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Chapter 9: DQL

Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language) 144 Functional Expressions String functions The CONCAT function returns a string that is a concatenation of its arguments. In the example above we map the concatenation of users first_name and last_name to a value called name. Listing 9-106 // test.php Listing 9-107 // ... $q = Doctrine_Query::create() ->select('CONCAT(u.first_name, u.last_name) AS name') ->from('User u'); echo $q->getSqlQuery(); The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query: SELECT u.id AS u__id, CONCAT(u.first_name, u.last_name) AS u__0 FROM user u Now we can execute the query and get the mapped function value: Listing 9-108 $users = $q->execute(); foreach($users as $user) { // here 'name' is not a property of $user, // its a mapped function value echo $user->name; } The second and third arguments of the SUBSTRING function denote the starting position and length of the substring to be returned. These arguments are integers. The first position of a string is denoted by 1. The SUBSTRING function returns a string. Listing 9-109 // test.php Listing 9-110 // ... $q = Doctrine_Query::create() ->select('u.username') ->from('User u') ->where("SUBSTRING(u.username, 0, 1) = 'z'"); echo $q->getSqlQuery(); The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query: SELECT u.id AS u__id, u.username AS u__username FROM user u ----------------- Brought to you by

Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language) 145 WHERE SUBSTRING(u.username FROM 0 FOR 1) = 'z' Notice how the SQL is generated with the proper SUBSTRING syntax for the DBMS you are using! The TRIM function trims the specified character from a string. If the character to be trimmed is not specified, it is assumed to be space (or blank). The optional trim_character is a singlecharacter string literal or a character-valued input parameter (i.e., char or Character)[30]. If a trim specification is not provided, BOTH is assumed. The TRIM function returns the trimmed string. // test.php Listing 9-111 // ... $q = Doctrine_Query::create() ->select('u.username') ->from('User u') ->where('TRIM(u.username) = ?', 'Someone'); echo $q->getSqlQuery(); The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query: SELECT u.id AS u__id, u.username AS u__username FROM user u WHERE TRIM(u.username) = ? Listing 9-112 The LOWER and UPPER functions convert a string to lower and upper case, respectively. They return a string. // test.php Listing 9-113 // ... $q = Doctrine_Query::create() ->select('u.username') ->from('User u') ->where("LOWER(u.username) = 'jon wage'"); echo $q->getSqlQuery(); The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query: SELECT u.id AS u__id, u.username AS u__username FROM user u WHERE LOWER(u.username) = 'someone' Listing 9-114 The LOCATE function returns the position of a given string within a string, starting the search at a specified position. It returns the first position at which the string was found as an integer. The first argument is the string to be located; the second argument is the string to be searched; the optional third argument is an integer that represents the string position at ----------------- Brought to you by

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