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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

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Index prosthetic valves

Index prosthetic valves (Cont.) mechanical valves 320, 328–9 obstruction/stenosis 333, 334, 335 pannus formation 332, 333 pathologic regurgitation 330–1 patient-prosthesis mismatch 334 physiologic regurgitation 328–9 pregnancy 548 strands 336 thrombosis 332, 333 transcatheter valves 320 proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) measurement aortic regurgitation 252–4 mitral regurgitation 278–80, 281 mitral stenosis 233–4 pulmonary regurgitation 310 tricuspid regurgitation 298–300 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) 393 pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) 45 pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAMP) 45 pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) 44–5 pulmonary embolism 392–3, 427–8, 429 pulmonary hypertension 391 antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 560 exercise testing 393 pregnancy 552 systemic sclerosis (SSc) 561 pulmonary oedema 422, 423–4 pulmonary regurgitation (PR) 30, 33–5 aetiology 307 assessment of severity diastolic flow reversal in main pulmonary artery 309 assessment of severity diastolic flow reversal in PA branch 310 indices 312 PISA method 310 pressure half-time (PHT) 310–11 PR index 311 proximal jet width to RVOT ratio 309 pulmonary valve morphology 308–9 vena contracta width in PR 310 definition 307 pulmonary stenosis (PS) 26–8, 32 aetiology 220 assessment of severity colour Doppler aliasing level 22 consequences of severity 222–3 functional valve area 221–2 indices of severity 222 pressure gradient 221 valve anatomy 220–1 grades of severity 223 pulmonary valve anatomy 308 imaging 308 3D 129, 308 pulmonary venous drainage 448–9 pulmonary venous flow 40–1 analysis 174 assessment 171–2 influencing factors 175 morphology 173 pulmonic/tricuspid valve disease 318 pulsed-wave Doppler (PW) 7–8, 25 mitral annulus velocity measurement 175–9 mitral inflow analysis 169–70 assessment 165–7 pattern 167–8 optimization 7–10 pulmonary venous flow analysis 174 assessment 171–2 influencing factors 175 morphology 173 see also Doppler echocardiography R real-time (live) 3D imaging 69, 73–7 restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) 376–7, 408 rheumatic valve disease 201 rheumatic mitral stenosis morphology assessment 225–6 Cormier score 227 reduced leaflet mobility 226–7 Wilkin’s score 226, 227 rheumatoid arthritis 558 right atrial (RA) measurements 388 right atrial pressure (RAP) 44 right ventricle 3D imaging 130 see also RV RV function 382 causes of RV dysfunction 382–3 measures combined measures 385–7 584

diastolic function 383 isovolumic acceleration (IVA) 387 isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) 387 longitudinal measures 384–5 RV ejection fraction (RVEF%) 386 RV fractional area change (RVFAC) 385 systolic function 383 timing measures 386 tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 384 tricuspid annular plane systolic velocity 384 reference values 394–5 right-chamber imaging and views 380 suggested reading 396 RV infarction 194–5 RV measurements areas 381 linear dimensions 381 volumes 381 wall thickness 382 RV outflow 39 RV pressure overload aetiology 391 echocardiographic findings acute pulmonary embolism 392–3 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) 393 exercise testing for pulmonary hypertension 393 measurement 391–2 RV systolic pressure (RVSP) 44–5 RV volume overload 389–90 S sample volume 8–9 sarcoidosis 556–7 septic shock 429, 431 shock 428–32 shunt calculation 43–4 shunt lesions atrial septal defect (ASD) 440 coronary sinus 445 echo post-ASD intervention 447 haemodynamic effects 447 ostium primum 444–5 ostium secundum 441–4 pregnancy 549 sinus venosus 446 atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) 457–60 partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (PAPVD) 448–9 patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) 461–3 persistent left superior vena cava (SVC) 463–4 ventricular septal defects (VSD) 450 doubly-committed/juxta-arterial VSD 454 muscular VSD 452–3 perimembranous VSD 451–2 pregnancy 550 review post-VSD intervention 456 size and haemodynamic effect 455 sinus of Valsalva aneurysm 512 sinus venosus defect 446 SonoVue 89, 93, 95 speckle tracking 12, 385 functional imaging 58–62 ‘spongy heart syndrome’ 373 strain (rate) imaging 12, 58, 62, 385 global strain 60, 66, 146–7 normal LV strain values 66 regional strain 64, 65 strands 336, 488 ‘stress cardiomyopathy’ 375 stress echocardiography adenosine 529–30 complications 526 contraindications 517–18 contrast echocardiography 92 coronary artery territories and myocardial segmentation 520 dipyridamole 96, 518, 528–9 dobutamine 96, 217–18, 237, 517, 530–2 exercise testing see exercise echocardiography exercise vs pharmacological stress 522 indications 516–17 LV segmentation 519 LV wall motion assessment 518 reasons for test termination 523 responses 524–5 stress echo protocols 521, 525 stressor choice and appropriateness criteria 532–3 stress types 521–2 suggested reading 534 stroke volume (SV) 43 aortic stenosis 211 subcostal 4-chamber view (4CV) 22 subcostal short-axis view (SAX) 22 superior vena cava (SVC) flow 42–3 Index 585

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