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ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging - sample

Discover the ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Imaging 2nd edition

646 index right

646 index right ventricular outflow tract 339 obstruction 572–3, 592 Ritter’s method 421 ‘romantic’ configuration 12 Ross operation 593 rotation (rate) 81 82 rubidium tracer 39, 40, 265 S SAP scan 461 sarcoidosis 461–3, 476–8 sarcomas 555 segment involvement score 104 senile systemic amyloidosis 457 Senning operation 578–9, 595 septal bouncing 522, 525, 532 septal systolic rebound stretch index 409 serum amyloid P component (SAP) 461 sestamibi scan 39 myocardial viability 363, 374–5 sarcoidosis 477 shortened modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) 107 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acute coronary syndromes 266–8 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia 495 attenuation correction 36 coronary artery disease 260–6 ECG-gating 35–6 left ventricular dyssynchrony 411–12 left ventricular systolic function 320, 321 myocardial viability 362–3, 370, 374–5 myocarditis 476, 537–8 novel dedicated cameras 42 patient positioning 35 perfusion imaging 38–9, 260–8 physics and data analysis 34–6 plaque vulnerability 306 polar maps 35 radiation dose 42 reconstruction 35 sarcoidosis 477 SPECT/CT, see SPECT/CT stress testing 260 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484 ventricular function 39 sinotubular junction dilation 142 slope method 326 speckle tracking constrictive pericarditis 529 coronary artery disease 249 data acquisition 80–1 global function assessment 82 global strain 318 left atrial strain 328 left ventricular diastolic function 326, 327 left ventricular dyssynchrony 408, 409 left ventricular regional systolic function 316–17 myocardial function parameters 81 myocardial viability 355–6 post-processing 81 principles 80 right ventricular strain and strain rate 346 3D 82 SPECT/CT coronary artery disease 95–6 dilated cardiomyopathy 474–5 myocardial viability 378 spin-echo 56 Stanford classification 606 steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences 57–8 aortic disease 612 hibernating myocardium 392 left ventricular dyssynchrony 409, 411 mitral regurgitation 168 mitral stenosis 150 myocardial viability 383, 392 step-and-shoot 101–2 STITCH trial 353 strain and strain rate 79 adult congenital heart disease 585 Anderson–Fabry disease 464 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 449 left atrium 328 left ventricular diastolic function 327 left ventricular dyssynchrony 408, 409 left ventricular regional systolic function 317 myocardial viability 361–2 right ventricle 346–7 strain delay index 409 stress echocardiography coronary artery disease 249–55 left ventricle 72 myocardial viability 359–62 stress electrocardiography 260, 266 stress MPS 260 stroke volume 316 stunned myocardium 352–3, 368 sub-aortic stenosis 573, 574 sudden cardiac death 397 supravalvular stenosis 573–4 surface rendering 70 surgical myectomy/myotomy 453 sympathetic system imaging 41–2, 474 systolic anterior motion 447, 451 systolic dyssynchrony index 72, 409 T Takayasu arteritis 479, 617–18, 630 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 484, 501–2 TAPSE 343–5 Tau 324 technetium-99m scan 38–9 myocardial viability 363, 374–5 Tei index 318, 342–3 tenting area/volume 180 tetralogy of Fallot (with pulmonary atresia) 576–8 repaired 594 tetrofosmin scan 39, 363, 374–5 thalassaemia 466 thallium-201 scan 38 myocardial viability 363, 374 sarcoidosis 462 thin-cap fibroatheroma 303 three-dimensional (3D) CMR 59, 297 three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography 67– 77 acquisition techniques 68–9 adult congenital heart disease 585–6 advantages 71–2 aortic regurgitation 145 aortic stenosis 74 aortic valve 74–5 artefacts 71 atrial fibrillation ablation 124–5 atrial septal defect closure 76, 118–19 blooming 71 blurring 71 cardiac resynchronization therapy 125 colour Doppler 69 constrictive pericarditis 525 contraction front map 72 cropping 69 dataset display 69–70 dataset optimization 71 development of 67 dilated cardiomyopathy 470 dropout artefacts 71 full-volume mode 68–9, 71 gain artefacts 71 infective endocarditis 238 left atrial appendage 74, 122 left atrial function 73–4, 328 left ventricle quantification 72 left ventricular dyssynchrony 409 left ventricular systolic function 319 mitraclip therapy 76–7, 212, 214, 215 mitral regurgitation 161–2 mitral stenosis 74 mitral valve 74 myocardial perfusion 72 non-coronary transcatheter interventions 75–6 one-beat full-volume modality 69 optimal views 71 paraprosthetic valve regurgitation 219, 221 paravalvular leak closure 77 patent foramen ovale closure 76 patient selection 71 percutaneous mitral annuloplasty 216, 218 post-acquisition display 69 prosthetic valve obstruction 198 pulmonary regurgitation 181 pulmonary stenosis 177 pulmonary valve 75, 174 real-time 3D mode 68 regional function estimation 82 right ventricle 72–3, 343 right ventricular ejection fraction 437 simultaneous multi-plane mode 68 speckle tracking 82 stitched full-volume mode 69, 71 stitching artefacts 69, 71 stress imaging 72 surface rendering 70 TAVI 76 transcatheter interventions 75–6 transducer technology 67 trans-septal catheterization 120 tricuspid regurgitation 177 tricuspid stenosis 175 tricuspid valve 75, 174 2D tomographic slices 70 vegetations 203 ventricular tachycardia ablation 125 volume rendering 69 zoom mode 68, 71 thrombus extracorporeal support 440 intra-cardiac 559–61 intra-ventricular in dilated cardiomyopathy 470–1 prosthetic valve 197–8 time of flight 38 tissue Doppler adult congenital heart disease 585 amyloidosis 459 Anderson–Fabry disease 464 constrictive pericarditis 526–7 data acquisition 77 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 451

left ventricular diastolic function 325, 326–7 left ventricular dyssynchrony 408, 409 measurements 31 myocardial function 78–80 myocardial viability 355 neuromuscular disorders 479 post-processing 77–8 right ventricular systolic function 345 tissue synchronicity 79–80 tissue tracking, see speckle tracking torsion (rate) 81 toxic agents 481–2 trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) 76, 206–8 trans-catheter valve-in-ring implantation (TVIR) 218 transluminal attenuation gradient 104 transmural extent of infarction 364 transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE/TEE) abscess 232 adult congenital heart disease 565–6 aorta 60 4 aortic dissection 607 aortic long-axis view 25 aortic short-axis view 25 atrial septal defect closure 117, 118–19 bicaval view 25 bite guards 22–3 constrictive pericarditis 525 deep transgastric views 27 Eisenmenger syndrome 584 infective endocarditis 231, 232, 233 intramural haematoma 607–8 left atrial appendage closure 122–3 mid-oesophageal 2-chamber view 24 mid-oesophageal 4-chamber view 24 mid-oesophageal 5-chamber view 24 mid-oesophageal long-axis view 24 mid-oesophageal oblique 2-chamber view 24 mid-oesophageal short-axis views 27, 30 mitraclip therapy 211, 213–15 mitral regurgitation 159 mitral stenosis 152 myocardial biopsy 123 myxoma 550 patent foramen ovale closure 117 patient preparation 20, 22 penetrating aortic ulcer 608 percutaneous mitral annuloplasty 216, 218 percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 153, 209 percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement 224 percutaneous valve therapy 207 pericardial effusion 511–12, 513 principles 20, 22–3 probe insertion 22–3 prosthetic valve function 187 prosthetic valve infective endocarditis 237 prosthetic valve obstruction 197–8 prosthetic valve regurgitation 199, 219, 221 pulmonary valve 172 sedation 22 standard digital acquisition 32 standardized data acquisition 23–30 standard values 30–1 TAVI 206, 207–8 time-limited investigations 23 transgastric views 25, 27 trans-septal catheterization 120 tricuspid valve 172 triplane approach 24 vegetations 231 veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 437 ventricular assist devices 439 ventricular septal defect closure 119 transposition of the great arteries 578, 595 congenitally corrected 580–1, 595 trans-septal catheterization 120 transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) abscess 232 adult congenital heart disease 565 alcohol septal ablation 121 aorta 603–4 aortic dissection 606 apical 2-chamber view 14, 15–16 apical 4-chamber view 14–17 apical long-axis view 12–14 atrial septal defect closure 119 Eisenmenger syndrome 584 5-chamber view 17 infective endocarditis 231, 232, 233 mitraclip therapy 211, 215 mitral regurgitation 159 mitral stenosis 151 M-mode sweep 9 myocardial biopsy 123 parasternal long-axis view 7–8 parasternal short-axis views 8–12 percutaneous mitral commissurotomy 153–4, 155, 208, 209 pericardial effusion 123, 511 principles 3–7 prosthetic valve function 186–7 prosthetic valve obstruction 198 prosthetic valve regurgitation 198–200, 219 pulmonary valve 172 right heart 8 right ventricle 339 standard digital acquisition 32 standardized data acquisition 7–20 standard values 30–1 subcostal 4-chamber view 17, 19 subcostal short-axis views 19 suprasternal long-axis view 19–20 transducer holding 4–5 trans-septal catheterization 120 tricuspid valve 172 vegetations 231 transthyretin-related cardiomyopathies 457 transvalvular velocity and gradient 131 triangle of dysplasia 488, 489, 491 tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 343–5 tricuspid regurgitation 177–80, 593–4 mitral stenosis and 152 percutaneous treatment 226 tricuspid stenosis 175 tricuspid valve anatomy 171–2 E/A 347 E/e’ 347 imaging assessment 75, 172–5 turbo-spin echo 56 TV tethering 180 twist (rate) 81, 324, 327–8 U ultrasound, contrast-enhanced 307–8 univentricular heart 581–4, 595–6 V Valsalva manoeuvre 329 valve area 74, 130–1, 132–3, 148–51 vasculitis 479 vegetations 201–3, 230, 231, 233, 240–1 velocity, transvalvular 131 velocity-encoded CMR 60 aortic disease 612 constrictive pericarditis 532 left ventricular dyssynchrony 409 mitral stenosis 150 velocity ratio 133 vena contracta 143, 163 veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 436–8 veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 434–5 ventricular assist devices 438–9 cardiac innervation imaging 401–2 ventricular electrical uncoupling index 412 ventricular septal defects 567–9, 590 closure 119 ventricular tachycardia ablation 125 viability, see myocardial viability volume rendering 69 W wall filter 77 WATCHMAN 122 Wilkins’ score 152, 208, 209 index 647

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