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EACVI Echocardiography Textbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Textbook of Echocardiography 2nd edition

index 645 connective

index 645 connective tissue disease 483–6 constrictive pericarditis 388–9, 424–7 continuity equation 29, 239–40, 278 continuous wave Doppler 28 aortic regurgitation 261–2 mitral regurgitation 290 contractile reserve 247–8, 377 contrast echocardiography 70–7 accreditation 77 allergic reactions 76 artefacts 76–7 contraindications 76 contrast administration 71 contrast agents 70, 71t cost-effectiveness 77 Doppler signal enhancement 76 imaging modalities 71–2 indications 72 left ventricular non-compaction 73, 395 left ventricular opacification 72, 97 left ventricular structure and function 72–3 left ventricular thrombus 73, 444–5 myocardial perfusion 73–6, 225 safety 76 stress testing 72, 97 training 77 transoesophageal 76 vascular imaging 604 CoreValve® 340–1 Cormier score 279 coronary aneurysm 229 coronary angiography 435 coronary artery anomalies 228–30 imaging 597–601 post-transplant vasculopathy 435–6 stress echocardiography 102 coronary blood flow 599 coronary fistula 230 coronary flow reserve 97, 101–2, 106, 377–8, 399, 436 coronary flow velocity reserve 599–601 coronary sinus 581 unroofed 508 cost-effectiveness 77, 88, 116–17 credential 622 cropping 66 Curschmann–Steinert disease 401 cysts, pericardial 427, 456 D damping 3, 5 DeBakey classification 463 Definity® 71t deformation echocardiography 35–40 cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction 554–6 heart failure 194–6 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 211 left atrial function 167–8 left ventricular diastolic function 158 left ventricular systolic dysfunction 137–41, 194–6 modalities 36–7 principles 35 right atrium 188 stress testing 96–7 views 37–40 windows 37–40 dextrocardia 518 diabetes 108 diastolic aortic flow reversal 259–60 diastolic pulmonary artery pressure 32, 178 DICOM format 9, 42, 115–16 digital echocardiography laboratory 115–19 digital storage 9, 42–3, 115–16 dilated cardiomyopathy 372–83 aetiology 372 diagnosis 373 echocardiographic features 372 ejection fraction 381 familial screening 382 filling patterns 381–2 follow-up 382 ischaemic/non-ischaemic differentiation 377 left ventricular diastolic function 374, 381–2 left ventricular dyssynchrony 380–1 left ventricular systolic function 373–4 left ventricular thrombus 378, 380 mitral regurgitation 378, 382 monitoring 382 pulmonary hypertension 380 right ventricle 374–5, 378, 382 risk stratification 381–2 stress echocardiography 376–8 dipyridamole stress echocardiography 91, 94–5, 376 direct current cardioversion 546 distributive shock 535 dobutamine stress echocardiography 91, 94–5 cardiac allograft vasculopathy 436 dilated cardiomyopathy 376 low-flow–low-gradient aortic stenosis 241 mitral regurgitation 295 post-myocardial infarction 225 replacement heart valves 339 Doppler echocardiography 27–34 aortic regurgitation 251–2, 256–62 artefacts 34 cardiac tamponade 424 constrictive pericarditis 388–9, 424–5 contrast agents 76 left atrial appendage 543, 545 left atrial function 165 left ventricular systolic function 134–6 mitral regurgitation 285–93 mitral stenosis 274 principles 27–9 pulmonary flow 181–2 replacement heart valves 328 tricuspid regurgitation 307–9 double helix formation 124–5 doxorubicin 553t, 553–4 dP/dt 134–5, 174, 203 drop-out artefact 13f drug-induced conditions 255, 494, 501; see also cancer therapy dual-chamber pacing 366–7 Duchenne muscular dystrophy 402 duplex ultrasound 603 abdominal aorta 611–13 lower extremities 615–18 renal arteries 613–15 supra-aortic arteries 605–11 Duran nomenclature 268, 270f dynamic reception focusing 6 dyslipidaemia 501 dyspnoea 532–4 E e’ 33, 148–50, 154–5, 158, 203–4 E velocity 152, 203 E/A 152–3, 203 Ebstein’s anomaly 523 eccentricity index 413–14 EchoNavigator 560–1 Edwards SAPIEN® valve 341 E/e’ 157, 158 E/E’ 203–4 effective orifice area 239 effective orifice area index 329t, 331, 332f effective regurgitant orifice area 31–2, 258–9, 288–9 Ehlers–Danlos syndrome 499 ejection fraction 133–4, 166, 193–4, 202, 210–11, 381, 397–8, 413, 554 electroanatomical mapping 87 electronic aperture variation 6 electronic focusing 5–6 electronic steering 5–6 electrophysiological interventions 86–8 emboli cardiac sources 440–8 pulmonary 448, 533 emergency echocardiography 626–9 end-diastolic pulmonary artery pressure 416–17 endocarditis non-bacterial and marantic 442, 500–1 replacement heart valves 339–40, 348 see also infective endocarditis endomyocardial biopsy 436 endomyocardial fibrosis 386, 411–12 eosinophilic cardiomyopathy 386, 388, 411–12, 491 epi-aortic echocardiography 461–2 epicardial echocardiography 4t epicardial fat 422 ergonovine stress echocardiography 95 ergotamine alkaloids 494 Eustachian valve 457 exercise diastolic function during 151 E/e’ 158 pulmonary hypertension 212 right ventricular assessment 417 systolic pulmonary artery pressure 182 exercise stress echocardiography 91, 93, 106–7 aortic regurgitation 262–3 aortic stenosis 246 dilated cardiomyopathy 376 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 212 mitral regurgitation 293, 295–6 mitral stenosis 279 replacement heart valves 339 exercise treadmill test 617 expert operator level 628–9 external carotid artery stenosis 609 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 538–9 eyeball method 96, 133 F far zone 5 FAST 538 femoral arteriovenous fistula, catheter-related 619 femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, catheter-related 619 femoropopliteal stenosis/occlusion 616 fibroma 454–5 fibromuscular dysplasia 611, 614 filling pressures 157, 206 fistula catheter-related femoral arteriovenous 619 coronary 230

646 index flow convergence, see PISA method focused cardiac ultrasound 531 focusing 3, 6 Fontan operation 526 fractional area change 133, 173–4, 413 fractional shortening 131 frame rate 8 Fraunhofer field 5 free wall rupture 221 Fresnel field 5 Friedreich’s ataxia 401 full volume 3D data set 8 fundamental imaging 8 G Gerbode defect 510 giant cell arteritis 489, 610, 613 Glenn shunt 526 global longitudinal strain 140, 141, 158, 188, 205, 554–6 gooseneck deformity 512 graft-versus-host disease 504 granulomatosis with polyangiitis 492, 500 H haematological disorders 494 haemochromatosis 387, 480–1 haemodynamic instability 535–6 haemodynamic monitoring 587 hand-held echocardiography 79–84 Harlequin syndrome 539 harmonic imaging 8–9 heart failure dyspnoea 532–3 follow-up 205–6, 213 left ventricular dyssynchrony 197–200 left ventricular systolic dysfunction 193–6 monitoring 205–6, 213 risk stratification 202–5, 213 with preserved ejection fraction 209–13 heart rate, indexing for 176 heart transplantation, see cardiac transplantation helix formation 124–5 hemi-Fontan shunt 526 hepatic vein flow 180–1, 309 hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia 494 hibernating myocardium 91, 100, 224 HIV infection 493 HL7 9 Horton disease 489, 610, 613 hypereosinophilia 386, 388, 411–12, 491 hyperparathyroidism 501 hypertensive heart disease 107–8, 364 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 354–68 alcohol septal ablation 366 apical 73, 357 cavity size 357 clinical presentation 354 diagnostic criteria in first-degree relatives 365 differential diagnosis 363–4 dual-chamber pacing 366–7 echocardiographic essentials 368t follow-up 367 functional features 357–63 global longitudinal strain 141 intraventricular obstruction 361–3 left atrium 357 left ventricle 355–6, 357 left ventricular diastolic function 360 left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 361, 366–7 left ventricular systolic function 357–9 midventricular obstructive 362–3 mitral regurgitation 363 mitral valve 357, 362 mitral valve surgery 366 monitoring 367 morphology 355–7 myectomy 366 myocardial contrast echocardiography 76 myocardium 355–7 pathophysiology 354 patterns of hypertrophy 355–7 phenocopies 363–4 role of echocardiography 355 stress echocardiography 108 hypovolaemic shock 535 I image analysis 117–18 image optimization 9–10 image storage 9, 42–3, 67, 115–16 imaging modes 7–8 Impella 538–9 implantable cardioverter defibrillator 549 in transit thrombi 447, 448 incident angle 604 independent operator level 627–8 individual certification 622–3 infective endocarditis 344–52 abscess 345t, 347–8 aortic incompetence 232 aortic regurgitation 255 clinical decision tree 350f diagnosis 344–9 embolic risk 350, 441–2 follow-up 352 intraoperative echocardiography 351–2 monitoring 352 prognosis 350, 352 replacement heart valves 339–40, 348 surgical decision-making 350–1 vegetations 339–40, 344–6, 441–2 inferior vena cava diameter 179–80 intensity 3 inter-observer variability 640 interatrial septum aneurysm 457 lipomatous hypertrophy 455–6 interleaflet fibrous tangles 231 intermittent positive pressure ventilation 533–4 internal carotid artery coiling 611 dissection 610–11 occlusion 609 stenosis 608–9 interventional echocardiography 560–71 intracardiac shunts 569–71 percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks 567–9 valvular heart disease 560–7 interventricular delay 200 interventricular dyssynchrony 198 intima–media thickness 606–7 intimal tears 466 intra-aortic balloon pump 586 intra-observer variability 640 intracardiac echocardiography 4t, 85–8 intracoronary echocardiography 4t intramural haematoma 466–7 intraoperative echocardiography cardiac transplantation 431 infective endocarditis 351–2 replacement heart valves 341 see also perioperative echocardiography intravascular echocardiography 85–8, 435 intraventricular dyssynchrony 198–9 intraventricular filling 150–1 iron overload 387, 480–1 ischaemic cascade 90 ischaemic heart disease 141, 216–30 ischaemic stroke 440 isolated right ventricular failure 432 isolated ventricular non-compaction 394–6 isovolumic acceleration 416 isovolumic relaxation time 151, 415 J jet velocities 236–9, 245 width 257 K Kawasaki disease 229, 490 kidney disease, chronic 501 L laboratory accreditation 623, 630–6 Lagrangian strain 138–9 Lambl’s excrescences 457 lateral artefact 77 leaflet tethering 221 left atrial active emptying fraction 166 left atrial appendage 162, 165, 542–5 closure 547–8 thrombus 445–6, 545 left atrial ejection fraction 166 left atrial emptying fraction 157 left atrial expansion index 166 left atrial minimal volume 157 left atrial passive emptying fraction 166 left atrial volume index 157 left atrium anatomy 162 athletes 474 deformation 167–8 dimensions 164–5 function 165–9 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 210 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 357 isomerism 519 left ventricular interdependence 163 M-mode echocardiography 23 mitral stenosis 278–9 neuroendocrine function 164 physiology 163–4 remodelling 163 spontaneous echo contrast 545 stiffness 168–9 structure 163 thrombus 278–9, 445–6, 545, 587 volume 156–7, 164–5, 204, 542 volume–pressure curves 163–4 left bundle branch block 107, 198 left ventricle aneurysm 221–2 aortic regurgitation 255 aortic stenosis 244–5, 246–7 apical rocking 198–9 athletes 473–4 cardiac resynchronization therapy 198–9 complex congenital heart disease 519 compliance 152 contractility 126–9 contrast echocardiography 72–3 diastolic function, see left ventricular diastolic function

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