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ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging - sample

Discover the ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging 2nd edition

642 index dilated

642 index dilated cardiomyopathy (cont.) neuromuscular disorders 479–81 pregnancy and parturition 482 sarcoidosis 476–8 screening 469 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484 thrombus formation 470–1 vasculitis 479 dipyramidole SPECT MPS 260 dipyramidole stress echocardiography 249–55, 361 dissection flap prolapse 142 dobutamine SPECT MPS 260 dobutamine stress CMR 287–91, 297, 364, 385–6 dobutamine stress echocardiography aortic stenosis 133, 137–8 coronary artery disease 249–55 mitral stenosis 151, 153 myocardial viability 359–61 Doppler echocardiography constrictive pericarditis 526 left ventricular systolic function 316 prosthetic valve function 187–8, 190–2, 195–6 pulsus paradoxus 513 Doppler tissue imaging coronary artery disease 249 left atrial strain 328 left ventricular diastolic function 325, 326–7 double-chambered right ventricle 592 double-outlet right ventricle 595 dP/dt 318, 324, 343 dual-energy CT 103 Duchenne muscular dystrophy 479–81 Duke criteria 231–2 dysautonomias 402 E e’ 325, 328 early diastolic flow propagation 325–6 early myocardial gadolinium enhancement ratio 540 Ebstein’s anomaly 574–5, 593–4 echocardiography; see also transoesophageal echocardiography; transthoracic echocardiography and specific modalities abscess 231–2, 233 adult congenital heart disease 565–86 amyloidosis 457–60 Anderson–Fabry disease 463–4 angiosarcoma 555 aorta 603–4 aortic aneurysm 605, 608, 609 aortic disease 603–9 aortic dissection 606–7, 608, 609 aortic stenosis 129–34, 138–9 aortic-to-pulmonary collateral flow 584 aortic valve calcification 129 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia 489, 491–2 arterial switch 579 atrial septal defects 118–19, 566–7 atrial switch 578–9 atrioventricular septal defects 569–70 basic principles 3–32 cardiac devices-related infective endocarditis 237 cardiac resynchronization therapy 125, 421–2 cardiac tamponade 440, 513 cardiac tumours 550 cardiotoxic drugs 481 catheter ablation 124–5 coarctation of the aorta 571–2 congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries 580–1 congenital mitral valve anomalies 575–6 congestive heart failure 318–19 constrictive pericarditis 525–9 coronary artery disease 247–55 dilated cardiomyopathy 469–71 Duchenne muscular dystrophy 479–81 Ebstein’s anomaly 574–5 Eisenmenger syndrome 584 electrophysiology procedures 123–5 embolism risk in endocarditis 240–1 extracorporeal support 432–41 fibroma 554 fistula 232, 233 Fontan circulation 582 functionally univentricular heart 581–4 haemochromatosis 465–6 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 330–1 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction 329–30 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 445, 446–7, 449–51 impella 436 infective endocarditis 230–7, 239–43 intramural haematoma 607–8 left atrial appendage 122–3 left ventricular dyssynchrony 408–9 left ventricular non-compaction 482–3, 499–500 left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 573–4 left ventricular systolic function 315–16, 319, 320 lipomas 553 lipomatous hypertrophy of inter-atrial septum 553 lymphoma 555, 556–8 metastatic tumours 556–8 mitraclip therapy 211 mitral regurgitation 159–66 mitral stenosis 148–50, 151–2 M-mode measurements 30–1, 408 Mustard operation 578–9 myocardial biopsy 123 myocardial viability 352–66 myocarditis 476, 536–7 myxoma 550 neuromuscular disorders 479–80 pannus differentiation 198 parameters and standard values 31 patent ductus arteriosus 570–1 patent foramen ovale closure 117 penetrating aortic ulcer 608 percutaneous mitral annuloplasty 215–18 percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 153–4 percutaneous septal alcohol ablation 453 pericardial effusion 511–13 pericardiocentesis 123, 518 peripartum cardiomyopathy 482 prosthetic valve function 186–9 prosthetic valve infective endocarditis 237 prosthetic valve obstruction 197–8 prosthetic valve regurgitation 198–200 pseudoaneurysm 232, 233 pulmonary regurgitation 181, 182 pulmonary stenosis 176 pulmonary valve 172–4 Rastelli procedure 580 rhabdomyoma 554 right ventricle 338–9, 343 right ventricular outflow tract obstruction 572–3 sarcoidosis 461, 477 sarcomas 555 Senning operation 578–9 sub-aortic stenosis 573, 574 supravalvular stenosis 573–4 surgical myectomy/myotomy 453 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484, 502 TAVI 206, 207–8 tetralogy of Fallot (with pulmonary atresia) 576–8 three-dimensional, see three-dimensional echocardiography thrombus 198, 440, 559 transposition of the great arteries 578 trans-septal catheterization 120 tricuspid regurgitation 177–80 tricuspid stenosis 175 tricuspid valve 172–4 vegetations 201–3, 231, 233 ventricular assist devices 438–9 ventricular septal defects 119, 567–9 E/e’ 326, 328, 331, 347 effective regurgitant orifice area 143, 158, 164, 168 Eisenmenger syndrome 569, 584, 597 ejection fraction 315, 316, 319 electrocardiogram arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia 496–7 dilated cardiomyopathy 469 electrocardiographic imaging 412 electron beam tomography 99 electrophysiology 123–5 endocarditis, see infective endocarditis endomyocardial biopsy 545–6 epinephrine, 11 C-labelled 41 epsilon waves 496–7 equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography 39 E/Vp 326 exercise SPECT MPS 260 exercise stress echocardiography aortic stenosis 137, 138 coronary artery disease 249–55 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction 331 mitral regurgitation 167 mitral stenosis 151, 153 myocardial viability 361 extracellular volume 108 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 434–5, 436–8 extracorporeal support 432–41 cardiac 436–9 complications 440–1 contraindications 433 diagnosis 432–3 indications for 432 respiratory 433–5 F Fabry’s disease 463–5 fast-spin echo 56 FDG-PET 41, 43 infective endocarditis 239 inflammatory aortic disease 630 myocardial viability 363, 372–3 pericardial effusion 516 plaque vulnerability 306–7

sarcoidosis 462 Takayasu’s arteritis 630 feature tracking 317 fibroma 554–5 filtered back projection 102 first-pass radionuclide ventriculography 39 fistula 232, 233 flow convergence method, see PISA flow mapping 60 aortic disease 612 constrictive pericarditis 532–3 left ventricular dyssynchrony 409 mitral stenosis 150 fluorometaraminol, 18 F-labelled 41 fluoroscopy paraprosthetic valve regurgitation 221 percutaneous mitral annuloplasty 216, 218 percutaneous valve therapy 207 pericardiocentesis 518 flurpiridaz tracer 39–40 Fontan circulation 582, 596–7 fractional flow reserve 104 Frank–Starling law 337 Friedreich’s ataxia 449 functionally univentricular heart 581–4, 595–6 G gadofluorine-enhanced imaging 305 gadolinium-containing contrast agents 56; see also late gadolinium enhanced CMR gallium-67 scintigraphy myocarditis 476, 537–8 sarcoidosis 462, 477 global longitudinal strain 82, 327 global strain 318 global systolic strain 82 glycogen storage diseases 465–6 Gorlin syndrome 554 ‘gothic’ configuration 12 gradient-echo 56 granular sparkling 447, 458–9 H haemangiomas 553–4 haemochromatosis 465–6 haemolysis, prosthetic valve 203 haemopericardium 154 Hall sensor 112 Harlequin syndrome 438 heart failure cardiac innervation imaging 399–402 infective endocarditis 242 with preserved ejection fraction 330–3 with reduced ejection fraction 328–30 hibernating myocardium 353, 368–9, 371–2, 381–2 H 2 15 O tracer 39, 40 hybrid imaging 89–97; see also specific techniques clinical impact of 95–6 coronary artery disease 95–6 definition 89 dilated cardiomyopathy 474–5 hardware-based image coregistration 92, 93 image analysis and interpretation 94–5 image coregistration 92–3 imaging protocols 93–4 inflammatory aortic disease 629–30 multi-vessel disease 96 myocardial viability 378 myocarditis 539 patient positioning 94 patient preparation 93 perfusion imaging 94 radiation dose 95 rationale 89–92 software-based image coregistration 92–3 stress studies 94 hydroxyephedrine, 11 C-labelled 41 hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of the elderly 446 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 445–55 alcohol septal ablation 120–1 apical 446, 449, 452 basal obstruction 450 diagnosis 449–51 erroneous diagnosis 452–3 hypertrophy 445–7 interventional treatment 453 labile obstruction 451 mitral valve 447 myocardial velocity and deformation 449 pathophysiology 445–9 screening 451 systolic anterior motion 447, 451 I iatrogenic aortic dissection 634–5 impella 436 implantable cardiac devices 56, 111–13 implantable cardioverter defibrillators 400–1 indium-111 antimyosin imaging 476, 537–8 infective endocarditis 230–43 abscess 231–2, 233 aorto-cavitary fistulous tract formations 242 cardiac devices-related 237, 238, 239 decision-making 242 diagnosis 230–7 Duke criteria 231–2 embolism 240–1, 242–3 fistula 232, 233 follow-up 241–2 heart failure 242 mortality 240 premature mitral closure 240 prognosis 239–41 prosthetic valve 201–3, 237, 239 prosthetic valve dehiscence 232, 233 pseudoaneurysm 232, 233 vegetations 230, 231, 233, 240–1 infiltrative cardiomyopathy 457–66 inter-atrial septum, lipomatous hypertrophy 553 interventional cardiology 116–25 inter-ventricular dyssynchrony 406 inter-ventricular septum 337, 340–1 intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) atrial fibrillation ablation 124–5 atrial flutter ablation 125 atrial septal defect closure 119 cardiac devices-related infective endocarditis 238 electrophysiology procedures 124–5 myocardial biopsy 123 patent foramen ovale closure 117 percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 153 trans-septal catheterization 120 ventricular tachycardia ablation 125 intramural haematoma 607–8, 616, 621–2, 632 intra-operative echocardiography infective endocarditis 243 surgical myectomy/myotomy 453 iodine-123 BMIPP imaging 43, 268 iodine-123 MIBG imaging 43, 396, 397, 399, 400, 402, 474, 484 iron load 466 iron oxide particles 306 ischaemic memory 43, 268 isovolumic relaxation time 325, 327 J jet size 143, 163 jet velocities 136, 166 K Kawasaki disease 479 kernels 49 K-space 55 Kussmaul’s sign 522, 524 L LAMB syndrome 550 late gadolinium enhanced CMR 58–9 amyloidosis 460 Anderson–Fabry disease 464–5 cardiotoxic drugs 482 Chagas’ disease 478–9 constrictive pericarditis 533 coronary artery disease 291, 292, 294 dilated cardiomyopathy 475 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 454 left atrium 110–11 myocardial scar 415–16 myocardial viability 386–92 myocarditis 541–4 RF catheter ablation 110–11 right ventricle 348 sarcoidosis 462–3, 477–8 left atrial appendage 74 percutaneous closure 121–3 left atrium late gadolinium enhancement 110–11 mitral regurgitation 166 strain 328 3D echocardiography 73–4, 328 volumes 328 left bundle branch block 420, 474 left ventricle aortic regurgitation 142 aortic stenosis 137 deformation 77 diastolic function 323–33 diastolic time–volume curves 328 diastolic wall strain 331 dilated cardiomyopathy 468–9 dimensions 315, 316 dyssynchrony 83, 85, 406–12, 474 ejection fraction 315, 316, 319 filling pressures 82, 326 global function assessment 82 global longitudinal strain 82 global systolic function 315–16 global systolic strain 82 mitral regurgitation 166 non-compaction 452, 482–4, 497–500 regional systolic function 316–17 relaxation 325–6 reverse modelling 424–6, 427–9 stage I–III diastolic dysfunction 329 stiffness 324, 326 stroke volume 316 systolic function 315–21 3D echocardiography 72 time–volume relationship 328 twisting and untwisting 324, 327–8 volumes 315, 319 index 643

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