II Present simple and present continuous II Talking about the future Present simple We use the present simple: 1 to give factual information, for example about company activities. Unilever makes a wide variety of consumer goods. Does it market these goods globolly? It doesn't sell in every sector. 2 to talk about routine activities or habits. I always buy the supermarket's own brand of detergent. Do you usually pick up groceries an the way home? He doesn't choose clothes with designer labels. 3 for actions and situations which are generally true. Mony consumers prefer well-known brands. 4 for timetables and scheduled events. We launch the new range on 15 January. Present continuous We use the present continuous to: 1 talk about ongoing situations and projects. We're developing a completely new image fo r the brand. Are you still working with those designers? They aren't saying anything to the press this time. 2 describe temporary situations. We're testing a new logo at the moment. Are they offering a goad discount during the launch period? 1 We use going to to talk about what we intend to do or what someone else has already decided to do. I'm going to buy a new car. She's going to tell us about the ideas they've come up with fo r the ad campaign. Both going to and will are used for predictions. There's going to be a flight of capital from the West towards India and China. The Fortune Garment Company will continue to lose market share unless it solves its problems. 2 We use 'II to make a spontaneous promise or offer to do something. 'I haven't got time to do this myself ' 'Don't worry. I'll give you a hand. ' 3 We use the present continuous to talk about fixed plans or arrangements. I'm meeting Mrs do Silva next week. She's arriving on Wednesday. 4 We use the present simple to talk about a schedule. The flight leaves at 15:50 tomorrow. In time clauses, we use the present simple to refer to future time. It is incorrect to use will in a time clause. We won't start until everyone gets here. I'm going to go round the world when I retire. As soon as I have the results, I'll give you a ring. Come and see me before you go. 3 describe trends. The number of people shopping online is growing. 4 talk about personal arrangements and plans. I'm meeting Frau Scharping next week. 146 scanned for Paul Jennings
GRAMMAR REFERENCE II Past simple and present perfect II Noun combinations Past simple 1 We use the past simple to refer to events that took place in the past. A pharmacist called John Pemberton invented Coco-Colo. 'Did you go to Berlin lost week?' 'Yes, and I met Herr Gnuchtel. ' 2 We frequently use a time adverb to situate the event in finished past time. Rolls Royce went bust in 1973. A few years ago, the City Plaza hotel was a leader in its segment of the market. Many people lost a lot of money on the stock market during 2008 and 2009. 3 We use the past simple in annual reports to describe the company's performance over the last year. Last year was a good year fo r our group. Sales rose by more than 11 %, and we made substantial gains in market share in a number of countries. Present perfect 1 We use the present perfect to say that a finished past action is relevant now. They have developed a new brand of toothpaste. The Chairman has recently resigned. 2 We use the present perfect when we are thinking of a period of time continuing up to the present. For over 50 years, Stirling Cars has developed classic sports cars. Calvin Klein has been one of the leading fashion designers since the mid-1970s. 3 We often use this tense to talk about our life experiences. She has had a number of interesting jobs. He's worked fo r a variety of firms. 1 We use s to express a relationship between a person or organisation and another person or thing. Mr Blakes secretary her husband's car BA 's employees Volvo's reputation The '5 very often means that the relationship can be expressed using have. Mr Bloke has a secretary. Volvo has a reputation. 2 When two nouns are used together, the first noun functions as an adjective and describes the second noun. a business card an office complex a job description a travel agency Sometimes three or more nouns occur together. a company credit card (a credit card issued by a company) a management training programme (a training programme designed fo r management) 3 Two nouns are joined by of when the ideas are more abstract. the cost of living independence of mind the joy of working and lifelong learning 4 Some compound nouns are written as one word. database letterhead answerphone headquarters 5 When compound nouns are used with a number in expressions of measurement, the first noun is singular. a six-lane motorway a fo ur-day week scanned for Paul Jennings 147
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Paperback. Pub Date :2014-01-28 Pages: 288 Language: English Publisher: HarperCollins The bible for bringing cutting-edge products to larger markets-now revised and updated with new insights into the realities of high-tech marketingIn Crossing the Chasm. Geoffrey A. Moore shows that in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle-which begins with innovators and moves to early adopters. early majority. late majority. and laggards-there is a vast chasm between the early adopters and the early majority. While early adopters are willing to sacrifice for the advantage of being first. the early majority waits until they know that the technology actually offers improvements in productivity. The challenge for innovators and marketers is to narrow this chasm and ultimately accelerate adoption across every segment. This third edition brings Moores classic work up to date with dozens of new exa...