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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Echo Handbook

Index suprasternal

Index suprasternal long-axis view 23 sweep speed colour-flow mapping 11 continuous-wave and pulsed-wave Doppler 9–10 syphilitic aortitis 567 systematic diseases 554 amyloidosis 367, 377, 554–5 carcinoid syndrome 557 Chagas disease 573–4 connective tissue disease (CTD) 557 antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 560 Marfan syndrome 548, 563–4 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) 562 rheumatoid arthritis 558 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 559 systemic sclerosis (SSc) 561–2 endocrine disease acromegalic cardiomyopathy 572 hyperthyroidism 570 hypothyroidism 571 phaeochromocytoma 571–2 haematochromatosis 555–6 HIV (AIDS) 572–3 hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler) 568–9 sarcoidosis 556–7 suggested reading 574 vasculitis Churg-Strauss 567–8 giant cell arteritis (GCA) 564–5 syphilitic aortitis 567 Takayasu’s arteritis 565–7 Whipple’s disease 569–70 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 559 systemic sclerosis (SSc) 561–2 systolic function LV see LV systolic dysfunction RV 383 systolic strain rate 385 T Takayasu’s arteritis 565–7 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 375 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) 473–6 pregnancy 550–1 thermal index 3 thoracic aortic aneurysm see aortic aneurysm thrombus formation 92, 113, 114, 120, 123, 125, 136, 191, 192–3, 237, 332, 356, 427, 428, 429, 434, 437, 484, 487, 560 tissue damage 3 tissue Doppler 51–7 torsion 60 transmit frequency 5 transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) 2D views and Doppler recordings descending aorta and aortic arch 122 lower-mid-oesophageal probe position 118–19 transgastric views 121–2 upper oesophageal probe position 120–1 3D imaging 126–31 acute aortic syndrome (AAS) 499–503 clinical indications aortic dissection/aortic aneurysm 113 infective endocarditis 112–13 intra-operative or periprocedural 114 mitral regurgitation 113–14 potential cardiovascular source of embolism 112 prosthetic valves 114 essential imaging aortic dissection/other aortic disease 123–4 infective endocarditis 123 mitral regurgitation 124 prosthetic valve evaluation 124–5 source of embolism 123 procedure checklist 116 competency 115 instruments 115 introduction of TOE probe 116–17 sequence of examination 118 safety and contraindications 117–18 storage and report on TOE 3D dataset 134 minimal basic dataset 132–3 recommendations for reporting 137–8 suggested reading 125, 138 transposition of the great arteries (TGA) 551–2 transthoracic echo examination (TEE) 2D echocardiography 16 3D echocardiography 2D slices 71–2 complete examination 79–80 dropout artefact 68 586

ECG gated multi-beat imaging 69, 75–7 focused examination 78–9 image acquisition 69 image display 69–70 information provided by 68 linear dimensions and areas 83–4 LV dyssynchrony 86–7 LV segmentation 81–3 mitral valve annulus size and shape 87 processed volume 70 real-time (live) 3D 69, 73–7 reference values 87 simultaneous multi-plane 69, 72–3 size of septal defects 86 stitching artefact 68 suggested reading 87 surface rendered 71 volumes, ejection fraction, and mass 84–6 windows and views 77–8 Doppler see Doppler echocardiography functional imaging basic parameters 50–1 global strain 60, 66 information provided by 49 longitudinal tissue Doppler velocities 63 normal LV strain values 66 radial and circumferential velocities 63 reference values 63–6 regional strain 64, 65 speckle tracking 58–62 tissue Doppler 51–7 LV opacification: contrast see contrast echocardiography M-mode echocardiography 16 storage and report on TTE 3D dataset 101–2 minimal basic dataset 101–2 recommendations for reporting 104–8 suggested reading 108 views apical 2-chamber view (2CV) 21 apical 3-chamber view (3CV) 22 apical 4-chamber view (4CV) 21 apical 5-chamber view (5CV) 21 apical RV 4-chamber view (RV 4CV) 22 parasternal long-axis (PTLAX) 19 parasternal short-axis (PTSAX) 20 subcostal 4-chamber view (4CV) 22 subcostal short-axis view (SAX) 22 suprasternal long-axis view 23 windows 17–18 traumatic injury of the aorta 509–10 tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 384 tricuspid annular plane systolic velocity 384 tricuspid/mitral valve disease 317–18 tricuspid/pulmonic valve disease 318 tricuspid regurgitation (TR) 30–1, 35–8 aetiology 290 assessment of severity 3D vena contracta (VC) 300 colour-flow imaging 295–6, 301–2 hepatic vein flow 300–1 indices 305 PISA method 298–300 tricuspid valve 295 TR jet-CW Doppler 301–2 vena contracta width 297–8 consequences RV size and function 304 RV systolic pressure 303 definition 290 mechanism: lesion/deformation 293–4 Carpentier’s classification 294–5 persistent or recurrent TR after left-sided valve surgery 306 primary TR 293 secondary TR 294 tricuspid stenosis (TS) 28–9, 32–3 aetiology 240 assessment of severity 3D planimetry 243 continuity equation 242–3 pressure gradient 241 pressure half-time 242 valve anatomy 241 consequences 243 grades of severity 243 tricuspid valve anatomy 291 imaging 292 3D 129, 291, 292 tumours 485–6 twist 60 U unroofed coronary sinus 445 V Valsalva manoeuvre 169–70 Index 587

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