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Market Leader Intermediate 3rd edition SB

GRAMMAR REFERENCE 11

GRAMMAR REFERENCE 11 Articles II Describing trends The indefinite article: a/an We use alan in the following ways: 1 before unspecified singular countable nouns. She works in an office. 2 with the names of professions. She's an executive and he's a manager. 3 in expressions of measurement. We charge $500an hour. It sel/s at €1.75 a litre. 4 before a noun to mean all things of the same type. A 1055 leader is an article that a store sel/s at a law price to tempt customers to buy other goods. The definite article: the We use the: 1 when it is clear from the context what particular thing or place is meant. /'1/ meet you in the reception area. 2 before a noun that we have mentioned before. They had a villa in Cannes and a chalet in Innsbruck, but they sold the viI/a. 3 before adjectives to specify a category of people or things. the rich, the poor, the French, the unemployed, the World Wide Web Zero article: (m We do not use an article before: 1 mass nouns used in general statements. (iii) Money is the root of 01/ (iii) evil. 1 To describe changing circumstances, we can use verbs of movement. improve increase recover rise decline decrease drop fa l/ ( .. ) ('o) A dramatic movement may be expressed by: rocket dive soar plummet A slight movement can be indicated by: edge up ( .. ) edge down dip The amount of increase can also be indicated using these verbs: halve double triple quadruple increase tenfold Or with a preposition: (1/J (x2) (x3) (x4) (xl 0) Our business grew by 15% last year. Sales have increased from €5 million to €5.B mil/ion. 2 Changes which have not reached their end-point are expressed using -ing. Profits are fa lling. Unemployment has been rising. If the change is complete, we use a perfect tense. The government has privatised the rail network. Sales have increased, and that has meant higher profits. 2 the names of places and people. (iii) Poland, (iii) Japan, (iii) Dr Spock, (iii) President Obama 148 scanned for Paul Jennings

GRAMMAR REFERENCE II Modal verbs II -ing forms and infinitives Advice 1 We can use should and shouldn't to give or ask for advice. Yo u should always learn something about a country before visiting it. Should I invite our agents out to dinner after the meeting? He shouldn't ask so many personal questions. Should often follows the verbs suggest and think. I think we should find out more about them before signing the contract. 2 For strong advice, we can use must or mustn't. They must pay their bills on time in fu ture. You mustn't refuse if you're offered a small gift· Obligation/Necessity 1 We often use must when the obligation comes from the person speaking or writing. We must ask them to dinner when they're over here. 2 We use mustn't to say that something is prohibited, it is not allowed. Yo u mustn't smoke in here. 3 We often use have to to show that the obligation comes from another person or institution, not the speaker. Yo u have to renew your residence permit after three months. (This is the law.) lack of obligation / lack of necessity We use don't have to when there is no need or obligation to do something. Yo u don't have to wait for your order. Yo u can collect it now. Compare the uses of must not and don't have to here. We mustn't rush into a new partnership too quickly. We don't have to make a decision fo r at least six months. 1 We sometimes use one verb after another verb. Often, the second verb is in the infinitive form. We are continuing to cut our manufacturing costs. Management agreed to offer generous redundancy terms to all staff affected. The verbs below are often followed by the infinitive. intend attempt promise plan mean try arrange offer want pretend hope forget seem fail wish expect claim guarantee 2 Sometimes, the second verb must be in the ·ing form. This depends on the first verb. The decision involves reducing our heavy losses. The verbs below are usually followed by the ·ing form. admit appreciate contemplate give up involve deny enjoy consider carry on mean mind justify can't stand don't mind remember resent detest recommend risk delay miss suggest avoid put off look fo rward to Some verbs can be followed by the ·ing form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning. She started loading the software. / She started to load the software. Sometimes, however, the meaning changes. She stopped to read the manual. (She stopped what she was doing in order to read the manual.) She stopped reading the manual. (She no longer bothered to read the manual.) scanned for Paul Jennings 149

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