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EACVI Echocardiography Textbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Textbook of Echocardiography 2nd edition

index 647 double helix

index 647 double helix formation 124–5 eccentricity index 413–14 filling pressures 157, 206 geometry 123–5 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 355–6, 357 intracardiac flow visualization 129 left atrial interdependence 163 M-mode echocardiography 24 mass 125, 137, 202 mitral regurgitation 284 mitral stenosis 279 morphology 123–5 myocardial fibres 126, 127f opacification 72, 97 perioperative echocardiography 584–5 pregnancy 477 pseudoaneurysm 221–2 regional function 141–2, 198 relative wall thickness 125 reverse modelling 206 right ventricle and 172 rotation 128, 141 systolic function, see left ventricular systolic function thrombi 73, 223, 378, 380, 442–5 torsion 128, 141, 195 transplanted heart 433 twist and untwist 40, 128, 141, 142t, 149, 158, 195 volume 133–4, 136–7, 157–8, 198, 202, 210 wall motion index 142–4 left ventricular assist device 538, 539–40, 589–91 left ventricular diastolic function 147–59 atrial fibrillation 159 cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction 554 deformation imaging 158 dilated cardiomyopathy 374, 381–2 exercise 151 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 360 invasive measures 151–2 non-invasive measures 152–9 perioperative echocardiography 584–5 physiology 147–51 risk stratification in heart failure 202–4 stress echocardiography 158 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 398 transplanted heart 433 left ventricular dyssynchrony 197–200, 380–1 left ventricular ejection fraction 133–4, 193–4, 202, 210–11, 381, 397–8, 554 left ventricular end-diastolic pressure 151 left ventricular filling pressure 151, 206 left ventricular inflow tract 123 left ventricular non-compaction 73, 394 left ventricular outflow tract 124, 257 left ventricular outflow tract obstruction differential diagnosis 234 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 361, 366–7 obstructive shock 535 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 398–9 left ventricular systolic function 131–45 contrast echocardiography 72–3 deformation imaging 137–41, 194–6 dilated cardiomyopathy 373–4 Doppler measurement 134–6 heart failure 193–6 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 357–9 M-mode echocardiography 131–3 perioperative echocardiography 584 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 397–8 three-dimensional echocardiography 136–7 transplanted heart 433 two-dimensional echocardiography 133–4 levocardia 518 Libman–Sacks vegetations 484, 498 lipomas 455–6 lipomatous hypertrophy of interatrial septum 455–6 live (real-time) 3D imaging 8, 64–5, 88, 97, 315 liver cirrhosis 506 Löffler’s syndrome 386, 411–12, 491 logarithmic compression 7 lower transoesophageal views 49 Luminity® 71t lung consolidations 111, 113 fibrosis 505 pulse 113 sliding 111 ultrasound 111–13 lymphomas 456, 494 M M-mode echocardiography 22–5 aortic regurgitation 251 left ventricular systolic function 131–3 M-mode imaging 7 McConnell’s sign 399 Mahan’s equation 178–9 marantic endocarditis 442, 500–1 Marfan syndrome 488, 499 matrix array transducers 6, 59–61 mean pulmonary artery pressure 32, 178–9, 416–17 mean right atrial pressure 179–81 mechanical circulatory support 538–40, 589–91 mechanical index 3, 71 mechanical steering 5 medial arterial calcification 617 mesocardia 518 metastatic tumours 456–7 microbubbles 70 microscopic polyangiitis 500 mid-systolic notch 181–2 mid-wall fractional shortening 133 minimally invasive cardiac surgery 587–8 mirror image artefact 11f MitraClip® 563–7 mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) 132, 554 mitral annulus anatomy and dynamics 271–2 caseous calcification 457 diameter 261 velocity 148–50, 154–5, 158, 203–4 mitral inflow 261 velocity 152–4, 158, 203 mitral regurgitation 282–97 acute 293, 536 acute coronary syndromes 220–1 aetiology 282–4 aortic regurgitation and 320 aortic stenosis and 245, 319–20 chronic 293 dilated cardiomyopathy 378, 382 follow-up 297 heart failure 204 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 363 left ventricular adaptation 284 mechanisms 282–4 mild 293t MitraClip® 563–7 mitral stenosis and 279, 319 moderate 293t perioperative echocardiography 583 persistent/recurrent 296 primary (organic) 282, 284, 293, 295, 296 quantification of severity 284–93, 294t secondary (functional) 282, 284, 295–6 severe 293t stress echocardiography 108, 293, 295–6 suitability for repair 296–7 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 399 timing of surgery 297 mitral stenosis 274–81 acute decompensation 537 aetiology 274 aortic regurgitation and 321 aortic stenosis and 279, 320 congenital 280 degenerative 280 grading severity 279 left atrium 278–9 left ventricle 279 mitral regurgitation and 279, 319 non-rheumatic 280 percutaneous mitral valve commissurotomy 279–80 pulmonary hypertension 279 quantification of severity 274–8 rheumatic 274, 279 stress echocardiography 279 tricuspid valve and 279 mitral valve anatomy 267–9 area 30, 276–7 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 357, 362, 366 M-mode echocardiography 23–4 morphology 269–72 perioperative echocardiography 581–4 replacement valves 333–6 resistance 278 subvalvular suspension apparatus 270–1 systolic anterior motion 362 mixed connective tissue disease 486 mixed valve disease 317–19 multibeat ECG-gated acquisition 63, 65 multiline acquisition 62–3 multiplane imaging 64 multiple transmission focusing 6 multiple valve disease 317, 319–21 murmurs 536–7 muscular dystrophy 402 Mustard repair 521 myectomy 366 myocardial blood flow 97 myocardial contrast echocardiography 73–6, 97, 225 myocardial deformation imaging, see deformation echocardiography myocardial fibrosis 247 myocardial infarction 217–20 cardiogenic shock 535–6 classification 218t complications 220–3 coronary artery distribution 219–20 diagnosis 218–19 infarct expansion 223–4 myocardial contrast echocardiography 75 NSTEMI 217–18 prognosis 219 STEMI 217 viability and recovery of function 224–5 myocardial ischaemia 90, 100–1, 104–5, 217 myocardial performance (Tei) index 135–6, 204, 415–16 myocardial perfusion 73–6, 225

648 index myocardial viability 75–6, 91, 100, 104, 224–5, 399 myocarditis, acute 532 myotonic dystrophy 401 myxoma 451–2, 587 N natural strain 139 near-field clutter 10 near real-time imaging 8, 65 near zone 5 neoplastic disease 495, 500–1, 503 Nikaidoh procedure 521, 522 non-cardiac vascular surgery, risk stratification 108 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) 217–18 Nyquist frequency limit 28 O obesity 506 obstructive shock 535 Optison® 71t osteogenesis imperfecta 499 ostium secundum atrial septal defect 508 P pacing, dual-chamber 366–7 pacing stress echocardiography 95 PACS 9 papillary fibroelastoma 452, 454 papillary muscle 268 rupture 221 parallel receive beamforming 62–3 parasternal long-axis view 17, 404 parasternal right ventricle views 17–18 parasternal right ventricular inflow view 17–18 parasternal right ventricular outflow view 18 parasternal short-axis views 18, 404–5 paravalvular leaks, percutaneous closure 567–9 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return 514–15 particle imaging velocimetry 129 patches 61 patent ductus arteriosus 32, 513–14 patent foramen ovale 86, 580 thrombus straddling 447 penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer 467–8 penetration assessment 13f percutaneous mitral valve commissurotomy 279–80 performance measurement 13f, 14 pericardial cysts 427, 456 pericardial effusion 420–4 acute aortic syndromes 468 cardiac transplantation 432 detection 421 differential diagnosis 421–2 myocardial infarction 221, 223 perioperative echocardiography 587 quantification 422 pericardiocentesis 223, 424 pericarditis 420 constrictive 388–9, 424–7 pericardium anatomy 420 congenital absence 427 right atrial function 186 systemic disease 502–4 transplanted heart 434 perioperative echocardiography 575–91 aims of the examination 577–8 aortic valve 585–6 cardiac transplantation 431, 588–9 complications 576–7 conducting the examination 578–80 contraindications 577 haemodynamic monitoring 587 indications 575–6 infective endocarditis 351–2 left ventricle 584–5 left ventricular assist device 589–91 minimally invasive cardiac surgery 587–8 mitral valve 581–4 myxoma 587 pericardial effusion 587 replacement heart valves 341 report 580 right heart 580–1 safety 576–7 thrombus 587 peripartum cardiomyopathy 477–8 persistence 10 persistent ductus arteriosus 32, 513–14 phased array transducers 6 piezoelectric effect 5 PISA method 31–2, 258–9, 278, 288–9, 307, 309 pixel interpolation 10 planimetry 240, 276–7 plaque 607–8, 616 pleural effusion differential diagnosis 421–2 hand-held echocardiography 80, 82t lung ultrasound 113 pneumothorax acute care 533 lung ultrasound 113 pocket-size hand-held echocardiography 79–84 point spread function 63–4 polyarteritis nodosa 500 polycythaemia 494 polyserositis 503–4 popliteal artery aneurysm 619 post-processing 10, 117–18 Potts shunt 520 power 3 pre-processing 9–10 pregnancy 476–8 pressure gradients 30, 236–9, 274–6 pressure half-time 30, 262, 277 pressure recovery 238–9, 328–9 primum atrial septal defect 508 propagation speed 3 prosthetic heart valves, see replacement heart valves proximal isovelocity convergence area (PISA) method 31–2, 258–9, 278, 288–9, 307, 309 pseudoaneurysm femoral artery 619 left ventricle 221–2 pseudoxanthoma elasticum 499 pulmonary artery pressure diastolic 32, 178 end-diastolic 416–17 mean 32, 178–9, 416–17 systolic 157, 177, 182, 204, 210, 310, 581 pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect 520–1 pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 151 pulmonary circulation 177–82 pulmonary embolism 448, 533 pulmonary hypertension aortic stenosis 247 dilated cardiomyopathy 380 Doppler flow 181–2 exercise-induced 212 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 210 mitral stenosis 279 pulmonary interstitial syndrome 112 pulmonary regurgitation 314, 316, 408 pulmonary stenosis 313, 316, 321, 517 pulmonary valve anatomy 313 M-mode echocardiography 24–5 normal adult values 316t quantitative assessment 314 replacement valves 336–7 three-dimensional echocardiography 315 transoesophageal echocardiography 315 two-dimensional echocardiography 314 pulmonary vascular resistance 182 pulmonary vein ablation 546–7 pulmonary venous flow 150, 155, 203, 290–1 pulse repetition frequency 8 pulse wave velocity 460–1 pulsed wave Doppler 28 aortic regurgitation 259–61 pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography 32 heart failure 196 Q quality assessment 635 quality assurance 14, 638–41 quality improvement 623–5, 635 R radiofrequency catheter ablation 86–7, 546–7 radiotherapy 495–6, 504, 552, 556–7, 611 range ambiguity artefact 8 Rastelli procedure 521, 522 RAW-DICOM 116 real-time 3-D imaging 8, 64–5, 88, 97, 315 real-time zoom acquisition 63 refraction artefact 11f refresh rate 8 regional wall motion 99–100, 142–4, 398, 584 regurgitant fraction 31–2, 260–1, 291–2 regurgitant jets 31–2 regurgitant volume 31–2, 258–9, 260–1, 291–2 Reiter syndrome 488, 499 relative wall thickness 125 renal arteries, duplex ultrasound 613–15 rendering techniques 66 réparation à l’etage ventriculaire (REV) 521, 522 replacement heart valves 324–42 acute decompensation 537 aortic valve 327–33 biological valves 324, 325f, 326t cardiac magnetic resonance 342 classification 324 complications 327t computed tomography 342 endocarditis 339–40, 348 high velocity across 329–31 indications and timing of echocardiography 326 intraoperative echocardiography 341 mechanical valves 324, 325f, 326t minimum echocardiographic dataset 327t mitral valve 333–6 normal appearance 327

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