UNIT 12 •• COMPETITION Passives • We make passive verb forms with the verb to be + the past participle. Starbucks was started by Howard Schultz. • We often choose a passive structure when we are not interested in who performs an action or it is not necessary to know. Howard Schultz was awarded an athletic scholarship to Northern Michigan University. • If we want to mention who performs the action, we can use by. Howard Schultz was named Chief Executive by the company's Board. • We often use a passive structure to be impersonal or formal (for example, in notices, announcements or reports). It has been agreed that the prototype will be tested next month. • Some verbs can only be used in the active, e.g. occur, rise, happen, arise, fall, exist, consist (of), depend (on), re sult (from). • Some verbs which often appear in the passive are: (be) born, situate, design, estimate, bose, test, accuse, jail, shoot, bother. c:J Grammar reference page 151 EI Look at the sentences. Correct the incorrect ones. 1 The result of the leadership contest was based On the boardroom vote. 2 The leadership contest was depended on the boardroom vote. 3 Where were you when the president was be shot? 4 The CEO has been accused of stealing funds from the pension fund. 5 They are depend on the CEO to show strong leadership. 6 He was jailed for six months. 7 I can't be bothered to finish this report. 8 All the candidates need to be tested. 9 Problems may be occurred after the leadership vote. 10 The CEO's strategy is based on her second book. 11 The President of the company was born in 1962. 12 The audience is consist largely of senior executives. Il Look at the minutes of a company meeting. Complete the gaps with the appropriate passive form of the verbs in brackets. Minutes of the planning meeting The monthty meeting ............ ' (hold) at 14.00 hrs on Wednesday 15th February. The meeting .. ........ 2 (attend) by the Chief Executive Officer, LP Williams, J Morrison (Sales), SP Thompson (Marketing), LK Tin (Property Management) and SH Ho (Human Resources). Item 1: Agenda The CEO stated that although the agenda for the meeting ............ ' (circulate) earlier and that it ........ ' (intend) to deal with routine matters, a slump in sales and a lowering of profits as a result of strong competition meant that the company ............ 5 (force) to deal with the crisis now. Item 2: Reports The CEO asked for reports from those present. The Sales Manager reported that prices .. . ......... 6 (cut). The Marketing Manager confirmed that the advertising budget ............ 7 (increase) substantially and that new customer surveys ............• (commission) to see how strong competition had affected the company's products. The meeting ..... ' (inform) by the Property Manager that agreement ............ " (reach) about the sale of 40 of the company's high-street shops and that 20 betterlocated sites ............ " (investigate) with a view to creating new outlets. The Head of Human Resources reported that the new redundancy scheme ............ 12 (implement) and that so far, 50 long-serving employees ............ " (consider) for voluntary redundancy. 116 scanned for Paul Jennings
___ ji!i!t Negotiating UNIT 12 •• COMPETITION )>> CD2.39 An Italian bicycle manufacturer wants to enter the Swedish market, using an agent. The manufacturer and the agent disagree about some terms of their proposed contract. listen to the discussion between them and answer the questions. 1 Which of these points did the two sides agree on during the negotiation? a) the type of relationship they want c) payment of commission b) who sets prices d) who pays for promotion 2 Why does the agent want the contract to be longer than two years? Il Match the direct phrases (1-5) to the more diplomatic versions (a-e). 1 We must talk about price first. a) Your price seems rather high. 2 There's no way we can give you any credit. b) Unfortunately, I can't lower my price. 3 I want a discount. c) Could you possibly give me a discount? 4 I won't lower my price. d) I'm afraid we can't give you any credit. 5 Your price is far too high. e) I think we should talk about price first. II )>> CD2.40 listen to and complete the extracts from the negotiation in Exercise A. Then decide whether the speakers are being diplomatic (D) or not diplomatic (N D). 1 A non-exclusive contract . ............ ............ for us, too. 2 No, that's ........... . . ... for us. 3 We know the market conditions . ... ...... ............ than you. 4 I ............ a rate of 15% on all the revenue you obtain. 5 Fifteen per cent is too low. We .... . ......... ............ 20%. 6 We . with this. 7 How much ........ ? 8 We'll ... ....... ............ the commission later. 9 10 It . .... , with a new distributor, we prefer a shorter period. ...... at least three years. III Role-play the negotiation between a store owner and the manufacturer of Sheen, a hair shampoo for women. Be diplomatic. Store owner • You want to order 50 bottles of Sheen at the quoted price. • You want a 10% discount. • You want 60 days' credit. • You want delivery in two weeks. Shampoo manufacturer • You get a bonus if the order is over 100 bottles. • You don't give a discount for orders of less than 100 bottles. • You want payment on delivery. • You can deliver in three weeks. USEFUL LANGUAGE DIPLOMATICALLY GIVING BAD NEWS I'm sorry, we can't agree to that. I'm afraid your price is rather high. Unfortunately, we can't deliver any earlier. To be honest, we'd need credit terms. USING SPECULATIVE LANGUAGE It would probably arrive late. It could be a problem. It may be difficult to deliver. We might not be able to do that. scanned for Paul Jennings USING A PAST FORM TO EXPRESS DISAPPOINTMENT We were hoping for .. . We were expecting .. . We were looking for ... We had in mind ... 117
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