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EACVI Echocardiography Textbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Textbook of Echocardiography 2nd edition

index 649 obstruction

index 649 obstruction 329–31, 334–7, 339 paraprosthetic regurgitation 331, 333, 336, 337, 339 patient–prosthesis mismatch 329t, 331, 332f percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks 567–9 perioperative echocardiography 341 preoperative echocardiogram 340–1 pressure recovery 328–9 pulmonary valve 336–7 Ross procedure 340 sizing conventions 325–6 stentless valves 340 stress echocardiography 339 transcatheter implantation 340–1 transoesophageal echocardiography 327, 341–2 transthoracic echocardiography 327 tricuspid valve 337–9 reports 43–4, 67, 580 computerized 118–19 resonance frequency 5 rest echocardiography 73, 224, 435–6 restrictive cardiomyopathy 386–9 aetiology 386–7 differentiation from constrictive pericarditis 388–9, 425–7 echocardiographic features 387–8 pathology 387 retroperitoneal fibrosis 613 REV 521, 522 revascularization, graft surveillance 617–18 reverberation artefact 11f, 12f reverse McConnell’s sign 399 rhabdomyoma 454 rhabdomyosarcomas 456 rheumatic heart valve disease 232, 235, 253, 274, 279, 302, 303, 317, 497–8 rheumatoid arthritis 483–4, 499 right atrial appendage 185, 186 right atrium anatomical variants 457 athletes 187, 188 deformation 188 dimensions 186–7 function 187–8 geometry 185 isomerism 519 morphology 185 pericardium integrity 186 physiology 185–6 pressure 179–81 right ventricular filling 185–6 thrombi 446–8 tricuspid valve and 186 tricuspid regurgitation 310 right index of myocardial performance (RIMP) 175 right ventricle anatomical variants 457 athletes 474 complex congenital heart disease 519 contraction pattern 172 dilated cardiomyopathy 374–5, 378, 382 endomyocardial biopsy 436 exercise effects 417 fractional area change 173–4, 413 function 403–4, 406–17 haemodynamic assessment 177–82, 416–17 hypertrophy 173 infarction 222–3, 412 isolated failure 432 left ventricle and 172 M-mode echocardiography 24 morphology 171–2 perioperative echocardiography 581 physiology 171–2 pressure overload 410 pump function 172 qualitative assessment 406–12 quantitative assessment 412–17 right atrium and 185–6 size 172–3, 403–4, 581 strain imaging 175–6, 414 systemic disease 505–6 systolic function 172–7 systolic pressure 32, 177, 416 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 399 thrombus 448 timing indices 414–16 transplanted heart 434 tricuspid regurgitation 310, 408 views 404–6 volume overload 407–10 right ventricular ejection fraction 413 right ventricular inflow tract 171, 404 right ventricular outflow tract 171, 404 obstruction 313, 517 right ventricular systolic function 172–7 right ventricular systolic pressure 32, 177, 416 risk stratification aortic stenosis 245–8 dilated cardiomyopathy 381–2 heart failure 202–5, 213 non-cardiac vascular surgery 108 Ross procedure 340 S s’ 33 safety 11, 14, 76, 94–5, 576–7 sarcoidosis 387, 481–2 sarcomas 456 scattering 4 scimitar syndrome 515 sector scanning 5 Senning repair 521 sepsis (syndromes) 535 septal bounce 198 sequential segmental analysis 518–19 seronegative arthritides 487–8, 499 shadowing artefact 12f shock 535–6 side lobe artefact 5, 12f signal processing 8 Simpson (biplane) method 134, 164, 193, 413 sinus of Valsalva aneurysm 463 sinus venosus defect 508 situs ambiguous 518 situs inversus 518 situs solitus 518 Skinner–Strandness treadmill test 617 slicing 66 sludge 545 smoke 545 SonoVue® 71t spatial peak-temporal average intensity 11 speckle tracking echocardiography 35, 36–7, 38–40 advantages and limitations 37t cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction 556 heart failure 195 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 211 left atrial function 167 left ventricular contractility 128 left ventricular systolic dysfunction 140 right ventricle 414 right ventricular systolic function 175–6 risk stratification in heart failure 204–5 stress testing 96–7 spectral Doppler 27, 28, 29–32 left atrial function 165 tricuspid regurgitation 309 spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography 32–3 specular reflection 4, 5f sphericity index 125 spontaneous echo contrast 545 ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) 217 stable coronary artery disease 74–5 Stanford classification 463–4 Steinert disease 401–2 stenotic flow assessment 30 stiffness 168–9 stitching artefact 13f storage disorders 387 storage format 9, 42–3, 67, 115–16 strain and strain rate 35, 36, 37–8, 39–40 cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction 554–6 heart failure 194–6 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 211 left atrium 166–7 left ventricular diastolic function 158 left ventricular systolic function 138–41, 194–6 right atrium 188 right ventricle 175–6, 414 risk stratification in heart failure 204–5 stress echocardiography aortic regurgitation 262–3 aortic stenosis 108, 241, 246 cardiac allograft vasculopathy 436 contrast use 72, 96–7 coronary artery lesions 102 coronary flow reserve 97, 101–2, 106 deformation imaging 96–7 diabetes 108 diagnostic and prognostic values 104–7 diagnostic criteria and interpretation 99–102 dilated cardiomyopathy 376–8 false positives and false negatives 102 gender differences 107 general protocol 93, 96 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 212 hypertension 107–8 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 108 image acquisition and modalities 96–8 laboratory accreditation 634–5 left bundle branch block 107 left ventricular diastolic function 158 machine 92 methodology 92–5 mitral regurgitation 108, 293, 295–6 mitral stenosis 279 myocardial ischaemia 90, 100–1, 104–5 myocardial viability 91, 100, 104 non-cardiac vascular surgery 108 pathophysiology 90–1 post-myocardial infarction 225 post-stress images 102 replacement heart valves 339 reproducibility 101

650 index stress echocardiography (Cont.) safety 94–5 speckle tracking 96–7 stressors 93–5 submaximal test 102 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 399 three-dimensional 97–8 three generations of 98t training 92–3, 101 wall motion 73, 99–100 stroke volume 134, 135 stunned myocardium 91, 100, 224 subaortic stenosis 321–2, 515–16 subclavian artery stenosis/occlusion 610 subclavian steal syndrome 610 subcostal views 21, 405–6 superior vena cava flow velocities 181 suprasternal view 21–2 surface rendering 66, 67 surgical myectomy 366 swirling 77 syphilitic aortitis 491 systemic lupus erythematosus 484–5, 498–9 systemic sclerosis 485–6, 499 systolic acceleration time 135 systolic pulmonary artery pressure 157, 177, 182, 204, 210, 310, 581 T Takayasu arteritis 489–90, 500, 610, 613, 618 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 220, 397–9 tamponade 422–4, 535 tau 151–2 Tei index 135–6, 204, 415–16 temporal (giant cell) arteritis 489, 610, 613 tension pneumothorax 533 tetralogy of Fallot 519–20 theta angle 604 thoracic aortic aneurysm 462–3, 586 thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) 469 three-dimensional echocardiography 59–68 acquisition modalities 64–5 acquisition protocols 67–8 aortic regurgitation 262 atrial septal defect 509 image display 65–7 indications for 67–8 left atrial volume 164 left ventricular systolic function 136–7 mitral regurgitation 289–90 mitral stenosis 274 mitral valve 269–72 myocardial scar 224 perioperative setting 579–80 physics of 62–4 pulmonary valve 315 reports 67 right ventricular systolic function 174 risk stratification in heart failure 204 storage 67 stress echocardiography 97–8 training 67 transducers 59–61 transoesophageal protocols 56, 68 transthoracic protocols 67–8 tricuspid valve 302 three-dimensional image 7–8 thrombi 442 left atrial appendage 445–6, 545 left atrium 278–9, 445–6, 545, 587 left ventricle 73, 223, 378, 380, 442–5 right atrium 446–8 right ventricle 448 thromboangiitis obliterans 618 tissue Doppler echocardiography 29, 32–4, 36, 37t, 38 left atrial function 166–7 left ventricular systolic function 137–8 right ventricle 414–15 right ventricular systolic function 175 tricuspid inflow 187 tissue equivalent phantom imaging 13f toe–brachial index 615–16 torsion 128, 141, 195 total atrial conduction time 167 training 47–8, 67, 77, 80, 92–3, 101, 626–9, 639 transaortic jet velocities and gradients 236–9, 245 transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) 88, 340–1, 561–3 transducers 5–7, 47, 59–61 transgastric views 54–5 transluminal percutaneous angioplasty/ stenting 618 transoesophageal echocardiography 46–57 aorta 459 aortic atheroma 461 aortic dissection 465 aortic regurgitation 262 atrial septal defect 509 cardioversion 546 competence 47–8 complications 46 contraindications 46 contrast agents 76 examination 48–55 frequency range 4t indications 46, 47b laboratory accreditation 633–4 left atrial thrombi 446 patient positioning 48 patient preparation 48 perioperative, see perioperative echocardiography probe introduction 48 pulmonary valve 315 replacement heart valves 327, 341–2 right ventricle 406 thoracic aortic aneurysm 462–3 three-dimensional protocols 56, 68 training 47–8 transducers 47 tricuspid valve 300, 302 views 48–55 transposition of the great arteries 521–2 congenitally corrected 522–3 transseptal puncture 86, 565 transthoracic echocardiography acute coronary syndrome complications 220–3 aorta 459 aortic dissection 464–5 chest pain 216, 217t frequency range 4t infarct expansion 223–4 laboratory accreditation 631–2 M-mode 22–5 minimal standard dataset acquisition protocol 25t minimum standard measurements 44b myocardial infarction 217–20 patient positioning 15 replacement heart valves 327 reports 43–4 thoracic aortic aneurysm 462 three-dimensional protocols 67–8 transducer positioning 15–16 two-dimensional 16–22 views 15, 17–22 windows 15–16 trastuzumab 553t, 554 trauma 469, 537–8, 586 treadmill test 617 tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 174–5, 413 tricuspid annulus anatomy 299 perioperative echocardiography 581 tricuspid regurgitation 303–9 aetiology 303 aortic stenosis and 245 classification 303 follow-up 310–11 heart failure 204 left-sided valve disease and 320 mechanisms 303 mitral stenosis and 279 physiological 304 primary 303–4 pulmonary artery systolic pressure 310 pulmonary valve disease 321 quantification of severity 307–9 right atrium 310 right ventricle 310, 408 secondary 304 timing of surgery 310–11 tricuspid stenosis 302–3 tricuspid valve anatomy 299 inflow 187 M-mode echocardiography 25 morphology 299–302 perioperative echocardiography 581 replacement heart valves 337–9 right atrium and 186 troponins 556 truncus arteriosus 523–5 twist 40, 128, 141, 142t, 149, 158, 195 two-dimensional echocardiography 16–22 aortic regurgitation 251 left atrial volume 164 left ventricular systolic function 133–4 mitral stenosis 274 mitral valve 269–72 pulmonary valve 314 right ventricular systolic function 174 tricuspid valve 299–300 two-dimensional image 7 U ultrasound biological effects 11, 14 imaging 7–10 principles of 3–4 univentricular connections 519 univentricular heart 525–7 unroofed coronary sinus 508 unstable angina 218 upper transoesophageal views 50–4 uraemia 502 V Valsalva manoeuvre 158 valvular heart disease acute care 536–7

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