re

  • Page 786 and 787:

    color plate 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) M

  • Page 788 and 789:

    color plate 3 (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (

  • Page 790 and 791:

    color plate 5 (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) (

  • Page 792 and 793:

    color plate 7 (b) (c) (d) (a) (e) (

  • Page 794 and 795:

    color plate 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (

  • Page 796 and 797:

    color plate 11 (a) (c) (b) (d) Grow

  • Page 798 and 799:

    color plate 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 800 and 801:

    color plate 15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 802 and 803:

    color plate 17 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 804 and 805:

    color plate 19 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 806 and 807:

    color plate 21 (a) (b) (c) (e) (d)

  • Page 808 and 809:

    color plate 23 (c) (b) (a) (d) (e)

  • Page 810 and 811:

    color plate 25 (c) (a) (b) (d) (e)

  • Page 812 and 813:

    color plate 27 (a1) (a2) (b2) (b1)

  • Page 814 and 815:

    color plate 29 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

  • Page 816 and 817:

    color plate 31 (a) (b) (c) Floral d