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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Echo Handbook

Chapter 1 Examination

Chapter 1 Examination Focal position Controls the depth at which the ultrasonic (US) beam is focused Around this region spatial (lateral) resolution is optimal (Fig. 1.1.8, see also Box 1.1.5) Frame rate Controls the trade-off between number of lines in a single frame and the number of frames created per second (see also Box 1.1.6) Higher frame rate will result in less lines in the image and thus worse spatial (lateral) resolution (Fig. 1.1.10) Fig. 1.1.8 Position of the focal point Note: The position of the focal point is indicated alongside the sector image (arrow point) 0 12.5 25 37.5 Transducer F = 50mm –5 –10 0 12.5 25 37.5 Transducer F = 90mm –5 –10 0 12.5 25 37.5 Transducer F = 130mm –5 –10 Box 1.1.5 Recommendation Place the focal point near the deepest structure of interest (Fig. 1.1.9, right panel) 6 Depth (mm) 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 112.5 125 137.5 150 –10–7.5–5 –2.5 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 Lateral distance (mm) –15 –20 –25 –30 –35 dB Depth (mm) 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 112.5 125 137.5 150 –10–7.5–5 –2.5 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 Lateral distance (mm) –15 –20 –25 –30 –35 dB Depth (mm) 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 112.5 125 137.5 150 –10–7.5 –5 –2.5 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 Lateral distance (mm) dB –15 –20 –25 –30 –35 Fig. 1.1.9 Simulated pressure field of a cardiac transducer White horizontal bar = beam width in focal zone when focus point at 50 mm (i.e. left panel) Mark the difference in beam width at larger depth with changing focal position (white circles) Focus point deeper: less effective focusing, lateral resolution decreases Beyond this focus point, beam widens, lateral resolution worsens

Box 1.1.6 Recommendation Keep frame rate at its default value unless modifications are required for specific processing methodologies (i.e. speckle tracking analysis) Continuous-wave and pulsed-wave Doppler High-quality/reliable Doppler recordings require: 1. Proper alignment of the image (i.e. Doppler) line with the flow direction (< 20° off-axis) (Fig. 1.1.11, see also Box 1.1.7) FPS 43.3 FPS 79.2 Fig. 1.1.10 Frame rate and spatial resolution Adequate Not optimal The EACVI Echo Handbook Box 1.1.7 Recommendation Reposition and angulate the probe under colour Doppler guidance to obtain optimal alignment 2. Proper velocity scale (also referred to as Nyquist velocity/ PRF) (Fig. 1.1.12AB) ◆◆ Scale too low: aliasing ◆◆ Scale too high: sub-optimal velocity resolution (i.e. smallest difference between two different velocities that can be measured is larger) Fig. 1.1.11 Doppler recording 7

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