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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

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Index mitral

Index mitral regurgitation (MR) 30–1, 35–8, 113–14, 124, 193, 214 aetiology 264–5 aortic regurgitation and 316–17 aortic stenosis and 315 assessment of severity 3D vena contracta 281 colour-flow imaging 275–6 complementary findings 283–4 Doppler quantitation from two valves flow 281–2 haemodynamics 280 indices 286–7 mitral valve morphology 275 proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) 278–80, 281 vena contracta width 276–7 Carpentier’s classification: leaflet motion abnormality 267–8 chronic/acute: differential diagnosis 287 consequences LA size 285 LV size and function 285 pulmonary systolic pressure 286 secondary MR 286 tricuspid annular dilatation 286 definition 264 exercise echocardiography 289 indications for mitral valve surgery 288 mechanism: lesion/deformation degenerative disease (primary MR) 265 factors affecting possibility of repair 266–7 phenotypes/morphotypes 265 secondary (functional) MR 266–7 mitral stenosis and 319 monitoring of asymptomatic patients 288–9 probability of successful mitral valve repair 274 mitral stenosis (MS) 28–9, 32–3, 224 aetiology 224–5 aortic regurgitation and 317 aortic stenosis and 315 assessment of severity 3D TTE planimetry 229–30 continuity equation: Doppler volumetric method 233 MV anatomic area by planimetry 228 pressure half-time (PHT) 232–3 proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method 233–4 trans-mitral diastolic PG image acquisition 231 trans-mitral diastolic pressure gradient 230 consequences of 235–6 definition 224 grades of severity 235 mitral regurgitation and 319 posteromedial commissure (PMC) echo criteria for 237–8 evaluation after (before hospital discharge) 238–9 rheumatic MS: morphology assessment 225–6 Cormier score 227 reduced leaflet mobility 226–7 Wilkin’s score 226, 227 mitral/tricuspid valve disease 317–18 mitral valve (MV) anatomy 269 annulus size and shape 87 imaging 3D 128 TOE 272–3 TTE 270–1 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) 562 M-mode echocardiography: assessment of LV diastolic function 164 multivalvular disease aetiologies 313 aortic regurgitation and mitral regurgitation 316–17 aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis 317 aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation 318–19 aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation 315 aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis 315 diagnostic caveats 314 mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation 319 tricuspid and mitral valve disease 317–18 tricuspid and pulmonic valve disease 318 muscular ventricular septal defects 452–3 myocardial contractility 46 myocardial performance index 147 myocardial velocity imaging (MVI) 11–12 myocarditis 374 582

N Nyquist velocity 7, 11 O obstructive lesions aortic coarctation 468–70 pregnancy 550 aortic stenosis 467 LV outflow tract obstruction 465–6 obstructive shock 429 Optison 89, 95 ostium primum 444–5 ostium secundum 441–4 P pacemakers 350 parasternal long-axis view (PTLAX) 19 parasternal short-axis view (PTSAX) 20 partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (PAPVD) 448–9 patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) 461–3 perfusion territories 149 pericardial cyst 411 pericardial disease 398 congenital absence of pericardium 411, 412 constrictive pericarditis definition 406 differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy 408 echocardiographic findings 408–9 echo-guided pericardiocentesis 410 physiology 406–7 effusion see pericardial effusion pericardial cyst 411 suggested reading 412, 413 pericardial effusion 195 cardiac tamponade definition 401 echocardiographic findings 404–5 obstructive shock 429, 431–2 physiology 402–3 differential diagnosis 399–400 echocardiographic findings 400–1 normal findings 399 semi-quantification 399 pericardial haematoma 401 pericardiocentesis 410 perimembranous ventricular septal defects 451–2 persistent left superior vena cava (SVC) 463–4 phaeochromocytoma 571–2 PISA see proximal isovelocity surface area measurement pleural effusion 399 pneumonia 427 pneumothorax (PNX) 426 posteromedial commissure (PMC) echo criteria for 237–8 evaluation after (before hospital discharge) 238–9 post-systolic shortening (PSS) 62 pregnancy aortic dissection 549 congenital heart disease 549–52 congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) 551 dyspnoea 546 Ebstein’s valve abnormality 552 echocardiographic findings during normal pregnancy 544, 545 Fontan repair 552 haemodynamic changes 544 ischaemic heart disease 549 Marfan syndrome 548 palpitations 546 pulmonary hypertension 552 role of echo evaluation of cardiac murmur 545 evaluation of cardiac symptoms or signs 546 evaluation of pre-existing cardiac disease 546–7 suggested reading 553 transposition of the great arteries (TGA) 551–2 valvular prosthesis 548 valvular regurgitation 547–8 valvular stenosis 547 prosthetic valves aetiology of high Doppler gradients 332–5 aortic valve prosthesis 336 biological valves 320 classification 320 echo imaging 322–3 determination of gradients 324 Doppler recordings 323–4 effective orifice area (EOA) 324–8 evaluation of function 114, 124–5, 321, 334, 335 follow-up TTE 336–7 infective endocarditis 348–9 Index 583

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