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ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging - sample

Discover the ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging 2nd edition

644 index left

644 index left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 129, 573–4, 593 levosimendan stress echo 361, 362 lipomas 553 lipomatous hypertrophy of inter-atrial septum 553 LMI1195 41 Loeys–Dietz syndrome 620 lumped constant 41 lymphoma 555–6, 557 M macrophages 304 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); see also cardiac magnetic resonance; MR angiography aortic aneurysm 613–15, 619, 620 aortic atheroma 613, 619 aortic disease 611–22 aortitis 617–18 blunt chest trauma 617 cardiac implantable electric devices 56, 111–13 contraindications 55–6 infective endocarditis 238–9 intramural haematoma 616 penetrating aortic ulcer 616–17, 622 physics of 55 plaque vulnerability 305–6 Takayasu’s arteritis 617–18 targeted molecular probes 305–6 magnetic resonance spectroscopy 328, 392 Marfan syndrome 605, 620 metastases 549, 556–9 methylquinuclidinyl benzilate, 11 C-labelled 42 MIBG imaging 43, 396, 397, 399, 400, 402, 474, 484 microbubbles 117, 253, 307, 308, 356, 365 mitraclip therapy 76–7, 209–15 mitral annuloplasty 215–18 mitral inflow 328 mitral regurgitation 157–69 acute 158–9 cardiac resynchronization therapy 427 Carpentier’s classification 158, 211 chronic 159 classification 157 consequences 166 evaluation 159–62 exercise testing 167 left atrial function 166 left ventricle function 166 mitraclip therapy 76–7, 209–15 pathophysiology 158–9 post-percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 154, 155 predicting successful valve repair 162 primary 157, 159 pulmonary hypertension 166 pulmonary venous flow 166 secondary 157, 159 severity quantification 158, 162–6 mitral stenosis 148–55 decision-making 151–3 percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 151–5, 208–9 prognosis 151 quantification 148–51 3D echocardiography 74 tricuspid valve disease and 152 valve area 148–51 mitral to aortic velocity time integral ratio 165–6 mitral valve anatomy and function 157–8 annular velocities (e’) 325, 328 congenital anomalies 575–6, 594 double orifice 575 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 447 isolated cleft 575 parachute 575 surgical view 74 3D planimetry 74 M-mode measurements 30–1, 408 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence (MOLLI) 107 molecular imaging 43, 305–6, 365 MR angiography 61, 612 aortic aneurysm 613–15 aortic atheroma 613 aortic dissection 615, 616 coarctation of the aorta 618 penetrating aortic ulcer 617 MR spectroscopy 328, 392 MUGA scan 321 multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) 47 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia 495 coronary artery disease 271–81 left ventricular dyssynchrony 412 myocardial viability 375–8 myocarditis 538–9 prosthetic valve function 194 multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) abdominal aortic aneurysm 628 adult congenital heart disease 566, 588–98 aortic aneurysm 626–8 aortic atherosclerosis 628 aortic disease 625–35 aortic dissection 630–2, 634–5 aortic regurgitation 593 arterial switch 595 atrial septal defects 590 atrial switch 595 atrioventricular septal defects 591 blunt chest trauma 634 coarctation of the aorta 591 common arterial trunk 595 congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries 595 coronary artery anomalies 597 coronary disease 597 discrete aortic aneurysms 633 double-chambered right ventricle 592 double-outlet right ventricle 595 Ebstein’s anomaly 593–4 Eisenmenger syndrome 597 Fontan circulation 597 functionally univentricular heart 595–6 iatrogenic aortic dissection 634–5 infective endocarditis 238 inflammatory aortic disease 629–30 intramural haematoma 632 left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 593 mitral regurgitation 167–8 mitral stenosis 150–1, 153 Mustard operation 595 myocardial viability 364 patent ductus arteriosus 591 penetrating aortic ulcer 628–9, 633 percutaneous mitral annuloplasty 216 pulmonary hypertension 597 pulmonary stenosis 177 pulmonary valve 175 Rastelli procedure 595 repaired tetralogy of Fallot 594 right ventricular outflow tract obstruction 592 Senning operation 595 TAVI 207 transposition of the great arteries 595 tricuspid regurgitation 593–4 tricuspid stenosis 175 tricuspid valve 175 ventricular septal defects 590 Mustard operation 578–9, 595 myocardial biopsy 123 myocardial blood flow 39–40, 60 myocardial blood volume 356 myocardial contrast echocardiography 253–4, 356–9 myocardial fibrosis 107–9, 137 myocardial hibernation 353, 368–9, 371–2, 381–2 myocardial ischaemia 247–8, 258–9, 286–95 myocardial metabolism 40–1, 472–3 myocardial performance index (Tei) 318, 342–3 myocardial perfusion imaging acute coronary syndromes 266–8 cardiac CT 103–4 CMR 60, 286–7, 291–8 coronary artery disease 260–6 dilated cardiomyopathy 471–2 hybrid imaging 94 SPECT 38–9, 260–8 3D echocardiography 72 myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) 60 myocardial pharmacology 41–2 myocardial relaxation 323–4, 325–6 myocardial scar 414–16 myocardial stunning 352–3, 368 myocardial tagging 58, 328, 386, 411 myocardial viability CMR 363–4, 381–94 concept of 368, 369–70 dobutamine-CMR 290 echocardiography 352–66 end-diastolic wall thickness 383–5 hybrid imaging 378 integrated imaging 365–6 MDCT 375–8 molecular imaging 365 MRS 392 MSCT 364 PET 363, 370–4 SPECT 362–3, 370, 374–5 myocarditis 536–47 CMR 476, 539–47 dilated cardiomyopathy 475–6 echocardiography 476, 536–7 endomyocardial biopsy 545–6 follow-up 544–5 fulminant/non-fulminant 537 hybrid imaging 539 MDCT 538–9 SPECT 476, 537–8 myxoma 550–1 N NAME syndrome 550 navigator-echo 57 Naxos disease 488 neuromuscular disorders 479–81 13N-labelled ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) tracer 39, 40 non-compaction cardiomyopathy 452, 482–4, 497–500

nuclear imaging; see also specific techniques amyloidosis 460–1 basic principles 34–43 cardiotoxic drugs 481 Chagas’ disease 478 coronary artery disease 258–68 dilated cardiomyopathy 471–5 left ventricular dyssynchrony 474 left ventricular systolic function 320, 321 myocardial viability 370–5 myocarditis 476 non-compaction cardiomyopathy 483 plaque vulnerability 306–7 sarcoidosis 462, 477 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484 O 15 O-labelled water (H 2 15 O) 39, 40 ordered-subsets expectation maximization 38 osteosarcoma 555 P P1–P3 scallops 11, 13, 14, 17, 157 palmitate, 11 C-labelled 41 pannus 197–8 papillary fibroelastoma 551–2 papillary muscles 158 patent ductus arteriosus 570–1, 591 patent foramen ovale closure 76, 116–17 penetrating aortic ulcer 608, 616–17, 622, 628–9, 633 percutaneous closure of left atrial appendage 121–3 percutaneous intra-pericardial cardiac echo (PICE) 125 percutaneous valve therapy 205–27 aortic valve replacement (TAVI) 76, 206–8 mitraclip therapy 76–7, 209–15 mitral annuloplasty 215–18 mitral valve commissurotomy 151–5, 208–9 paraprosthetic valve regurgitation 218–19, 221 pulmonary valve replacement 221–2, 224 tricuspid valve disease 226 valve-in-ring implantation 218 perfusion imaging, see myocardial perfusion imaging pericardial effusion 123, 509–13, 514–16 pericardial space 509 pericardiocentesis 123, 517–18 pericardium 520–3 peripartum cardiomyopathy 482 PET/CT aortitis 630 attenuation 37–8 coronary artery disease 95, 96 dilated cardiomyopathy 474–5 hardware-based image fusion 93 infective endocarditis 239 inflammatory aortic disease 629–30 myocardial viability 378 myocarditis 539 PET/MR 42–3, 539 pharmacological stress agents 249–50, 260, 287 phase-contrast flow imaging 60 aortic disease 612 constrictive pericarditis 532–3 left ventricular dyssynchrony 409 mitral stenosis 150 phase-sensitive inversion-recovery 59 PISA 143, 149–50, 163–5 planimetry aortic stenosis 74, 133 mitral stenosis 74, 148–9, 150 plaques, see atherosclerotic plaques 31 P-MR spectroscopy 328 positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition 36 annihilation 36 attenuation 36, 37–8 coincidence detection 36–7 coronary artery disease 265 data correction 37–8 dead time 37 dilated cardiomyopathy 472–3 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, see FDG-PET molecular imaging 43 motion correction 38 myocardial blood flow 39–40 myocardial metabolism 40–1, 472–3 myocardial pharmacology 41–2 myocardial viability 363, 370–4 non-compaction cardiomyopathy 483 normalization 37 ordered-subsets expectation maximization 38 partial volume 38 PET/CT, see PET/CT PET/MR 42–3, 539 physics and data analysis 36–8 plaque vulnerability 306 radiation dose 42 random coincidences 38 scattered coincidences 38 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484 3D imaging 37 time of flight 38 post-systolic shortening 82–3 pregnancy adult congenital heart disease 584–5 dilated cardiomyopathy 482 MRI risks 56 pressure half-time 144, 149 pressure recovery 132 prosthetic heart valves 185–204 abscess 203 ball-caged 185, 186 bileaflet tilting-disk 185, 187, 190–1, 195, 196 closure backflow 196 functional assessment 186–94 haemolysis 203 infective endocarditis 201–3, 237, 239 intra-prosthetic regurgitation 200 in vitro EOA 186 in vivo EOA 186, 188–9 leakage backflow 196 new dehiscence 232, 233 normal anterograde flow 194, 196 normal regurgitant flow 196 obstruction 197–8 paraprosthetic regurgitation 199–200, 218–19, 221 regurgitation 198–200 single tilting-disk 185, 187, 190, 195 size labelling 186 specifications and parameters 185–6 stented bioprostheses 185, 187, 191, 195–6 stentless bioprostheses 185, 187, 192, 196 structural deterioration 200 thrombosis 197–8 proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) 143, 149–50, 163–5 pseudoaneuryam 232, 233 pulmonary hypertension aortic stenosis 137 CMR and MSCT 597 mitral regurgitation 166 pulmonary regurgitation 180–1, 182 pulmonary stenosis 175–7 pulmonary valve anatomy 172 imaging assessment 75, 172–5 percutaneous replacement 221–2, 224 pulmonary venous flow 166, 328 pulsed wave Doppler aortic regurgitation 143–4 constrictive pericarditis 526 dobutamine stress 361 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction 328–9 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 446–7 left ventricular dyssynchrony 406 measurements 31 mitral regurgitation 165 mitral valve annular velocities 325 right ventricular systolic function 345 pulsus paradoxus 510, 513, 534 index 645 R radiation dose cardiac CT 51–2, 101 hybrid imaging 95 PET 42 SPECT 42 radiofrequency catheter ablation 109–11, 124–5 radionuclide angiography (ventriculography) 320, 321 Rastelli procedure 580, 595 reed-switch 112 regadenoson SPECT MPS 260 regional systolic function 82–3, 316–17 regurgitant fraction 145 regurgitant volume 143, 158, 165, 168 respiratory support 433–5 restrictive cardiomyopathy 523 reverse modelling 424–6, 427–9 rhabdomyoma 554 rheumatic aortic regurgitation 142 rheumatic aortic stenosis 129 right ventricle afterload 337 anatomy 336–7 apex-forming 340 areas and linear dimensions 339 diastolic function 343, 347–8 dilated 339–40 double-chambered 592 double-outlet 595 dP/dt 343 eccentricity index 341–2 ejection fraction 347 elastance 342 fractional area change 342 geometry 343 hypertrophy 337, 338, 339 morphology 338–42 myocardial performance index 342–3 peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity 345 peak systolic velocity of basal wall 345 preload 337 strain and strain rate 346–7 systolic function 337, 342–7 TAPSE 343–5 3D echocardiography 72–3, 343 volume overload vs. pressure overload 337–8, 341 wall thickness 339

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