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Market Leader Intermediate 3rd edition SB

GRAMMAR REFERENCE II

GRAMMAR REFERENCE II Conditions 1m Narrative tenses First conditional 1 We use conditional sentences when discussing the terms of an agreement, making hypothetical proposals, bargaining and making concessions. If you order now, we will give you a discount. We will reduce the price by 10% if you give us a firm order in advance. If we give you 90 days' credit instead of 60, will you give us the interest you would have paid? The use of if + will + base form of the verb suggests that the acceptance of the condition is the basis for a deal. 2 We use unless in conditional sentences to mean if not. We won't be able to start construction unless you train our personnel. 3 As long as and provided that are also used to state conditions. We will sign the contract as long as you guarantee prices for the next 18 months. We can reach agreement an a joint venture provided that our firm has a representative on your board. Second conditional If the proposal is more tentative and possibly less certain, we use past verb forms. If we said we were prepared to deliver in March, would you make a firm order? If you agreed to create more jobs, we might think about a productivity deal. If the government found some extra money, would you be prepared to create a subsidiary in our country? 1 The past simple is common when we describe a sequence of events or tell a story in chronological order about events that happened in the past. On Monday 3 December 1984, a poisonous cloud of gas escaped from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. Eye witnesses described a cloud in the shape of a mushroom which rose above the plant and then descended over the town. 2 We use the past perfect to situate an event that happened before another past event. By the end of the week, 1,200 people hod died and at least 10,000 hod been affected very seriously. 3 The present perfect is used to describe past events of current significance. A major problem for doctors in Bhopal was lack of information on how to treat the chemical's effects. A pathologist said: 'Why hasn't Union Carbide come forward to tell us about the gas that has leaked and how to treat it? Is it not their moral duty? They have not come fo rward. ' 4 We use the past continuous to describe unfinished events which were in progress around a particular past time. By Monday 10 December, the death toll had risen to 2,000, and American lawyers representing Indian families were suing Union Carbide fo r $12.5 billion in compensation. Meanwhile, journalists were asking the company difficult questions about its safety procedures, and the share price was dropping sharply, as investors became worried about the billions of dollars of compensation that the company might have to pay. (Adapted from Ian Marcous

GRAMMAR REFERENCE m Relative clauses lEI Passives 1 We use who or that in a relative clause to identify people. The people who/that we employ are very highly qualified. As people is the object of the clause, the relative pronoun can be left out. The people we employ are very highly qualified. If the relative pronoun defines the subject of the sentence, it must be included. A counterfeiter is a person who copies goods in order to trick people. 2 We use that or which in a relative clause to identify things. Have you read the report that;\vhich I left on your desk? If that or which identifies the object of the clause, it can be left out. Have you read the report I left on your desk? If that or which defines the subject of the sentence, it must be included. Organisations that are flexible can respond to change. 3 Non·defining clauses provide extra information about the subject or object of a sentence. The extra information is separated by commas. Philip Condit, who was Chairman of Boeing, wanted the airline to become a global company. Note that it is not possible to use that. The Dorfmonn hotel, which is situated 30 km outside Vienna, charges US$ l,400 per person. Again, it is not possible to use that in a nondefining clause. 1 We use a passive structure when we are not interested in who carries out an action or it is not necessary to know. The company was founded in 1996. Some changes have been made. He has been promoted to the post of Sales Director. A new low·olcohol lager is being developed. 2 If we also want to mention who performs the action, we can use a phrase beginning with by. The self-extinguishing cigarette was invented by Ka; Jensen. The prototype is being checked by the design team. 3 In a passive sentence, the grammatical subject receives the focus. You will be met at the airport by a company driver. (You receives the focus of attention.) Compare with: A company driver will meet you at the airport. 4 The passive is often used to describe processes and procedures. First of all, on advertising agency is contacted and the aim of the campaign is discussed. Then, a storyboard is created and, if acceptable, the TV commercial is filmed and broadcast at prime time. 5 We also use the passive in a formal or impersonal style. It was felt that our design should be more innovative. Company procedures must be respected at all times. scanned for Paul Jennings 151

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