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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Echo Handbook

Index cardiorespiratory

Index cardiorespiratory arrest 432–3 cardioversion 483, 484 Carpentier’s classification aortic regurgitation 247–8 mitral regurgitation 267–8 tricuspid regurgitation 294–5 catheterization 114 cavitation 3 Chagas disease 573–4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): exacerbation 426 Churg-Strauss syndrome 567–8 coarctation of the aorta 468–70 pregnancy 550 colour-flow Doppler 10–11, 25–6 aortic regurgitation: assessment of severity 249 assessment of valves valve regurgitation 33–8 valve stenosis 32–3 LV diastolic function: flow propagation velocity assessment 179–81 mitral regurgitation: assessment of severity 275–6 optimization 10–11 pulmonary stenosis: assessment of severity 222 tricuspid regurgitation: assessment of severity 295–6, 301–2 see also Doppler echocardiography congenital heart disease see adult congenital heart disease congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) 551 connective tissue disease (CTD) 557 antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 560 Marfan syndrome 548, 563–4 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) 562 rheumatoid arthritis 558 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 559 systemic sclerosis (SSc) 561–2 constrictive pericarditis definition 406 differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy 408 echocardiographic findings 408–9 echo-guided pericardiocentesis 410 physiology 406–7 continuous-wave Doppler (CW) 7–10, 25 see also Doppler echocardiography contrast echocardiography administrative protocols 93–4 rest echocardiography: bolus injection protocol 94 rest echocardiography: continuous infusion 95 stress echocardiography 95–6 attenuation 96–7 blooming 97 contraindications 93 contrast-ultrasound interaction 90, 91 fundamental frequency 90 indications rest echocardiography 90–2 stress echocardiography 92 mechanical index 90 microbubbles 88, 90 safety 98–9 managing contrast reactions 99 suggested reading 100 thoracic cage/linear artefacts 97 types of contrast-agents 89 Cormier score 227 coronary arteries: perfusion territories 149 coronary flow reserve (CFR) 46–8 coronary sinus defect 445 critically ill patients acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema 422, 423–4 acute dyspnoea 422–3 acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) 425 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbation of 426 echo protocols 432–3 left ventricular assistance device see LV assistance device pneumonia 427 pneumothorax (PNX) 426 pulmonary embolism 392–3, 427–8, 429 shock/hypotension 428–32 suggested reading 438 ventilated patients 428 D depth gain compensation 4 descending aorta flow 41 diastolic aortic flow reversal 255–6 diastolic function LV see LV diastolic function RV 383 578

dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) 356 diagnostic findings 355 dyssynchrony 357 prognosis 357 dipyridamole stress echocardiography 96, 518, 528–9 distributive shock 429 dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) 96, 217–18, 237, 517, 530–2 Doppler echocardiography information and assessment provided by 24 modalities colour-flow Doppler see colour-flow Doppler continuous-wave (CW) 7–8, 25 pulsed-wave see pulsed-wave Doppler non-invasive haemodynamic assessment coronary flow reserve (CFR) 46–8 intracardiac flows 38–46 prosthetic valve imaging 323–4 PW/CW assessment of valves valve regurgitation 30–1 valve stenosis 26–9 sample position 8 sample volume 8–9 sweep speed 9–10 wall filter 9 E Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve 477–9 pregnancy 552 ECG gated multi-beat 3D imaging 69, 75–7 ejection fraction 84, 85, 86, 91, 105, 145, 146, 179, 184, 189, 216–17, 386 embolism antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 560 echocardiographic findings in acute pulmonary embolism 392–3 infective endocarditis 347 paradoxical embolism 487 sources of 112, 123, 482, 488 atrial fibrillation 483–4 suggested reading 492 endocarditis see infective endocarditis endocrine disease acromegalic cardiomyopathy 572 hyperthyroidism 570 hypothyroidism 571 phaeochromocytoma 571–2 energy output 3 epicardial fat 400 examination: optimization acoustic power 3 advanced techniques 3D imaging see 3D imaging myocardial velocity imaging (MVI) 11–12 speckle tracking see speckle tracking colour-flow mapping 10–11 continuous-wave and pulsed wave Doppler 7–8 sample position 8 sample volume 8–9 sweep speed 9–10 wall filter 9 focal position 6 frame rate 6–7 gain 4 preparation 2 transmit frequency 5 examination: standard TOE see transoesophageal echocardiography examination: standard TTE see transthoracic echo examination exercise echocardiography 95 aortic valve stenosis 214–15 contraindications 517, 526 exercise vs pharmacological stress 522 limiting side effects 527 mitral regurgitation 289 mitral stenosis 236 patient preparation 526 protocol 527 pulmonary hypertension 393 F flow propagation velocity assessment 179–81 flow-related calculations 43 focal position 6 Fontan repair 552 frame rate 6–7 frequency 5 G gain 4 giant cell arteritis (GCA) 564–5 global longitudinal strain (GLS) 60, 66, 146–7 Index 579

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