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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Echo Handbook

Chapter 1 Examination A

Chapter 1 Examination A B C Strong (slow) myocardial velocities pollute the spectrum Fig. 1.1.15 Wall filter. A: Too low, B: Appropriate, C: Too high Slower-moving blood velocities are no longer displayed A High velocity scale to look at intra-beat velocity changes Fig. 1.1.16 Sweep speed. A: 100 mm/s, B: 33 mm/s B Low velocity scale to look at inter-beat (i.e. respiratory) velocity changes Colour-flow mapping Velocity scale Controls the range of velocities displayed in the colour box (Fig. 1.1.17, Box 1.1.11) Box 1.1.11 Recommendation Velocity scale should be as low as possible without aliasing Fig. 1.1.17 Velocity scale Aliasing ◆ Blue: motion away from transducer ◆ Red: motion towards the transducer ◆ Green: velocity out of range (i.e. aliasing)/ large spatial variance (i.e. turbulence) 10

Colour gain Controls amplification of the colour Doppler signals (see Box 1.1.12) Box 1.1.12 Recommendation Should be as high as possible, without noise appearance A B FPS 31.2 FPS 12.9 The EACVI Echo Handbook Size of colour box Directly impacts frame rate (Fig. 1.1.18AB, Box 1.1.13) Fig. 1.1.18 Colour box size. A: Adequate, B: Not optimal Box 1.1.13 Recommendation Colour box should be as small as possible, to optimize temporal and spatial resolution Advanced techniques Myocardial velocity imaging (MVI) (Fig. 1.1.19) 1. Proper alignment of the image line with the wall motion direction 2. Proper velocity scale (Nyquist velocity/PRF) PW Doppler Colour Doppler 3. Small sector angles for higher frame rates (optimal > 115 fps) Fig. 1.1.19 Myocardial veIocity imaging 11

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